How Did Islam Spread Through Trade? (Perfect answer)

Spread of Islam The expanse of Islamic trade had a direct result on the spread of the Islam religion. Traders brought their religion to West Africa where Islam quickly spread throughout the region. Areas in the far east such as Malaysia and Indonesia also became Muslim through traders and Islamic Sufis.

How did Islam spread so quickly by trade?

There are many reasons why Islam spread so quickly. First Mecca was connected to many global trade routes. Another important reason was their military conquered lots of territory. A third factor was the Muslims fair treatment of conquered peoples.

How did Islam spread through trade in Africa?

Following the conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE, Islam spread throughout West Africa via merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries, that is largely through peaceful means whereby African rulers either tolerated the religion or converted to it themselves.

How did Islam spread to India because of trade?

Through continued trade between Arab Muslims and Indians, Islam continued to spread in coastal Indian cities and towns, both through immigration and conversion. The first great expansion of Islam into India came during the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs, who were based in Damascus.

What are 3 reasons why Islam spread so quickly?

There are many reasons why Islam spread so fast, however the main three reasons was trade, winning battles, and treaties. Trade Routes was an important part of how Islam grew so fast.

How did Islam spread to the Swahili coast?

Arab traders first introduced Islam to the Swahili coast in the ninth century. Appreciating its religious value, the Swahili people also recognized that adopting their neighbor’s religion would help their trading relationships as well, granting them new access to trade networks.

How did Islam spread throughout Africa quizlet?

Islam would spread to West Africa by trade. The Mali king, Mansa Musa, followed Islam. He even undertook a Hajj and it was over a 3000 mile journey.

How did Islam spread in North Africa?

Islam was spread to North Africa as a result of conquest over African tribes, missionary efforts by the Muslim people, and traders spreading the religion by ear. Although missionary efforts played a big role in the spread of the Islamic religion; traders who spread the religion by ear were the most effective.

How did Islam spread on the Silk Road?

Muslim merchants from the Arabian Peninsula had to pass through these islands of the south via the maritime Silk Roads to reach China’s ports. Therefore, one would say that Islam arrived in South-East Asia in a peaceful way through trade and interactions between Muslim merchants and the locals.

How did Islam start and spread?

The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula. In other parts of the world, Islam spread through trade and commerce.

What were three places Islam spread to through trade?

Name three places Islam spread through trade, and the goods the acquired from these places. China: paper and gunpowder. Africa: ivory, cloves, and slaves. India: cloth goods.

How did Islam spread through military conquest?

The military conquest was inspired by religion, but it was also motivated by greed and politics. But this mixture of motives combined to form a process that forged Islamic and Arab ideals and communities into a fast-growing religious and political identity.

How Did Trade Help Spread Early Islam?

Traffic in items such as spices and gold, as well as the trade in slaves, had a significant role in the development of Islam, notably in Africa and Asia. The benefits of forming alliances with the very strong and wealthy Muslim traders served as a stimulus for kings and merchants to convert to Islam, which benefited Muslim traders over those of other religions on a number of occasions over the course of history. Despite the fact that Islam spread slowly and took hundreds of years to reach its current extent, many of the regions where people converted are still Islamic strongholds today.

1Geographic Considerations

The strategic position of early Islamic territories – between Europe, Asia, and Africa – allowed the Arab world to exert significant control over trade routes and trade routes were controlled by the Arab world. With the spice trade, which was mostly controlled by Muslims, the expansion of Islam can be traced back to the routes that connected Asia, Africa, and Europe, which traveled via Muslim-majority Arab and African territories. The spice trade is a classic illustration of how Islam expanded through commerce.

Instead of dealing via middlemen, Muslims engaged in direct trade, allowing them to get exposure to the faith in other countries as well.

2Spread to Africa

Africa was the first continent in which Islam expanded, and it did so primarily through Egypt, which served as a link between the Arab and African nations. In Eastern Africa, Muslim traders made their way to what is now Sudan, where many kings were persuaded to convert as a result of the benefits they gained as a result of allying themselves with the wealthy businessmen. As Muslim businessmen moved south, they began to marry women from higher social classes in coastal cities, forming crucial trading partnerships and creating a sense of solidarity among the upper classes, therefore establishing Islam as the religion of the upper classes.

