Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries. Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time.
- 1 Why did the Islam spread so quickly?
- 2 Why did Islam spread so quickly document a quizlet?
- 3 Why did Islam become so popular?
- 4 How did Islam spread so quickly essay?
- 5 What were the causes of rapid spread of Islam Class 11?
- 6 What two factors contributed to the spread of Islam Africa?
- 7 How did Islam start and spread?
- 8 How did Islam attract followers?
- 9 How did the spread of Islam help spread the Arabic language?
- 10 Why Islam Spread Essay – 873 Words
- 11 Five Reasons Why Islamic Cultures Spread
- 12 1Conquests After Muhammad’s Death
- 13 2Religious Alternative
- 14 3Art and Architecture
- 15 4Advanced Education
- 16 5Trade and Finance
- 17 Why Did Islam Spread So Quickly Essay
- 18 Background On The History Of Islam
- 19 Why Did Islam Spread So Quickly Essay – 741 Words
- 20 r/AskHistorians – How did Islam spread so quickly?
- 21 Why Did Islam Spread So Quickly Essay – 517 Words
- 22 Spread of Islam
Why did the Islam spread so quickly?
Islam spread quickly because its leaders conquered surrounding territories. As Muhammad and the Muslim leaders that came after him conquered lands in the Middle East and beyond they spread the teachings of Islam. Islam spread quickly because its lands were well governed and orderly.
Why did Islam spread so quickly document a quizlet?
It spread so quickly because of military conquest and war. It explains it spread so quickly because it had a very fair, and strong government.
Why did Islam become so popular?
The Muslim community spread through the Middle East through conquest, and the resulting growth of the Muslim state provided the ground in which the recently revealed faith could take root and flourish. The military conquest was inspired by religion, but it was also motivated by greed and politics.
How did Islam spread so quickly essay?
Islam spread quickly because of the military. During this time, on numerous accounts there were military raids. Trade and conflict were also apparent between different empires, all of which resulted in the spreading of Islam. According to document C, Mecca had been taken under Muslim rule between 622-632.
What were the causes of rapid spread of Islam Class 11?
Islam came to the Southeast Asia, first by the way of Muslim traders along the main trade-route between Asia and the Far East, then was further spread by Sufi orders and finally consolidated by the expansion of the territories of converted rulers and their communities.
What two factors contributed to the spread of Islam Africa?
Following the conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE, Islam spread throughout West Africa via merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries, that is largely through peaceful means whereby African rulers either tolerated the religion or converted to it themselves.
How did Islam start and spread?
The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula. In other parts of the world, Islam spread through trade and commerce.
How did Islam attract followers?
People were attracted by Islam’s spiritual and moral teachings, approval of trade, and global connections. Islam also appealed to many rulers for a combination of religious, political, and commercial reasons. When people at any social level converted, they often blended in their existing religious ideas and rituals.
How did the spread of Islam help spread the Arabic language?
The primary way in which Islam helped to spread Arabic culture was to make Arabic the everyday language of the people in the lands to which it spread.
Why Islam Spread Essay – 873 Words
Islam is the second most popular religion in the world, and it is also the fastest growing. Islam is a religion that Muslims adhere to. It is a monotheistic faith that Muslims believe was revealed via Muhammad, who is considered as Allah’s messenger. Islam regards Muhammad as the final prophet, while Abraham is regarded as the patriarch of the Qur’an, the Bible, and the Torah. The Islamic religion is practiced by more than a billion people, who account for nearly one-quarter of the world’s population.
Because of commerce, the new religion of Islam was able to grow quite swiftly.
“Mecca was affluent and important,” according to document A of the Why Islam Spread So Quickly reading, which may be found here.
The earliest indication that conquest had anything to do with the rapid expansion of Islam is that Heraclius disseminated the message during the Byzantine War, which occurred under the reign of Constantine I.
- This is implying that if Heraclius had not gathered a large number of troops, the word of Islam may not have reached the Hims and surrounding countries.
- “A series of ghazu attacks against the non-muslim people in the bordering nations,” according to the reading on Why Islam Spread So Quickly.
- Finally, with the assistance of the Byzantine and Persian Empires, conquest and battle helped Islam spread to a wide population.
- To summarize, commerce, conquest, and personal preference are all factors that contributed to Islam’s expansion.
