Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries. Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time. The caliphate—a new Islamic political structure—evolved and became more sophisticated during the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates.
- 1 How did Islam begin and spread?
- 2 How did Islam spread so quickly?
- 3 What three areas did Islam spread?
- 4 When and where did Islam begin?
- 5 When did Islam spread the most?
- 6 What are 3 reasons why Islam spread so quickly?
- 7 How did Islam spread to India?
- 8 How did Islam spread in Central Asia?
- 9 How did Islam spread to Pakistan?
- 10 How did Islam spread in South Asia?
- 11 How did Islam spread to Europe?
- 12 Who wrote the Quran?
- 13 Who started Islam?
- 14 Where was Islam created?
- 15 Spread of Islam
- 16 Did you know?: The Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia through the Trade Routes
- 17 Teachers Guide – Muslims
- 18 How did Islam Spread? By Sword or By Conversion?
- 19 Introduction
- 20 The Qur’anic Perspective
- 21 The Prophet’s Example
- 22 The Wars During the Prophet’s Life
- 23 The Conquests after the Prophet
- 24 Examples from Muslim History
- 25 The Path of Future
- 26 Islamic world
- 27 Prehistory (c.3000bce –500ce)
- 28 The rise of agrarian-based citied societies
- 29 How Islam Spread Across Asia After the Death of Muhammad
- 30 Spread of Islam in Asia to 661 CE
- 31 Spread to 750 CE
- 32 Spread to 1500 CE
- 33 Islam in Modern Asia
- 34 The Spread of Islam in Ancient Africa
How did Islam begin and spread?
The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula. In other parts of the world, Islam spread through trade and commerce.
How did Islam spread so quickly?
The religion of Islam spread rapidly in the 7th century. Islam spread quickly because of the military. During this time, on numerous accounts there were military raids. Trade and conflict were also apparent between different empires, all of which resulted in the spreading of Islam.
What three areas did Islam spread?
In Africa it spread along three routes— across the Sahara via trading towns such as Timbuktu, up the Nile Valley through the Sudan up to Uganda, and across the Red Sea and down East Africa through settlements such as Mombasa and Zanzibar. These initial conversions were of a flexible nature.
When and where did Islam begin?
Although its roots go back further, scholars typically date the creation of Islam to the 7th century, making it the youngest of the major world religions. Islam started in Mecca, in modern-day Saudi Arabia, during the time of the prophet Muhammad’s life. Today, the faith is spreading rapidly throughout the world.
When did Islam spread the most?
Most of the significant expansion occurred during the reign of the Rashidun from 632 to 661 CE, which was the reign of the first four successors of Muhammad.
What are 3 reasons why Islam spread so quickly?
There are many reasons why Islam spread so fast, however the main three reasons was trade, winning battles, and treaties. Trade Routes was an important part of how Islam grew so fast.
How did Islam spread to India?
Islam arrived in the inland of Indian subcontinent in the 7th century when the Arabs conquered Sindh and later arrived in North India in the 12th century via the Ghurids conquest and has since become a part of India’s religious and cultural heritage.
How did Islam spread in Central Asia?
Arrival of Islam and Medieval period The Battle of Talas in 751 between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang dynasty for control of Central Asia was the turning point, initiating mass conversion into Islam in the region. Most of the Turkic khanates converted to Islam in the 10th century.
How did Islam spread to Pakistan?
In 644 A.D. an Arab Army under the command of Hakam defeated the combined forces of Makran and Sindh. The period of Arab rule brought the religion of Islam to the Indus Valley. Islam arrived in the area of modern Pakistan in 711 AD, 79 yrs after the of death of the prophet Muhammad.
How did Islam spread in South Asia?
After the advent of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century, Islam started its expansion towards eastern regions through trade encouraged by the development of the maritime Silk Roads. Muslims were known to have a commercial talent notably encouraged by Islam, as well as excellent sailing skills.
How did Islam spread to Europe?
Islam spread in Eastern Europe via the conversion of the Volga Bulgars, Cuman-Kipchaks, and later the Golden Horde and its successor khanates, with its various Muslim populations called “Tatars” by the Russians. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, large numbers of Muslims immigrated to Western Europe.
Who wrote the Quran?
The Prophet Muhammad disseminated the Koran in a piecemeal and gradual manner from AD610 to 632, the year in which he passed away. The evidence indicates that he recited the text and scribes wrote down what they heard.
Who started Islam?
The rise of Islam is intrinsically linked with the Prophet Muhammad, believed by Muslims to be the last in a long line of prophets that includes Moses and Jesus.
Where was Islam created?
Islam, major world religion promulgated by the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7th century ce.
Spread of Islam
- Describe how Islam expanded throughout the world and how caliphs maintained control over conquered countries.
- Because of the rise of the Arab Empire in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphates were established, who ruled over enormous areas of territory while seeking converts to Islam. A large number of complex centers of culture and science were established by the inhabitants of the Islamic world, who developed extensive commercial networks, traveled, became scientists and hunters, became physicians and philosophers, and developed advanced mathematical and medical theories. Historians distinguish between two distinct groups of converts who lived at the same period. The first group consists of animists and polytheists from tribal communities in the Arabian Peninsula and the Fertile Crescent, while the second group consists of monotheistic inhabitants from agrarian and urbanized societies in the Middle East. The Arab conquerors generally adhered to the traditional middle-Eastern pattern of religious pluralism in their dealings with the conquered populations, allowing other faiths to practice freely in Arab territory, despite the fact that widespread conversions to Islam occurred as a result of the breakdown of historically religiously organized societies.