Trade in salt and gold drew traders to the western Sub-Saharan area, where merchants were able to persuade local officials of the merits of Islam through their recognized advise on business and governance.

3Spread to Asia

Many areas of Asia, such as those along the Silk Road or in Central Asia, saw a significant increase in Islamic conversions as a result of the good economic policies promoted by Islamic leaders in these regions. Muslims were able to expand their faith without the use of force even among the subjugated tribes of Central Asia, thanks to traders who conveyed the religion north and west. Conquered people along the Silk Road were not usually compelled to convert to Islam, but many did so out of necessity due to financial constraints.

The laws controlling economic activities favored Muslims over non-Muslims as well, providing even another incentive for merchants and traders to convert from their previous religion.

In a similar vein to other parts of Africa, leaders of coastal towns were among the first to convert as a result of the influence of merchants who established enterprises in the region.

Eventually, interior communities began to convert to Islam in an effort to improve commerce with the more rich coastal cities, which was successful.

4The European Slave Trade

Although commerce in products had a significant role in the expansion of Islam throughout Africa and Asia, the European slave trade played a significant role as well, notably in the southern region of Africa and specifically in South Africa, according to historians. In the seventeenth century, the Dutch began importing Muslim slaves from their colonies in Southeast Asia to their colonies in southern Africa, where they were used to labor on the fields of the colonial authorities. Although Hindu and Muslim Indians were recruited to work on English sugar cane farms in South Africa throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, these workers were only paid a meager pay in most cases.

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Rachel DeBrouse received her B.A.

Rachael DeBrouse graduated with honors from Christopher Newport University.

However, while some earlier histories mention Islam being widely adopted beyond the Arab peninsula beginning in the mid-seventh century, in reality this did not occur for at least a century beyond that time period. According to Richard C. Foltz, the reason for this misunderstanding is due to a misinterpretation of the wordislam (which means “submission”), which has been used in Muslim histories to refer to the submission of one clan to the authority of another, rather than the spread of the Islamic faith in its proper sense.

To the contrary, Foltz claims that the act of submitting resulted in the formation of de facto non-aggression pacts between Muslim Arabs and their neighbors.

When the Muslim clans expanded into these territories, they had no difficulty ousting the Sassanian and Byzantine rulers and their soldiers; some communities, according to Foltz, even opened their doors to the Muslim Arabs and greeted them as liberators after the invasion.

Several other kingdoms ruled by Arab and non-Arab Muslim dynasties would come to dominate the entire world by 750, extending from Spain in the west all the way through northern Africa, across all of Persia and the entire Middle East, as far east as the eastern edge of the Tang Empire in the Tarim Basin, and crossing the Indus river into the Indian subcontinent.

  1. Instead, they were bound together by governments that were based on the interpretation of Islamic law and had a common history.
  2. For the most part, Muslims referred to their faith as “the Arab religion” (al-din al-‘arab), and they made little effort to convert non-Muslims to Islam.
  3. 3 Consistently distinguishing between reigning Muslims and conquered non-Muslims provided for smoother government and ensured Muslims a favored position under the rules of each of the numerous Islamic nations in which they lived.
  4. Fourteenth, non-Muslims were strongly encouraged to convert to Islam, particularly those who had previously held elite economic, social, and political positions.
  5. Apart from that, the Arabs saw in those they conquered a natural aptitude for administrative work.
  6. As government officials, it would appear that they should have converted to Islam, however they did not do so until after they began to advocate for the same rights as Arab Muslims.
  7. As a result of this development, Arab Muslims began to see non-Arab converts asmawla (or “clients”), so elevating themawla to the status of honorary clan member.

6 By the middle of the ninth century, Muslims had gained control of the western part of the Silk Route, and trade had emerged as the second most important element in Islam’s growth.

7Muslim traders journeyed as far as the Tang capital of Chang-an, as well as other towns in the Chinese empire, and even further to the east, to trade with the Chinese.

At 757, the Tang emperor handed Muslim troops lands in the western-most periphery of the empire as a prize for their assistance in putting down the uprising of An Lushan, and fifty years later Muslims were permitted to settle in Yunnan province.