Five Reasons Why Islamic Cultures Spread
When the Prophet Muhammad was alive, the expansion of Islam began during his lifetime in the early seventh century and continued after his death in 632, according to historical records. Although there is no easy reason for its rise, some historians believe that Muslim conquest and forced conversion are responsible for a significant portion of its growth. Islam grew quickly across Asia and Europe, according to some, because it provided a welcome alternative to polytheism and stimulated growth in commerce and the arts.
1Conquests After Muhammad’s Death
Early military victories had a significant role in the dissemination of Islamic civilization throughout its early stages. Muslims formed the earliest caliphates, or Islamic communities controlled by Islamic leaders, very immediately after Muhammad’s assassination.
Within a few centuries, the Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates spread both east and west from the Arabian Peninsula, ultimately including Spain, the north coast of Africa, the present-day Middle East, and Afghanistan, to name a few destinations.
One basic explanation for the expansion of Islamic culture is that it provided a lively spiritual alternative to the pagan polytheism prevalent among the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of its establishment. According to Ira Lapidus, Islam provided the nomadic herdsmen of North Africa with the ability to envision a more stable and cohesive society, which in turn enabled them to become more prosperous. Early Muslims, on the other hand, were viewed with suspicion by Jews and Christians who came into touch with them.
3Art and Architecture
Another major component in the expansion of Islamic culture is artistic expression. Recent debates over portrayals of the Prophet Muhammad have tended to obfuscate the significance of visual art in the history of Islamic civilization. Islamic artists created groundbreaking paintings, calligraphic works, ceramics, and carpets, to mention a few mediums of expression. A number of architectural innovations, like the use of domes and arabesques, have been attributed to Muslim architects by art historians as well.
The growth of Islamic culture can also be explained in part by the advancements made in Islamic education. During the Umayyad Caliphate, which lasted from 661 to 750 AD, Muslims built the first madrasas, or Islamic schools. It was in the madrasas that students learnt how to read and write Arabic while also receiving training in Islamic theology. It was Muslim thinkers who preserved Aristotle’s books that provided the early modern Europeans with their understanding of the philosopher. Persia’s Islamic scholars made significant contributions to the development of mathematics, particularly algebra.
5Trade and Finance
The expansion of Islamic culture is aided through trade, which is a last factor. Trade grew rapidly with the foundation of the early caliphates and continued to grow for hundreds of years after that. In response to the expansion of Muslim property holdings, individuals from all over the world obtained the capacity to exchange products by means of the dinar coin. Muslims were also the first to use several financial techniques, such as bills of exchange, promissory notes, and partnership arrangements.
His current studies are leading him to a Bachelor of Arts in English.
Colbyry often writes about literary issues, with a particular emphasis on early modern, Restoration, 18th-century, and Victorian British literature, as well as the literature of Japan, among other things.
Why Did Islam Spread So Quickly Essay
What Caused Islam to Spread So Rapidly? In this essay, I will argue that Islam is one of the fastest-growing religions in the world. There are a variety of explanations for this; some believe that Islam spread so swiftly because it was so easy to grasp, while others believe that it spread quickly because of its emphasis on pleasure and justice. While there are other different ideas on the growth of Islam, one thing is certain: the religion has been growing at an alarming rate over the last several centuries.
It is the purpose of this article to provide an overview of the different possible explanations for Islam’s rapid growth throughout history. You may also get additionalEssay Writingarticles on a variety of topics such as events, people, sports, technology, and many more.
Background On The History Of Islam
Muslims believe that Prophet Muhammad created the faith of Islam in the 7th century. It swiftly spread over the Middle East and Africa. When it finally made its way to Europe, however, it was met with fierce opposition from the Christian community. The long-standing rivalry between Islam and the West has resulted in a number of different battles throughout the years. The Crusades of the Middle Ages were the earliest of them. They were a series of military expeditions launched by Pope Urban II at the behest of the Vatican.
- During the Second Crusade, fresh fight erupted between Muslims and Christians, who were both desperate to regain Jerusalem from the Muslims.
- It was during the 11th century when some knights from the Holy Roman Empire assisted in retaking Jerusalem from the Muslims.
- The crusaders took a number of Syrian cities from the Muslims, including Antioch and Tripoli, during their campaign.