When the Arab Empire expanded in the years after Muhammad’s death, the result was the establishment of caliphates who ruled over enormous areas of land while seeking converts to the Islamic faith; The inhabitants of the Islamic world established several complex centers of culture and science, supported by extensive mercantile networks, travelers, scientists, hunters, mathematicians, physicians, and philosophers; these centers flourished for centuries.
Scholars have distinguished between two distinct groups of converts who lived during the historical period under consideration.
The Arab conquerors generally adhered to the traditional middle-Eastern pattern of religious pluralism in their dealings with the conquered populations, allowing other faiths to practice freely in Arab territory, despite the fact that widespread conversions to Islam occurred as a result of the breakdown of historically religiously organized societies;
Zoroaster condensed the pantheon of early Iranian gods into two opposing forces, which led to the emergence of an ancient Iranian religion and religious philosophy in the eastern ancient Persian Empire when the religious philosopher Zoroaster wrote his religious philosophy. Because of the development of the Arab Empire in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphates were established over a broad geographic region. A major factor in the rise of Islam was the missionary operations of missionaries, notably those of Imams, who were able to readily intermingle with the local population in order to spread Islamic teachings.
Islam spread outwards from Mecca towards both the Atlantic and Pacific seas.
The establishment of Muslim dynasties was swift, and subsequent empires such as those of the Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids, Seljukids, and Ajurans, Adal and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in India, Safavids in Persia, and Ottomans in Anatolia were among the largest and most powerful empires in history.
- In the wake of Islamic expansion in South and East Asia, Muslim cultures in the Indian subcontinent, Malaysia, Indonesia, and China developed into cosmopolitan and eclectic melting pots.
- In actuality, little has changed for the people of this new kingdom, who were originally subjects of the drastically diminished Byzantine and annihilated Sassanid empires, save in name.
- As a result, it was only in the following centuries that there was a true Islamization.
- The first group consists of animists and polytheists from tribal communities in the Arabian Peninsula and the Fertile Crescent, while the second group consists of monotheistic inhabitants from agrarian and urbanized societies in the Middle East.
- In contrast, “Islam was replaced for a Byzantine or Sassanian political identity as well as for a Christian, Jewish, or Zoroastrian religious allegiance” in sedentary and frequently already monotheistic communities, according to the authors.
- When the religious and political leadership came to a new understanding, it resulted in the weakening or complete collapse of the social and religious institutions of rival religious communities such as Christians and Jews.
- Expansion halted under the reign of the Abbasid Caliphate, and the major disciplines of Islamic philosophy, theology, law, and mysticism gained in popularity, as did the gradual conversion of the inhabitants inside the empire.
- There were three routes across Africa: over the Sahara via trading centres such as Timbuktu, up the Nile Valley through Sudan and Uganda, and down East Africa via colonies such as Mombasa and Zanzibar.
Following a general pattern of nomadic conquests of settled regions, the Arab-Muslim conquests of Europe followed a similar pattern in which conquering peoples became the new military elite and reached a compromise with the old elites by allowing them to retain their local political, religious, and financial authority.
- With its foundation in 670 CE by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba Ibn Nafi, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the oldest mosque in western Islamic countries and serves as an architectural icon of the expansion of Islam in North Africa.
- The Arab conquerors did not make the same error as the Byzantine and Sasanian empires, who had attempted and failed to impose an official religion on subject populations, resulting in hostility that made the Muslim conquests more palatable to the conquered peoples.
- Religious tolerance typified the early caliphate after military operations, which included the looting of several monasteries and the confiscation of Zoroastrian fire temples in Syria and Iraq, and people of all nationalities and religions were able to mingle in public life.
- In Iraq and Egypt, Muslim rulers worked in partnership with Christian religious leaders to achieve their goals.
- Some non-Muslim communities, on the other hand, were subjected to persecution.
- Zoroastrians were forced to pay an additional tax known as Jizya, and if they failed to do so, they were slaughtered, enslaved, or imprisoned as a result.
Jizya payers were exposed to insults and humiliation by the tax collectors, who demanded they pay the levy. In exchange for converting to Islam, Zoroastrians who had been kidnapped as slaves in battles were granted their freedom.
Did you know?: The Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia through the Trade Routes
The Silk Roads are among the most important routes in our collective history, and they are still in use today. The establishment of ties between east and west was made possible by the construction of these highways, which exposed varied regions to a variety of different ideas and ways of life. Notably, many of the world’s main religions, including Islam, were spread as a result of these contacts, which is noteworthy. Following the establishment of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century, the religion began to spread eastward through commerce, which was aided by the construction of the maritime Silk Roads.
- This allowed them to control the East-West trade routes that ran over the maritime Silk Roads, which linked numerous key ports in eastern Asian countries together.
- Due to these exchanges, Islam was able to spread even farther, reaching people living in significant coastal towns on the Indian Subcontinent and in China, as well as those living in more remote South-eastern islands such as modern Indonesia and the Philippines.
- Historically, Muslim traders traveling from the Arabian Peninsula to China’s ports had to transit via these islands in the southern hemisphere through the maritime Silk Roads.
- According to popular belief, some of these traders eventually moved in Indonesia and assimilated with the locals.
- It is possible to see archeological evidence of Islam being practiced by monarchs in the 13th century by looking at tombstones inscribed with dates according to the Islamic year of Sumatran Kings from the 13th century.