8 Islam dictates that children of Muslim fathers must be reared as Muslims, which resulted in the establishment of a Muslim Chinese minority in certain locations during the Tang dynasty.

– John D.

D.

Martin’s Press, 1999), p.

(2) Foltz, Richard C., Religions of the Silk Road: Overland Trade and Cultural Exchange from Antiquity to the Fifteenth Century (New York: St.

90.

(3)Ibid., p.

(4)Ibid., p.

(4) Lewis, Bernad, et al (ed.).

II, Religion and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), page 224.

II, Religion and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), page 224.

(6 ) Ira M. Lapidus’s A History of Islamic Societies (Cambridge University Press, 1988) has the following passage: “A History of Islamic Societies” (p. 98). Foltz (1996), p. 96.

History of the Early Islamic World for Kids: Trade and Commerce

Early Islamic World – History for Children Trade and trade had a significant part in the development of the Islamic world in its early stages. Large trade networks stretched throughout most of the world, connecting far-flung locations such as China, Africa, and Europe. Islamic officials used taxes collected from affluent merchants to fund the construction and maintenance of public works such as schools, hospitals, dams, and bridges around the world. Money in the form of a gold dinar Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons It goes without saying that money is crucial in every economy, and this was no exception for Islamic traders.

  1. Large transactions, on the other hand, were frequently completed on paper through the use of letters of credit known as “suftaja.” On lengthy trading routes, these letters were far more convenient to transport than hefty money.
  2. Various Trade Products Islamic merchants traded in a diverse range of goods, including sugar, salt, textiles, spices, slaves, gold, and horses.
  3. Many merchants got extremely wealthy and influential as a result of their efforts.
  4. Both by water and over great spans of land, these trading routes were extremely important (including the famousSilk Road).
  5. Camelsby is traveling in a caravan.
  6. Vantage pointsWhen a trade route crossed land, merchants traveled in huge groups known as caravans to reach their destinations.
  7. They offered protection for the merchants and the products they traded in exchange for protection.
  8. Islam’s global expansion The expansion of Islamic trade had a direct impact on the propagation of Islam as a religious belief system.
  9. Islamic Sufis and businessmen brought Islam to areas in the far east, like Malaysia and Indonesia, which had previously been Christian.

Over time, huge Muslim communities arose in various countries, such as India, China, and Spain, among other places. Interesting facts regarding trade and commerce during the Islamic Golden Age are presented in this article.

  • Archaeologists have discovered Islamic currencies in countries as diverse as Sweden, the United Kingdom, and China. Merchants were held in high regard across the Islamic world. The prophet Muhammad was born into a commercial family, and the slave trade was a significant component of the economy at the time. Slaves kidnapped during the Islamic conquests included some who were seized as prisoners of war, while others were purchased in slave markets in northern and western Africa. It was possible to interchange cultural exchanges such as art, science, cuisine, and clothes over the great span of Islamic commerce that stretched across Asia, Africa, and Europe. In numerous cases, the Quran provided guidance to the owners of Islamic trading establishments, ordering them to behave honestly with one another and not to charge interest on loans

Swedish archaeologists, British archaeologists, and Chinese archaeologists have all discovered Islamic coins in their research. Muslims looked up to merchants and respected them. In his early years, the prophet Muhammad was born into a merchant family, and slavery played a significant role in society. Slaves kidnapped during the Islamic conquests included some who were seized as prisoners of war, while others were purchased in slave markets in northern and western Africa were also included. It was possible to interchange cultural exchanges such as art, science, cuisine, and clothes over the huge span of Islamic trade that extended across Asia, Africa, and Europe.

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More information about the early Islamic world may be found at: Works CitedHistory for Kids. The Islamic World in the Early Period

THE SPREAD OF ISLAM: New evidence of the role of trade and geographical inequality

1st of December, 2018 Islam thrived in difficult geographical terrains – regions of the world that were characterized by naturally uneven economic prospects and which frequently produced conflict with one another. Any political platform that aimed to bring together opposing people would have to confront these inequalities from the beginning of time. It’s safe to say that Islam was one such movement – and its growth serves as a textbook illustration of how geography impacts a society’s institutional and social systems.