- Towards the end of the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire had taken control of a major portion of Europe and had their sights set on Baghdad.
- In the course of nearly 500 years, the Ottoman Empire grew into a magnificent empire.
Scholars’ Perspective On The Rapid Spread Of Islam
A variety of hypotheses have been advanced by scholars to explain the fast expansion of Islam. One explanation holds that the faith expanded as a result of its popularity among traders traveling along trade routes. Affluent businessmen and traders were drawn to the religion because they were prepared to take chances in order to earn money. Additionally, it had some attraction for persons who were fleeing from persecution. According to another school of thought, Islam was merely the inevitable outcome of historical events.
- Some researchers have hypothesized that the religion spread as a result of battles and plundering the earth.
- An other factor for Islam’s popularity in Europe stems from the fact that there is little opposition to it.
- Islam is believed to be spreading because it is a religion of peace, according to another idea.
- Stealing and pillaging of things are likewise prohibited under Islamic law.
- Many examples of how Islam bans violence may be found in the Qur’an, ranging from combating those who do not believe to refraining from stealing other people’s property.
Muslims believe that Islam expanded swiftly because it was founded on the religion of Prophet Muhammad, who, through his life, served as a messenger to the whole world. Religions such as Islam are not characterized by barbarism as is commonly represented in the media.
Recent Pushback Against This Perspective
It is sometimes asserted by proponents of this view that Islam expanded so swiftly because it exposed the world to a new and better notion of “God.” Furthermore, Islam is viewed as the religion that took “advantage” of the Dark Ages, when Europe was in decline, and used that to its advantage. The validity of this argument is called into question by a number of factors, including the fact that Islam did not truly begin to spread until around 600 A.D., that Muslims invaded North Africa and converted it to Islam beginning in 600 A.D., and that Muslims did not truly conquer Christianity until around 800 A.D.
The most prominent complaint leveled at Islam is that it encourages violence and terrorism, leading to its adherents being referred to as a “religion of peace” rather than a “religion of peace.” However, famous historians, such as Edward Gibbon, have linked the growth of Islam to Islamic principles as well as the relative peace that Islam has brought to the world.
It might also be claimed that the peaceful nature of Islam is not a product of the religion itself, but rather is a result of the temperament of those who adhere to its teachings and practices.
Doctrines Of The Quran
According to a recent idea, the teaching of the Qur’an may have been the driving force behind the growth of Islam. The concept is that as verses from the Qur’an were revealed, people would believe them and be more likely to convert as a result of their strong belief in the message of Islam. Additionally, according to this argument, followers would be more militant in defending their beliefs, which may have resulted in military victories. In several circles, the Qur’an is referred to as a “corpus of sacred scripture.” Despite the fact that certain other writings of early Islamicate literature employ the alternate derivation “qira’a,” or the similar Hebrew word “qere,” the term Qur’n refers to recitation and relates to the second source of guidance and revelation indicated in Surah 1:2.
Several centuries after Muhammad’s death, the Qur’an was collected by his associates, according to Ibn Khuzaymah.
Conclusion on Why Did Islam Spread So Quickly Essay
According to a recent idea, the ideology of the Qur’an may have had a role in the expansion of Islam. According to the theory, when Quranic verses were revealed, people would trust them and be more inclined to convert as a result of their strong belief. This idea also argues that followers would be more forceful in expressing their convictions, which might have resulted in military conquests as a result of their beliefs. As a “corpus of sacred text,” the Qur’an is frequently referred to as such.
In Muslim doctrine, the Muslim faith is comprised of three classical/canonical collections of scripture: the Qur’an, the Hadith, and the Sira, which are all classical/canonical compilations of scripture in Arabic.
In contrast to the Hadith, which was compiled over a period of 30 years, the Sira was compiled over a period of 70 years by “the best scholars” who were granted the knowledge to do so by “God.” The Hadith were collected over a period of 30 years, while the Sira were collected over a period of 70 years by “the best scholars.” All of Muhammad’s revelations, as well as his deeds and remarks, are contained in these and other writings.