Furthermore, during the 13th century, contacts between Muslim merchants and the local population, as well as trade through the Silk Roads between the southern Philippines and other neighboring regions such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia, aided in the spread of Islam among the local population in those regions.
- Islam, like Buddhism, was assimilated into the existing cultural and religious influences of the Southeast Asian areas in a similar way.
- Sri Lanka has an ancient monastic hospital system that dates back thousands of years.
- The Khwarazm region and the Silk Roads are intertwined.
- The spread of Buddhism throughout South and Southeast Asia as a result of trade routes.
Sayyid Bin Abu Ali, a true representative of intercultural relations throughout the Maritime Silk Roads, was recently honored. Thailand and the Silk Roads of the Maritime Silk Roads The Greeks Have a Foothold in Central Asia Routes of the Maritime Silk Routes in Central Asia
Teachers Guide – Muslims
|Discussion and Activities|
|Beliefs and Daily Lives of Muslims|
Following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40, the year 610 is commemorated as the beginning of Islamic history. Muslims all throughout the Arabian peninsula followed Muhammad and his companions in spreading the principles of Islam. Following the death of the prophet Muhammad, military expeditions were launched into what is now Egypt and other regions of North Africa, which were dubbed “futuhat,” which literally translates as “openings.” Islam expanded around the world through trade and business in various regions of the world.
- In the year 570 C.E.
- He is descended from a noble family and is well-known for his honesty and uprightness of moral character.
- According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad has a visit from the angel Gabriel while on seclusion in a cave in Mecca when he reaches the age of 40.
- Later, Muhammad is instructed to summon his people to the worship of the one God, but they respond with animosity and begin to punish him and his followers as a result of his actions.
- After facing persecution in Mecca, Muhammad and his followers flee to the adjacent town of Yathrib (which would eventually become known as Medina), where the locals welcomed Islam.
- Muhammad builds an Islamic kingdom in Medina, which is founded on the rules given in the Quran as well as the inspired direction he receives from the Almighty.
- Muhammad comes to Mecca with a significant number of his supporters in the year 630 CE.
The prophet orders the removal of all idols and images from the Kaaba, which is thereafter rededicated to the worship of God alone.
after a lengthy illness.
In 638 C.E., Muslims cross the border into the region north of Arabia known as “Sham,” which encompasses Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, and Iraq.
and rout the Byzantine army in the process.
Islam begins to expand over North Africa in the year 655 C.E.
This also marks the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty’s reign of terror.
The Islamic state eventually gains control over nearly the whole Iberian Peninsula.
by Charles Martel’s forces.
From 1000 C.E.
The European Crusaders capture Jerusalem from the Muslims in 1099 C.E.
Islam continues to spread throughout Asia as of the year 1120 C.E.
Turkey’s Anatolia region becomes the site of the formation of the first Ottoman state in 1299 C.E.
Around the year 1800 C.E., over 30% of Africans who were forced into slavery in the United States were Muslim.
The Ottoman Empire, the last of the Islamic empires, is defeated and destroyed at the end of World War I, marking the end of the war.
Traditional religious ways of life are under attack, and in some cases, have been completely obliterated.
Even while it is founded on some Islamic concepts, it also includes several innovations, like the designation or pronouncement of Elijah Muhammad as a prophet.
Some Palestinian and Lebanese refugees, including Muslims and Christians, have fled to the United States from their home countries.
Muslim students come from all over the world to study in the United States.
opened the door even wider for Muslim immigration.
Muhammad, the son of Elijah Muhammad, takes over as head of the Nation of Islam and successfully integrates the majority of his followers into mainstream Islam.
C.E. 1979 was a year of transition. Eventually, the Iranian Revolution leads to Iran becoming known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, which is the first attempt at an Islamic state in the contemporary age.
However, while some earlier histories mention Islam being widely adopted beyond the Arab peninsula beginning in the mid-seventh century, in reality this did not occur for at least a century beyond that time period. According to Richard C. Foltz, the reason for this misunderstanding is due to a misinterpretation of the wordislam (which means “submission”), which has been used in Muslim histories to refer to the submission of one clan to the authority of another, rather than the spread of the Islamic faith in its proper sense.
To the contrary, Foltz claims that the act of submitting resulted in the formation of de facto non-aggression pacts between Muslim Arabs and their neighbors.
When the Muslim clans expanded into these territories, they had no difficulty ousting the Sassanian and Byzantine rulers and their soldiers; some communities, according to Foltz, even opened their doors to the Muslim Arabs and greeted them as liberators after the invasion.
Several other kingdoms ruled by Arab and non-Arab Muslim dynasties would come to dominate the entire world by 750, extending from Spain in the west all the way through northern Africa, across all of Persia and the entire Middle East, as far east as the eastern edge of the Tang Empire in the Tarim Basin, and crossing the Indus river into the Indian subcontinent.
- Instead, they were bound together by governments that were based on the interpretation of Islamic law and had a common history.
- For the most part, Muslims referred to their faith as “the Arab religion” (al-din al-‘arab), and they made little effort to convert non-Muslims to Islam.
- 3 Consistently distinguishing between reigning Muslims and conquered non-Muslims provided for smoother government and ensured Muslims a favored position under the rules of each of the numerous Islamic nations in which they lived.
- Fourteenth, non-Muslims were strongly encouraged to convert to Islam, particularly those who had previously held elite economic, social, and political positions.
- Apart from that, the Arabs saw in those they conquered a natural aptitude for administrative work.