  • First, they demonstrate the importance of ancient, pre-Islamic trade routes in facilitating the spread of Islam
  • Second, they demonstrate how a region’s ecological similarity to the Arabian peninsula predicts the presence of Muslim communities today
  • And third, they demonstrate how ancient, pre-Islamic trade routes have played a role in facilitating the spread of Islam.

The researchers are motivated by a large number of case studies on the historical link between commerce and Islam, and they are constructing thorough data on pre-Islamic trade routes, ports, and harbours to support their findings. For example, they demonstrate in the first part of their analysis that closeness to the pre-600 CE commerce network is a strong predictor of current Muslim adherence in the Old World. Analyses are carried out by the academics both across nations and within countries.

It is hoped that these empirical findings will add to a large body of qualitative work by prominent Islamicists who have extensively discussed the role of long-distance trade, noting both Islam’s spread along trade routes and the significance that Islamic scriptures place on matters pertaining to trade.

  • For example, it is known that the adoption of Islam in most of interior Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa occurred predominantly as a result of encounters with Muslim traders.
  • As a result, merchants who converted to Islam reaped significant benefits, such as access to the Muslim trade network, consistent trade flows, and a reduction in transaction expenses, among other things.
  • But what are the most notable geographical characteristics of the cradle of Islam?
  • This particular landscape is captured by the study’s construction of the Gini coefficient of land quality for agriculture for each country/ethnic homeland in order to capture it.
  • Nonetheless, why is it important for the propagation of Islam that a region’s biological closeness to the Arabian peninsula?
  • In order to begin, they show that people living along physically uneven boundaries have a distinct production structure (both historically and now), with grazing dominating semi-arid landscapes and farming occurring only in a few comparatively rich locations.
  • Both of these occurrences may be seen in abundance throughout history.
  • Similar to this, current academics have observed that when farmers and herders co-existed in the lack of an institutional framework to coordinate their activities, their interactions were frequently conflictual, causing trade flows across these regions to be disrupted as a result.
  • ‘ Trade and Geography in the Spread of Islam’by Stelios Michalopoulos, Alireza Naghavi, and Giovanni Prarolo is a book that examines the role of trade and geography in the spread of Islam.

Islam, Inequality, and Pre-Industrial Comparative Development by Their findings have also been published atvoxeuReturn to the listing

Trade and Geography in the Economic Origins and Spread of Islam

Karl Marx established a connection between the organization of production and the emergence of institutions. Religion, according to Marx, is similar to any other social institution in that it is reliant on the economic reality of a given society, i.e., it is the result of the productive forces of that society’s economic system. Max Weber, on the other hand, emphasized the fact that religious membership has an independent influence on economic conduct. My research with Alireza Naghavi and Giovanni Prarolo of the University of Bologna proposes that geography and trade opportunities influenced the formation of Islamic economic doctrine, which in turn influenced the economic performance of the Muslim world during the preindustrial era, by weaving these insights together.

  1. To be more specific, we argue that the unequal distribution of land endowments resulted in asymmetrical advantages from trade across different parts of the world.
  2. The latter was achieved through imposing an equitable inheritance system, increasing the costs of physical capital accumulation, and boosting the attractiveness of investments in public goods, such as those made through religious endowments, among other measures.
  3. In a stage of development when land qualities influence productive capacities, regional agricultural adaptability is critical in determining a region’s capacity to produce a surplus and, as a result, engage in and profit from international commerce.
  4. In order to alleviate concerns about the endogeneity of contemporary political boundaries, we arbitrarily divided the world into geographic entities, which we called virtual countries.
  5. Naturally, contemporary nations have had an impact on religious affiliations through the establishment of state-sponsored religion.
  6. As part of our research, we gathered information on the traditional geographic locations of ethnic groups in the United States.
  7. Muslim tribes traditionally located in agriculturally impoverished regions with limited pockets of rich land and in nations with uneven land endowments were successful in spreading their religion, which is a testament to the power of Islam.

Conquests and peaceful embrace of the teachings of Islam were both used to spread Islam throughout the world.

As a result, we were able to distinguish between the roles of geography and trade, as well as worries about the process of conversion inside Muslim empires that arose as a result of coercion, Arab migration, and discriminatory taxation.