FAQ’s On Why Islam Spread So Quickly
According to a recent idea, the philosophy of the Qur’an may have been a driving force behind the growth of Islam. According to the theory, if passages from the Qur’an were revealed, people would believe them and be more inclined to convert since they held a strong belief in the Qur’an. This idea also argues that followers would be more forceful in their beliefs, which might have resulted in military conquests. The Qur’an is frequently referred to as a “corpus of sacred scripture.” However, several other works of early Islamicate literature employ the alternate derivation “qira’a,” or the comparable Hebrew term “qere,” to refer to the second source of guidance and revelation stated in Surah 1:2.
According to Ibn Khuzaymah, Muhammad’s associates composed the Qur’an after his death.
Why Did Islam Spread So Quickly Essay – 741 Words
According to a recent argument, the theology of the Qur’an may have had a role in the expansion of Islam. The concept is that when verses from the Qur’an were revealed, people would believe them and be more ready to convert as a result of their strong belief in the Qur’an. This idea also argues that adherents would be more militant in defending their beliefs, which might have resulted in military conquests. The Qur’an is commonly referred to as a “corpus of sacred text.” The term Qur’an literally translates as “recitation,” and it alludes to the second source of guidance and revelation indicated in Surah 1:2, while some other texts of early Islamicate literature cite the alternate derivation “qira’a,” or the comparable Hebrew word “qere.” The Qur’an, the Hadith, and the Sira are the three classical/canonical compilations of text that Muslims believe to form the foundation of their faith.
According to Ibn Khuzaymah, the Qur’an was compiled by Muhammad’s friends after his death.
While the Hadith were written over a period of 30 years, the Sira were compiled over a period of 70 years by “the brightest scholars” who were given the expertise to do so by “God.” These and other documents contain all of the revelations that Muhammad received, as well as his acts and utterances.
r/AskHistorians – How did Islam spread so quickly?
Because the expansion of Islam ranged from Morocco to Indonesia, it’s impossible to conclude that there was a single underlying element that typified the entire process. In general, Muslim forces held the upper hand on the battlefield early in Islamic history, despite the fact that they were numerically inferior to their opponents. When Islam arrived in Arabia, the Byzantine and Persian Empires had been locked in a state of virtually continual warfare for decades, and Islam was in an ideal position to take advantage of their military and political weakness.
The contracts between the invading Muslims and the provincial governors came to contain protections for religious freedom for non-Muslims who lived under Muslim authority were commonplace at the time of their signing.
In reality, many historians think that by the mid-700s, more than 100 years after the conquest, only approximately 5 percent of the empire truly adhered to Islam, with the remainder consisting primarily of Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians.
Muslims instead spread through commerce to areas like as West and East Africa, China (including Xinjiang), and Southeast Asia (including Singapore).
It would typically take generations for Islam to spread throughout a region’s population, and if you traveled to some rural areas of Africa or Southeast Asia, you would find many people still practicing their traditional religions, as the “Islamization” of those regions is still in the process of being completed.
Marshall Hodgson’s novel, The Venture of Islam, is set in the Islamic world.
Why Did Islam Spread So Quickly Essay – 517 Words
- Islam Document Based Question Expansion of Islam (DBQ) Why did Islam spread so quickly over the world? When Muhammad visited the cave at Mount Hira in 610 CE, he was a commercial trader from Mecca (Mecca is also the site of an annual pilgrimage where Muslims travel to conduct rites at the hallowed Ka’ba, also known as the holy shrine of Mecca). It was one of his many journeys to the grotto. He chose to pray on his journey to the cave because he was feeling disoriented for a variety of reasons, all of which contributed to his feeling that he was losing his path. In order to facilitate the European monarchs’ journey to Mount Hira, the monks assumed the position of public servant to the Europeans. It contributed to the establishment of contemporary human rights and legal principles throughout Christendom. By the conclusion of the Reformation, Christianity had reached the pinnacle of its effect on European society, and therefore it is maybe preferable to conclude the paper in the midst of the discussion of the religion’s influence. (Third, 1996) Hubert, J., Jean Porcher, and W.F. Volbach, Europe in the Dark Ages, Cambridge University Press, 2001. (London, 1969) P. Johnson’s A History of Christianity is available online (London, 1967) Koenigsberger
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- In today’s culture, we are witnessing a surge in globalisation and economic integration at an unprecedented rate. Companies’ success in today’s highly competitive market is increasingly dependent on their ability to expand internationally. My article will cover four cultural aspects theory developed by Geert Hofstede, as well as the challenges that firms face while conducting business across international borders. The gourmet hamburger restaurant Burgerfuel, which is situated in New Zealand, has been chosen as my case study in order to link and analyse Hofstede’s concept in relation to Wilson. The End of Humane Socialism in Prague: The Arrival of Nightfrost Karz Publishers, New York, published this book in 1968. Spielvogel, Jackson. Print.Spielvogel, Jackson. Since 1500, a brief history of Western Civilization may be found here. ‘Fifth Edition’ refers to the fifth edition of a book or a collection of books. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, 2008. Print. Frederick the Great is a historical figure. “An Essay on the Forms of Government and the Duties of the Ruler,” as it is known in English. The Prussian Monarchy is documented on the internet by Julius Lukasiewicz. Understanding Industrial Civilization in the Face of Ignorance Explosion McGill-Press, Queen’s Canada, 1994. Print edition.