- As government officials, it would appear that they should have converted to Islam, however they did not do so until after they began to advocate for the same rights as Arab Muslims.
- As a result of this development, Arab Muslims began to see non-Arab converts asmawla (or “clients”), so elevating themawla to the status of honorary clan member.
6 By the middle of the ninth century, Muslims had gained control of the western part of the Silk Route, and trade had emerged as the second most important element in Islam’s growth.
7Muslim traders journeyed as far as the Tang capital of Chang-an, as well as other towns in the Chinese empire, and even further to the east, to trade with the Chinese.
At 757, the Tang emperor handed Muslim troops lands in the western-most periphery of the empire as a prize for their assistance in putting down the uprising of An Lushan, and fifty years later Muslims were permitted to settle in Yunnan province.
8 Islam dictates that children of Muslim fathers must be reared as Muslims, which resulted in the establishment of a Muslim Chinese minority in certain locations during the Tang dynasty.
– John D.
Martin’s Press, 1999), p.
(2) Foltz, Richard C., Religions of the Silk Road: Overland Trade and Cultural Exchange from Antiquity to the Fifteenth Century (New York: St.
(4) Lewis, Bernad, et al (ed.).
II, Religion and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), page 224.
II, Religion and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), page 224.
(6 ) Ira M. Lapidus’s A History of Islamic Societies (Cambridge University Press, 1988) has the following passage: “A History of Islamic Societies” (p. 98). Foltz (1996), p. 96.
How did Islam Spread? By Sword or By Conversion?
What was the method through which Islam spread? By Sword or by Conversion? That is the question. Submitted by: Sayyid Muhammed Rizvi (This book is an enlarged version of a discussion made on the “Islam in Focus” television show in May 2002, which is available online.) North American Shia Ithna-Asheri Muslim Communities (NASIMCO) published a report in 2006 / 1427.
“Islam is a religious system that is terrible.” “It encourages the use of violence.” These are some of the most popular designations applied to Islam by right-wing Christian media outlets. This kind of prejudice is based on the historical myth that the Arabs compelled non-Arabs to convert to the Islamic religion. Recently, it was not unusual to find books illustrated with illustrations of an Arab riding his horse, sword in one hand and the Qur’an in the other, as seen in the picture above. So, let us examine how Islam expanded throughout the world: with the sword or through conversion.
The Qur’anic Perspective
Let us first consider the subject of “conversion by force” from the point of view of the Qur’anic tradition. This is what the Qur’an says about joining into the Islamic fold, and it is extremely clear: There is no compulsion in religion; indeed, the guidance has been distinguished from wrong. In this way, whoever rejects the idol and believes in God has grasped the most solid rope that can never break; God is All-hearing and All-knowing.” 256 (Surah al-Baqara, verse 256) The acceptance of Islam cannot be compelled; Islam seeks real believers, not hypocrites, as followers.
The Prophet of Islam has also been regarded as a source of inspiration rather than as someone who imposes Islam on others: “Thus, you remind (them), since you are merely a reminder; you are not a watchdog over them,” the author writes.
(Surah al-Baqara,2:119; Surah Saba,34:28) (Surah al-Baqara,2:119; Surah Saba,34:28) His function was simply to serve as a reminder to the populace of their inherent desire to believe in God.
The Prophet’s Example
On the basis of his mission to Mecca, the Prophet Muhammad’s life may be split into two parts: (a) the first thirteen years of the Prophet’s life in Mecca, and (b) the remaining eleven years of his life in Medina.
1. In Mecca
Mecca served as the Prophet’s headquarters for the first thirteen years of his ministry. Given that Muhammad and the Muslims were a minority in Mecca, the use of force was both unimaginable and historically impossible. Persecution compelled him to flee from Mecca to Medina, where he eventually settled.
2. In Medina
The Prophet spent the remaining eleven years of his life in Medina. Aws and Khazraj tribes were the bulk of the inhabitants in Medina at the time of the Prophet’s relocation to that city, and they were the tribes that were most open to Islam. It goes without saying that this acceptance or conversion of the people of Medina could not have been accomplished via coercion! The Prophet and his supporters in Mecca lacked the resources necessary to physically convert the inhabitants of Medina to their faith in Allah.
- When the Prophet arrived in Medina, he discovered that the city was home to a small Jewish population that was adamant in its refusal to join Islam.
- The following is an excerpt from the relevant section of the charter: The Jews who engage into this covenant will be safeguarded from all insults and vexations, and they will have the same right to our aid and good deeds as our own people.
- They will be able to follow their faith with the same freedom as Muslims.
- The perpetrators will be apprehended and punished.
- The interior of Yathrib will be regarded as a holy space by everyone who embrace the terms of this Charter.
The clients and allies of the Muslims and the Jews will be treated with the same respect as the principals. That the Prophet did not compel individuals to adopt Islam, but rather encouraged peaceful coexistence with adherents of other faiths, is unequivocal evidence of his non-violent approach.
The Wars During the Prophet’s Life
Is there any mention of the fights that the Prophet Muhammad engaged in after establishing his political authority in Medina? Was this done with the intention of forcing Islam on other people? Let us take a quick glance at the main battles that occurred during that time period:
2 AH, The Battle of Badr
Muslims faced out against the Meccan armies in Badr, which was 80 miles from Medina and 200 miles from Mecca at the time. The location and the circumstances make it very evident that the Meccan unbelievers were the aggressors in this situation.