The independent contribution of closeness to pre-Islamic trade routes, as a method of getting access to the Muslim commercial network, was also a significant factor in its development.

We are not implying that Islamic economic concepts are exclusive to the Islamic religious tradition.

In our opinion, these ideas arose and survived in Islam as a result of a geographical setting with different agricultural endowments, which influenced the economic components of Islamic religious teaching.

Even if one accepts the notion that Christianity and Islam are doctrinally equivalent alternatives, tribal territories outside Muslim empires have historically had little option except to either convert to Islam or maintain their tribal religious traditions.

In this vein, we discover that indigenous, tribal faiths survived and thrived in areas with roughly equal land endowments, but Muslim devotion rose consistently in regions along trade routes with unequal land endowments.

Belief Systems Along the Silk Road

Karl Marx made a connection between the structure of production and the emergence of institutions in his theory of historical materialism. Similarly to any other social institution, religion, according to Marx, is reliant on the economic facts of a particular society, that is, it is the result of the productive forces at work in that society. However, Max Weber emphasized that religious membership had no influence on economic conduct in a way that was independent of it. The Islamic economic philosophy, according to my study with Alireza Naghavi and Giovanni Prarolo of the University of Bologna, was shaped by geography and trade opportunities in the preindustrial age, which in turn affected the economic performance of the Muslim world throughout this time period.

  1. To be more specific, we contend that the unequal distribution of land endowments resulted in asymmetrical advantages from trade across different parts of the world.
  2. The latter was achieved through imposing an equitable inheritance system, raising the costs of physical wealth accumulation, and boosting the attractiveness of investments in public goods, such as those made through religious endowments.
  3. During a period of development when land qualities define productive capacity, regional agricultural suitability plays a critical role in determining the capability of an area to generate surpluses, engage in trade, and reap the benefits of doing so.
  4. In order to address concerns about the endogeneity of contemporary political boundaries, we arbitrarily divided the world into geographical entities, which we called virtual countries.
  5. Modern nations have, of course, had an impact on religious affiliations through the establishment of state-sponsored religious organizations.
  6. The information on the traditional locations of ethnic groups was gathered for our study as a part of the research process.
  7. Muslim populations traditionally located in agriculturally impoverished regions with limited pockets of fertile land and in nations with uneven land endowments were successful in spreading their religion, which is a testament to the might of Allah.
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Conquests and peaceful adoption of the teachings of Islam were both used to promote Islam.

Our ability to isolate the influence of geography and trade helped us to reduce worries about the process of conversion inside Muslim empires that arose as a result of coercion, Arab migration, and differing taxation regimes.

As an additional factor, the autonomous role played by closeness to pre-Islamic trade routes as a method of getting access to the Muslim commercial network was also significant.

Neither do we assert that Islamic economic concepts are exclusive to the Islamic faith.

It is our contention that these ideas arose and remained in Islam as a result of a geographical environment typified by very uneven agricultural endowments, which affected the economic components of Islamic religious philosophy.

Even if one accepts the notion that Christianity and Islam are doctrinally equivalent alternatives, tribal populations outside Muslim empires have historically had little option except to either convert to Islam or maintain their tribal religious practices.

We find that local, tribal religions survived in regions with roughly equal land endowments, but Muslim devotion rose systematically in territories near to trade routes with unequal land endowments, which is consistent with our hypothesis.

Islamic world – Indian Ocean Islam

A comparable linkage was growing at the same time across another “sea,” the Indian Ocean, which united Muslims from South and Southeast Asia to Muslims from East Africa and southern Arabia in the same manner as the Sahara linked Muslims from North Africa and Sudan. There are some striking parallels between the two periods, including the cycle of advance and retreat, the transfer of foreign influences through trade routes, and the establishment of substantial local scholarship. There were also differences: Indian Ocean Muslims had to deal with the Portuguese threat as well as Hindus and Buddhists, rather than pagans, which meant that Islam had to contend with sophisticated and refined religious traditions that had written literature and significant political power, whereas pagans had to contend with simple and primitive religious traditions.