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Spread of Islam
- Describe how Islam expanded throughout the world and how caliphs maintained control over conquered countries.
- Because of the rise of the Arab Empire in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphates were established, who ruled over enormous areas of territory while seeking converts to Islam. A large number of complex centers of culture and science were established by the inhabitants of the Islamic world, who developed extensive commercial networks, traveled, became scientists and hunters, became physicians and philosophers, and developed advanced mathematical and medical theories. Historians distinguish between two distinct groups of converts who lived at the same period. The first group consists of animists and polytheists from tribal communities in the Arabian Peninsula and the Fertile Crescent, while the second group consists of monotheistic inhabitants from agrarian and urbanized societies in the Middle East. The Arab conquerors generally adhered to the traditional middle-Eastern pattern of religious pluralism in their dealings with the conquered populations, allowing other faiths to practice freely in Arab territory, despite the fact that widespread conversions to Islam occurred as a result of the breakdown of historically religiously organized societies.
A position of Islamic leadership, most typically found in the context of a mosque’s worship leader and the Sunni Muslim community as a whole.
Zoroaster condensed the pantheon of early Iranian gods into two opposing forces, which led to the emergence of an ancient Iranian religion and religious philosophy in the eastern ancient Persian Empire when the religious philosopher Zoroaster wrote his religious philosophy. Because of the development of the Arab Empire in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphates were established over a broad geographic region. A major factor in the rise of Islam was the missionary operations of missionaries, notably those of Imams, who were able to readily intermingle with the local population in order to spread Islamic teachings.
Islam spread outwards from Mecca towards both the Atlantic and Pacific seas.
The establishment of Muslim dynasties was swift, and subsequent empires such as those of the Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids, Seljukids, and Ajurans, Adal and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in India, Safavids in Persia, and Ottomans in Anatolia were among the largest and most powerful empires in history.
- In the wake of Islamic expansion in South and East Asia, Muslim cultures in the Indian subcontinent, Malaysia, Indonesia, and China developed into cosmopolitan and eclectic melting pots.
- In actuality, little has changed for the people of this new kingdom, who were originally subjects of the drastically diminished Byzantine and annihilated Sassanid empires, save in name.
- As a result, it was only in the following centuries that there was a true Islamization.
- The first group consists of animists and polytheists from tribal communities in the Arabian Peninsula and the Fertile Crescent, while the second group consists of monotheistic inhabitants from agrarian and urbanized societies in the Middle East.
- In contrast, “Islam was replaced for a Byzantine or Sassanian political identity as well as for a Christian, Jewish, or Zoroastrian religious allegiance” in sedentary and frequently already monotheistic communities, according to the authors.
- When the religious and political leadership came to a new understanding, it resulted in the weakening or complete collapse of the social and religious institutions of rival religious communities such as Christians and Jews.
- Expansion halted under the reign of the Abbasid Caliphate, and the major disciplines of Islamic philosophy, theology, law, and mysticism gained in popularity, as did the gradual conversion of the inhabitants inside the empire.
- There were three routes across Africa: over the Sahara via trading centres such as Timbuktu, up the Nile Valley through Sudan and Uganda, and down East Africa via colonies such as Mombasa and Zanzibar.
Following a general pattern of nomadic conquests of settled regions, the Arab-Muslim conquests of Europe followed a similar pattern in which conquering peoples became the new military elite and reached a compromise with the old elites by allowing them to retain their local political, religious, and financial authority.