3 AH, The Battle of Uhud
The city was named after a mountain located just outside of Medina. The Meccans had come to exact vengeance for their defeat at Badr.
5 AH, The Battle of Ahzab (or Khandaq)
The unbelievers from Mecca, working in collaboration with the Jews of northern Arabia, marched on Medina to launch an attack on the Muslims.
6 AH, The Peace-Treaty of Hudaybiyya
In the sixth year following the Prophet’s journey, accompanied by Muslims, he made the decision to travel to Mecca for pilgrimage. During the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the unbelievers barred the Muslims from entering the city. After months of discussions, both parties agreed to a ten-year peace pact that was signed by both parties. It had far-reaching consequences, as you can see in the following passage: In the first place, the Muslims were primarily preoccupied with defending themselves against the Meccans (their external adversaries) and the Jews up to the signing of this pact in 1517.
For the second time, it wasn’t until the signing of this treaty that Muslims felt safe and secure enough to go to other regions and nations outside of Medina, as previously stated.
Third, during the sixth and ninth years of the Prophet’s travel, there had been so much propagation and missionary activity that practically the whole Arabian Peninsula had been brought into the fold of Islam–all without the use of force!
9 AH, the Conquest of Mecca
Only when the Meccans breached the terms of the peace treaty did the Muslims successfully seize control of the city of Mecca without resorting to bloodshed; later, in the ninth century AD, Mecca was proclaimed a holy city in which idol worship was prohibited. However, the idol-worshippers in Mecca were allowed a four-month grace period to remain and learn Islam at that time. If they were still not persuaded by Islam’s message, they would be ordered to leave the holy city of Mecca, according to Islamic law.
Two Phases of Prophet Muhammad’s Life
First Phase: The Meccan period, which lasted for the first 13 years. Because he was in the minority, he could not impose his will. Second Phase: The last 11 years of his life, during which he lived in the Middle East. From the first to the sixth year, you will be defending yourself against the Meccan army and their allies. During the seventh and eighth years, outreach to others was conducted, culminating in the conversion of nearly the whole Arabian Peninsula. We can see from all of these examples that neither the sword nor force were used to convert individuals to Islam.
Special protection was provided by Islam for Jews and Christians, whom Islam regards as Ahlul Kitab (the People of the Scriptures), who were allowed to exercise their beliefs and religious practices freely while under Islamic control.
The Conquests after the Prophet
Following the death of the Prophet Muhammad, the Muslims progressively expanded their territory to include Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Iran, among other places. Iraq was captured by the Arabs in 633 CE, under the reign of Abu Bakr. When ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab ascended the throne in 635 CE, Syria was invaded, followed by Palestine six years later, Egypt in 642 CE, and the eastern half of Persia two years later. While ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan reigned in Persia, the remainder of the country was captured.
- We, on the other hand, have a different viewpoint on the conquests carried out by Muslims following the Prophet’s death.
- Confusion arises when authors and historians view the growth of the Muslim/Arab Empire as the spread of Islam, the religion, as a result of the expansion of Islam, the religion.
- In his book, A History of Islamic Societies, Ira M.
- It has recently been revealed that, while conversion by force was not unheard of in Muslim nations, it was extremely uncommon.
- 1 “In the vast majority of cities, the population maintained their traditional religious practices.
- A notable passage from the late Marshall Hodgson’s famous book “The Venture of Islam” states: “There was no attempt to convert the peoples of the imperial provinces, who virtually all already subscribed to some sort of confessional religion.
- As a religion, and as a result in terms of maintaining social order, Islam would be justified in its rule: it would justify the simple, fair-dealing Muslims in their replacement of the privileged and repressive representatives of the previous, corrupted allegiances.
Lapidus, has the following passage, which has been previously quoted: “The second principle.was that the conquered inhabitants should be as little disturbed as possible.” This indicates that, contrary to popular belief, the Arab-Muslims did not make any attempts to convert non-Muslims to Islam.
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Expansion of The Muslim /Arab Empire Versus Expansion of The Islamic Faith
My opinion is that some Muslim rulers really wanted for captured inhabitants to adhere to their old faith in order to assure a steady flow of needed cash into their own government coffers! They were not in the business of propagating or disseminating Islam or any other religion.
Examples from Muslim History
History gives enough evidence that Muslim empires were established via military force, but this does not necessarily imply that Islam was spread through military force as a result of the same. 1.Take the following example from India: Despite the fact that Muslims controlled India for around 800 years, the country never had a Muslim majority. The data themselves demonstrate that the growth of Islam in that region was not aided by the use of force. Dr. Khuswant Singh, a well-known Indian historian and journalist, has written about the early days of Islam in India in his book, A History of the Sikhs, which was published in 2012.
- Indonesia, on the other hand, is the largest Muslim country in the world in terms of population.
- Several explanations have been advanced by Lapidus to explain the spread of Islam in the Far East, including the importance of merchants, the importance of missionaries, and the relevance of Islam to the common people rather than to the governing elites.
- A similar set of circumstances in the expansion of Islam has been documented on the African continent.
- It was controlled by a Turkish caliph and regulated by the Milletsystem, which was a multi-religious, multi-cultural civilization with a multi-religious population.
- Take, for example, Greece, a neighboring country to Turkey that was occupied by Muslim Turks for over 500 years, but you never hear or see any evidence of a significant Muslim minority among the Greeks, even now.