When Sultan Iskandar Muda (reigned 1607–37), Aceh reached the pinnacle of its affluence and significance in the Indian Ocean commerce, he promoted Islamic studies and expanded Muslim adherents throughout the country.

Because they were able to rely on a variety of sources, many of which were filtered via India, it is possible that Sumatran Muslims were exposed to a broader reservoir of Muslim learning than Muslims in many regions of the heartland.

Similarly to the process of naturalization and indigenization of Islam that was taking place in Africa, Abd al-Raf of Singkel, after studying in Arabia from approximately 1640 to 1661, returned home, where he made the first “translation” of the Qur’an into Malay, whose vocabulary and script had been greatly enriched by Arabic script and vocabulary during this period of time.

An Islamicate scholar born around 1650 in Nanking (Nanjing), Liu Xhi was responsible for some of the most important works of Islamicate literature in Chinese, including works of philosophy and law.

Meanwhile, a significant Islamic presence was establishing in Java, both inland and along the beaches; by the early 17th century, the first inland Muslim state in Southeast Asia, Mataram, had been created.

Mataram, in contrast to the more heavily Islamized republics of Sumatra, suffered, as did its equivalents in West Africa, from its failure to suppress indigenous beliefs to the satisfaction of the more orthodox ulama, as did its counterparts in West Africa.

It is this predicament that brings to light a significant issue of Islamicatehistory during the time of consolidation and expansion—namely, the regularly shown absorptive power of Muslim civilizations, a capacity that was soon to be challenged in hitherto unheard of ways.

The Story of Africa

West AfricaTRADEIslam first came to West Africa as a slow andpeaceful process, spread by Muslim traders and scholars. The early journeysacross the Sahara were done in stages. Goods passed through chains of Muslimtraders, purchased, finally, by local non-Muslims at the southern most end ofthe route. Inthe 5th century transporting heavy loads long distance was made much easierby the introduction of the camel to the trade routes. There were manytrading partners in Sub-Saharan Africa. Gold was the main commodity soughtby the North.

One of these towns, inhabited by Muslims,is large and possesses twelve mosques, in one of which they assemble forthe Friday prayer.There are salaried imams and muezzins, as well as jurists and scholars.” Al Bakri, from the Book of Routes and Realms, Corpusof Early Arabic sources for West African History, Levtzion and Hopkins.Another trade route forged by Muslim traderswent from Zawila (in what today is Southern Libya) down to Bornu and Kanem.Al Bakri regarded Zawila as a very important commercial crossroads, andfrom its description it is clearly a lively and prosperous centre of Islamicfaith:”It is a town without walls and situated in themidst of the desert.

  1. It is the first point of the land of the Sudan.
  2. Caravans meet there from all directionsand from there the ways of those setting out radiate.
  3. Kanem converted to Islam in the9th century.
  4. One of his successors, Mansa Musa, madea celebrated hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca.
  5. At each halt he would regale us with rare foodsand confectionery.

They comprised Gobir (most northern), Katsina,Kano, Zazzau (the most southern), Zamfara and Kebbi.Themajority of the people did not convert until the 18th century, when a seriesof jihads were launched by the Fulbe, tired of the corrupt ways of the rulingelite.First the Muslim states of Futa Jallon (modern Guinea) and Futa Toro (southernSenegal) were established.

Thiswas accomplished by the Sokoto jihad under the leadership of Usman dan Fodio- scholar, military strategist and religious leader.

Dan Fodio’s sonsMohammed Bello and Abdullahi took over the practical running of this great Muslimterritory.Listento the court musicians of the current Emir of Zazzau in Zaria, Northern NigeriaFIGHTING THE FRENCHThe momentum of reform was continued by UmarTal, a Tukulor scholar who conquered three Bambara kingdoms in the 1850’s-1860’s.The territory was taken by the French in the 1890’s.

He used the latest quick loadingguns, which his blacksmiths knew how to mend.

They recognised its power to impose uniformity and spreada degree of literacy.

Colonial officials who had served in Egypt, felt quite athome in the Muslim area of West Africa.In northern Nigeria, the British undertook not to interfere with the Muslimorder and exercised colonial authority through the Emirs.

From 1922 onwards, Egypt enjoyedindependence and stood as an inspiration to many people in Africa still undercolonial rule.

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