- With its foundation in 670 CE by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba Ibn Nafi, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the oldest mosque in western Islamic countries and serves as an architectural icon of the expansion of Islam in North Africa.
- The Arab conquerors did not make the same error as the Byzantine and Sasanian empires, who had attempted and failed to impose an official religion on subject populations, resulting in hostility that made the Muslim conquests more palatable to the conquered peoples.
- Religious tolerance typified the early caliphate after military operations, which included the looting of several monasteries and the confiscation of Zoroastrian fire temples in Syria and Iraq, and people of all nationalities and religions were able to mingle in public life.
- In Iraq and Egypt, Muslim rulers worked in partnership with Christian religious leaders to achieve their goals.
- Some non-Muslim communities, on the other hand, were subjected to persecution.
- Zoroastrians were forced to pay an additional tax known as Jizya, and if they failed to do so, they were slaughtered, enslaved, or imprisoned as a result.
Jizya payers were exposed to insults and humiliation by the tax collectors, who demanded they pay the levy. In exchange for converting to Islam, Zoroastrians who had been kidnapped as slaves in battles were granted their freedom.
However, while some earlier histories mention Islam being widely adopted beyond the Arab peninsula beginning in the mid-seventh century, in reality this did not occur for at least a century beyond that time period. According to Richard C. Foltz, the reason for this misunderstanding is due to a misinterpretation of the wordislam (which means “submission”), which has been used in Muslim histories to refer to the submission of one clan to the authority of another, rather than the spread of the Islamic faith in its proper sense.
To the contrary, Foltz claims that the act of submitting resulted in the formation of de facto non-aggression pacts between Muslim Arabs and their neighbors.
When the Muslim clans expanded into these territories, they had no difficulty ousting the Sassanian and Byzantine rulers and their soldiers; some communities, according to Foltz, even opened their doors to the Muslim Arabs and greeted them as liberators after the invasion.
Several other kingdoms ruled by Arab and non-Arab Muslim dynasties would come to dominate the entire world by 750, extending from Spain in the west all the way through northern Africa, across all of Persia and the entire Middle East, as far east as the eastern edge of the Tang Empire in the Tarim Basin, and crossing the Indus river into the Indian subcontinent.
Instead, they were bound together by governments that were based on the interpretation of Islamic law and had a common history.
For the most part, Muslims referred to their faith as “the Arab religion” (al-din al-‘arab), and they made little effort to convert non-Muslims to Islam.
3 Consistently distinguishing between reigning Muslims and conquered non-Muslims provided for smoother government and ensured Muslims a favored position under the rules of each of the numerous Islamic nations in which they lived.
Fourteenth, non-Muslims were strongly encouraged to convert to Islam, particularly those who had previously held elite economic, social, and political positions.
Apart from that, the Arabs saw in those they conquered a natural aptitude for administrative work.
As government officials, it would appear that they should have converted to Islam, however they did not do so until after they began to advocate for the same rights as Arab Muslims.
As a result of this development, Arab Muslims began to see non-Arab converts asmawla (or “clients”), so elevating themawla to the status of honorary clan member.
6 By the middle of the ninth century, Muslims had gained control of the western part of the Silk Route, and trade had emerged as the second most important element in Islam’s growth.
7Muslim traders journeyed as far as the Tang capital of Chang-an, as well as other towns in the Chinese empire, and even further to the east, to trade with the Chinese.
At 757, the Tang emperor handed Muslim troops lands in the western-most periphery of the empire as a prize for their assistance in putting down the uprising of An Lushan, and fifty years later Muslims were permitted to settle in Yunnan province.
8 Islam dictates that children of Muslim fathers must be reared as Muslims, which resulted in the establishment of a Muslim Chinese minority in certain locations during the Tang dynasty.
– John D.
Martin’s Press, 1999), p.
(2) Foltz, Richard C., Religions of the Silk Road: Overland Trade and Cultural Exchange from Antiquity to the Fifteenth Century (New York: St.
(4) Lewis, Bernad, et al (ed.).
II, Religion and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), page 224.
II, Religion and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), page 224.
(6 ) Ira M. Lapidus’s A History of Islamic Societies (Cambridge University Press, 1988) has the following passage: “A History of Islamic Societies” (p. 98). Foltz (1996), p. 96.