In the words of Professor Davison, a well-known historian of the Ottoman Empire, “It may even be claimed that the Turks were less repressive to their subject people than were the Prussians of the Poles, the English of the Irish, or the Americans of the Negroes.” In this time, there is evidence to suggest that emigration from independent Greece into the Ottoman Empire occurred because some Greeks felt the Ottoman authority to be a more accommodating ruler than their independent Greek counterparts.
“4.Islam is up against a powerful adversary in the form of a prejudiced media in Europe and the Americas.
Despite all of the obstacles, Islam is one of the fastest growing religions in the United States of America.
Currently, the company has a significant presence in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. This reveals a great deal about the spread of this religion throughout history and continues to do so now.
The Path of Future
It is important for Muslims in the West to know that their own behavior and character are the most effective responses against biased media. As Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (P), the sixth Shi’a Imam from the Ahlul Bayt (P), said, “Call people towards Islam without using your tongue.” That is, your actions at home, at work, and in the community should be a means of defending and portraying the true Islamic message.
It is also known as Islamdom, the complex of communities and cultures in which Muslims and their faith have long been widespread and socially powerful, also known as the Islamic world. The practice of Islam is a worldwide phenomenon: Muslims predominate in approximately 30 to 40 countries, spanning the Atlantic Ocean east to the Pacific Ocean and along a belt that stretches from northern Africa into Central Asia and south to the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent. Muslims are the majority religion in the United States and Canada.
- Although there are no large-scale Islamic governmental structures, the Islamic faith continues to grow, according to some estimations at a higher rate than any other major religion on the planet.
- This quiz delves into the world of religions and civilizations, covering everything from temples to festivals.
- The prophet Muhammad is discussed in detail in the article Islam.
- Islam is also mentioned in entries about certain nations or areas in which the religion is a factor, such as Egypt, Iran, Arabia, and North Africa, among others.
- To understand the history of today’s Islamic world, it is necessary to have a very broad viewpoint.
In general, the events discussed in this article are dated according to theGregorian calendar, and eras are designated asbce (before the Common Era or Christian Era) andce (Common Era or Christian Era), terms that are equivalent tobc (before Christ) andad (after Christ) in the Gregorian calendar respectively (Latin:anno Domini).
It is generally agreed that the Islamic period began with Muhammad’s journey (Hijrah) to Medina in 622CE, which corresponds to July 16, 622CE in the Gregorian calendar.
Muslim as an adjective describes aspects of Islam as a religion, while Islamic as a noun describes aspects of Islam’s adherents.
The term “Islamicate” refers to the social and cultural complex that has historically been associated with Islam and Muslims, as well as the role and participation of non-Islamic and non-Muslim individuals and groups within that complex.
The term “Islamicate” is used to refer to the complex as a whole.
Prehistory (c.3000bce –500ce)
FromHammurabiof Babylon to the AchaemenidCyrus IIin Persia to Alexander the Greatto the Sassinian emperorAnshirvanto Muhammad in Arabia; or, fromAdamtoNoahtoAbrahamtoMosestoJesusto Muhammad according to a Muslim perspective, fromAdam to Noah, to Abraham, to Moses, to Jesus, to Muhammad. With the establishment of the first civilizations in western Asia, the possibility for Muslim empire building was formed. As a result of the emergence and spread of what have been referred to as the region’s Axial Age religions—Abrahamic, which was centered on the Hebrew patriarch Abraham, and Mazdean, which was centered on the Iranian deityAhura Mazd—as well as their later relative, Christianity—the region’s Axial Age religions were refined.
In many ways, the Muslims were the successors of ancient Egypt, Babylonian civilisation, Persian civilization, Hebrew civilization, even Greek and Indian civilisation; the civilizations they built crossed time and space, from antiquity to modernity and from the east to the west.
The rise of agrarian-based citied societies
The Arab coalition of the 7th century, which included sedentary and migratory groups from both inside and outside the Arabian Peninsula, seized political and fiscal control of western Asia, specifically the lands between the Nile and the Oxus (Amu Darya) rivers, territory that had previously been controlled by the Byzantines in the west and the Ssanianians in the east. In the 4th millennium BC, the rise of agrarian-based citied communities in western Asia signaled the beginning of a protracted period of consolidation of the variables that surrounded and controlled their accomplishment.
- This sort of social structure opened the door to a whole new world of possibilities.
- Some individuals were able to gain enough riches to patronize a wide range of arts and crafts by taking advantage of the physical labor of others; a few of these persons were able to build territorial monarchies and support religious organizations that had a broader appeal.
- The new governing groups developed expertise in managing and integrating non-kin-related groups into their societies.
- Several new institutions, like as money, territorial deities, royal priesthoods, and permanent armies, aided in the consolidation of their authority.
- The religious beliefs of these new social entities mirrored and supported the new social circumstances in which they existed.
- As indicated by the intricate funeral ceremonies of pharaonic Egypt, the link between worldly existence and the afterlife became increasingly complicated.
- But large-scale organization had resulted in social and economic inequities that rulers and religions were able to confront but were unable to eliminate.
Many people believed that an absolute monarch who could unite a diverse range of ethnic, religious, and interest groups was their greatest hope for justice.
How Islam Spread Across Asia After the Death of Muhammad
Bernard Spragg. NZ/Flickr/CC BY 1.0. Bernard Spragg The most recent update was made on November 13, 2019. The Prophet Muhammad passed away in the 11th year of the hijra, which corresponds to the year 632 CE on the western calendar. His teachings expanded throughout the Arabian Peninsula, beginning in the holy city of Medina and ending in the capital city of Mecca.
Spread of Islam in Asia to 661 CE
Flickr/NZ/CC BY-SA 1.0/Bernard Spragg November 13, 2019 – This page has been updated. The Prophet Muhammad passed away in the eleventh year of the hijra, which corresponds to the year 632 CE on the Western calendar. In fact, his teachings spread over the whole Arabian Peninsula, beginning in the holy city of Medina.
Spread to 750 CE
Kallie Szczepanski is a Polish actress and singer. Muslims were able to extend throughout Central Asia and into what is now Pakistan during the period of the Umayyad caliphate, which was located in Damascus (now inSyria). The year 750 CE, often known as the year 128 of the hijra, marked a watershed moment in the history of the Muslim world. The Abbasid caliphate ascended to power when the Umayyad caliphate was defeated and the capital relocated to Baghdad. This city was closer to both Persia and Central Asia than the others.
At the time of the Battle of Talas River, the Abbasid army was on the boundaries of Tang China, where it was victorious over the Chinese forces.
Spread to 1500 CE
Kallie Szczepanski is a Polish actress and singer. By the year 1500 CE, or 878 of the hijra, Islam had expanded throughout Asia and reached Turkey (with the conquest of Byzantium by theSeljuk Turks). It had also expanded through Central Asia and into China via the Silk Road, as well as to what is now Malaysia, Indonesia, and the southern Philippines, all of which were reached by trade routes along the Indian Ocean. Arab and Persian traders were extremely successful in spreading Islam, in part because of the tactics they used in their commerce.
What’s more, they had an early international banking and credit system, which allowed a Muslim in Spain to issue a statement of credit, which was comparable to a personal check, that a Muslim in Indonesia would respect.
Islam in Modern Asia
Kallie Szczepanski is a Polish actress and singer. Today, a number of Asian countries have a Muslim majority population. Some countries, such as Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and Iran, designate Islam as their national religion, whereas others do not. While some countries have majority-Muslim populations, others do not recognize Islam as the official state religion. Islam is a minority religion in certain nations, such as China, but it predominates in some places, such as Xinjiang, a semi-autonomous Uighur region in the country’s western region.
This map represents a generalization of the situation. It is possible to find non-Muslims living within the colored districts, as well as Muslim groups living outside of the designated bounds.
The Spread of Islam in Ancient Africa
The Islamization of West Africa began with the conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE. Islam spread throughout the region through merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries, primarily through peaceful means, as African rulers either tolerated the religion or converted to it. Islam spread throughout the region through merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries. As a result of this, Islam expanded in and around the Sahara Desert. In addition, the faith came in East Africa when Arab traders crossed the Red Sea and established along the Swahili Coast in a second wave of migration after that.
Supporters of traditional African beliefs such as animism and fetish, spirit and ancestor worship, as well as supporters of traditional African beliefs such as ancestor worship, shown sometimes violent opposition.
(Creative Commons BY-NC-SA) Although Islam spread slowly and quietly for at least six centuries in areas where there were economic ties with the larger Muslim world, particularly in the southern Mediterranean, the Persian Gulf, and the Arabian Sea, the religion continued to spread peacefully and gradually.
With religion came the introduction of new ideas, particularly in the fields of administration, law, architecture, and a variety of other facets of everyday life.
A Note on Islam
The rise of Islam in Africa was characterized by much more than only the transmission and adoption of religious concepts, it is maybe worth mentioning at the outset. According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) General History of Africa, Islam is more than a religion; it is a comprehensive way of life that encompasses all aspects of human existence. Muslim teachings give direction in all elements of life – individual and social, material and moral (including financial), political (including economic), legal (including cultural), and national (including international).
III, page 20) Given the foregoing, it is probably more understandable why so many African kings and elites were willing to embrace a foreign religion, especially when that religion also carried with it tangible benefits in terms of governance and riches.
After the Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus conquered North Africa in the second half of the 7th century CE, Islam moved from the Middle East to take root throughout the whole continent during the second half of the 7th century CE. Through Islamized Berbers (who had been either pushed or coaxed to convert) it spread throughout West Africa in the 8th century CE, traveling from the east coast into the interior of central Africa, and eventually reaching Lake Chad, where it was eradicated. Meanwhile, the religion moved down through Egypt and then swung westward across the Sudan area below the Sahara Desert, where it is still practiced today.
Trade Routes Across the Sahara Aa77zz is an abbreviation for Aa77zz (Public Domain) Once the religion reached the savannah region, which stretches throughout Africa below the Sahara Desert, it was embraced by the governing African elites, however local beliefs and rites were frequently maintained or even incorporated into the new religion’s practices and ceremonies.
- In the east, the faith spread via the Mali Empire (1240-1645 CE) and the Songhai Empire (1240-1645 CE) (c.
- 1591 CE).
- 900 – c.
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Muslims in East Africa were up against stiff competition from Christians, who were firmly entrenched in Nubia and states such as the Kingdoms of Faras (also known as Nobatia), Dongola, and Alodia, as well as in the Kingdom of Axum (first – eighth centuries CE) in what is now Ethiopia, among other places.
- In addition, the Sultanates of Adal (1415-1577 CE) and Ajuran (1415-1577 CE) were two prominent Muslim states in the Horn of Africa during the same period (13-17th century CE).
- Islam achieved greater instant success on the Swahili Coast, which is farther south.
- As the native Bantu peoples and Arabs mingled, so did their languages, and intermarrying became popular.
- From the 12th century CE, when Shirazi merchants arrived from the Persian Gulf, Islam began to become more firmly entrenched in Europe.
- Curtin, a historian, describes it thus way: “In the end, the Muslim faith emerged as one of the most important determinants of Swahili identity.
- Despite the fact that Islam was a huge success on the coast, it had little effect on the peoples who lived in the interior of East Africa until the nineteenth century CE.
- A significant number of people were adamant in their refusal to accept this new religion in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary.
- In the following centuries, the Christian Portuguese came in Africa, on both the west and east coasts, where they posed a serious threat to the growth of Islamic civilization.
Kilwa has a magnificent mosque. Richard Mortel is a fictional character created by author Richard Mortel in the 1960s. Mortel’s character is based on the fictional character of the same name created by author Richard Mortel in the 1960s (Public Domain)
Reasons For Adoption
Beyond true spiritual commitment, African leaders may have recognized that adopting Islam (or seeming to do so) or at the very least tolerating it would be good to trade relations with other countries. Both Islam and trade have long been interwoven, as illustrated in this section of the UNESCO General History of Africa: Islam and Trade. A well-known truth about Islam and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa is that they go hand in hand. The Dyula, Hausa, and Dyakhanke were among the first peoples to be converted when their respective nations came into contact with Muslims since they were the most commercially engaged peoples in their respective countries.
- Islam, a religion that originated in the commercial community of Mecca and was proclaimed by a Prophet who himself had worked as a merchant for a long period of time, presents a set of ethical and practical prescripts that are intimately tied to the conduct of business.
- (Volume III, page 39) However, there is no indication that the kings of theGhanaEmpire themselves converted to Islam; rather, they accepted Muslim traders and Ghanaians who chose to convert during their reign.
- Two towns existed: one was Muslim and featured 12 mosques, while the other, which was just 10 kilometers distant and connected by several intermediary structures, served as the royal home and contained many traditional cult temples, as well as a mosque for passing merchants.
- Mansa Musa is the illustrator.
- In the following centuries, several monarchs followed suit, most notably Mansa Musa I (r.
- Mosques were constructed, such as Timbuktu’s Great Mosque (also known as Djinguereber or Jingereber), and Koranic schools and institutions were formed, all of which swiftly garnered international renown and prestige.
- A clerical elite arose, many of whose members were of Sudanese descent, and many of them commonly served as missionaries, bringing Islam to the southern areas of West Africa and expanding it throughout the region.
- In proportion to the increase of conversions, an increase in Muslim clerics from outside was recruited, resulting in the expansion of the faith throughout West Africa.
Finally, Muslim clerics were frequently of great assistance to the community in practical daily life (and thus increased the appeal of Islam) by offering prayers on demand, performing administrative tasks, providing medical advice, divining – such as the interpretation of dreams – and creating charms and amulets, among other things.
- This might very well have been the most essential element in the adoption of the Kingdom of Kanem in the late eleventh century CE.
- Another advantage of Islam was that it provided literacy, which was a hugely important tool for empires that relied on commerce to build their riches.
- Carsten ten Brink is a Dutch businessman.
- 1464-1492 CE) was vehemently anti-Muslim; however, King Mohammad I (r.
The rural populace of Songhai, like their counterparts in Ghana and Mali, remained steadfastly committed to their traditional beliefs.
Accommodating Ancient African Beliefs
However, as previously said, traditional indigenous traditions continued to be practiced, particularly in rural populations, as documented by travelers such as Ibn Batuta, who visited Mali in 1352 CE. Furthermore, Islamic studies were done, at least initially, in Arabic rather than native languages, which further limited their appeal outside of the educated clerical class of towns and cities. It may have been because African rulers could not afford to completely dismiss the indigenous religious practices and beliefs that were still held by the majority of their people, and which very often elevated rulers to divine or semi-divine status, that Islam did eventually take hold, though it was a distinct variation of the Islam practiced in the Arab world.
Ancestors were still honored, and in certain places, women were given more privileges than they would have had under strictly sharia rule.
Sankore Mosque, TimbuktuRadio Raheem is a local radio personality.
Islam had tremendous influence on many elements of everyday life and society, albeit these effects varied depending on the period and region in which they occurred. The arrival of Islam resulted in a broad deterioration of the social standing of various tribes in ancient African cultures. One of the most significant losers was the metalworkers, who had long been held in magical regard by the general public due to their abilities in forging metal. A similar statement may be made about individuals who discovered and mined valuable metals such as gold and iron.
Also true is that in some cases oral traditions retained their cultural integrity, and as a result, we are presented with a parallel history, such as the biographies ofSundiata Keita(r.
1230-1255 CE), the founder of the Mali Empire In various African communities, men and women’s roles have evolved in the past, with some African societies formerly granting women a more equal standing with males than was the case under Muslim legislation.
Some of the more cosmetic alterations included the use of Muslim-friendly names in place of Christian names.
In addition, clothing has altered, with women in particular being pushed to wear more modestly, and teenagers being encouraged to hide their nudity.
However, there were slight regional variations in the religion, just as there were in the religion itself.
The introduction of Islam brought with it a plethora of technological advancements, including writing, numbers, arithmetic, measures, and weights.
Along with archaeology, these writers have made significant contributions to the reconstruction of ancient Africa following the European colonial period, during which every effort was made to obliterate the history of the continent lest it conflict with the racist belief that Africa had been waiting for civilisation for eons before it was discovered.
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