Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries. Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time.
- 1 How was Islam’s first religion spread?
- 2 How did Islam spread so quickly?
- 3 How did the early leaders of Islam spread the religion quizlet?
- 4 When did Islam start to spread?
- 5 How did the spread of Islam help spread the Arabic language?
- 6 What are 3 reasons why Islam spread so quickly?
- 7 How did Islam spread so quickly throughout the Middle East?
- 8 How did Islam spread through trade?
- 9 Where did Islam spread to quizlet?
- 10 How did Islam spread quickly throughout parts of Asia Africa and Europe?
- 11 How did Islam spread to Europe?
- 12 Who started Islam?
- 13 Why did Islam spread so quickly quizlet?
- 14 How did Islam spread in Central Asia?
- 15 Spread of Islam
- 16 BBC – Religions – Islam: Early rise of Islam (632-700)
- 17 After Muhammad’s death
- 18 Islam
- 19 Islam Facts
- 20 Muhammad
- 21 Hijra
- 22 Abu Bakr
- 23 Caliphate System
- 24 Sunnis and Shiites
- 25 Other Types of Islam
- 26 Quran
- 27 Islamic Calendar
- 28 Islam Symbols
- 29 Five Pillars of Islam
- 30 Sharia Law
- 31 Muslim Prayer
- 32 Muslim Holidays
- 33 Islam Today
- 34 Sources
- 35 Teachers Guide – Muslims
- 36 Muhammad and the Faith of Islam [ushistory.org]
- 37 The Spread of Islam and its Relationship to Medieval Europe
- 38 Elements of Islamic Belief.
- 39 Dynasties and Religious Divisions.
- 40 Law and Philosophy.
- 41 Conflicts with Christianity.
- 42 sources
How was Islam’s first religion spread?
Islam came to the Southeast Asia, first by the way of Muslim traders along the main trade-route between Asia and the Far East, then was further spread by Sufi orders and finally consolidated by the expansion of the territories of converted rulers and their communities.
How did Islam spread so quickly?
The religion of Islam spread rapidly in the 7th century. Islam spread quickly because of the military. During this time, on numerous accounts there were military raids. Trade and conflict were also apparent between different empires, all of which resulted in the spreading of Islam.
How did the early leaders of Islam spread the religion quizlet?
– Spread primarily through trading merchants, traveling scholars, military conquest. In contrast to Christianity, Islam’s religious leaders emphasized what they had in common with those around them: many Islamic scholars, theologians, and mystics were married men, merchants, or couriers just like the public.
When did Islam start to spread?
Although its roots go back further, scholars typically date the creation of Islam to the 7th century, making it the youngest of the major world religions. Islam started in Mecca, in modern-day Saudi Arabia, during the time of the prophet Muhammad’s life. Today, the faith is spreading rapidly throughout the world.
How did the spread of Islam help spread the Arabic language?
The primary way in which Islam helped to spread Arabic culture was to make Arabic the everyday language of the people in the lands to which it spread.
What are 3 reasons why Islam spread so quickly?
There are many reasons why Islam spread so fast, however the main three reasons was trade, winning battles, and treaties. Trade Routes was an important part of how Islam grew so fast.
How did Islam spread so quickly throughout the Middle East?
The Muslim community spread through the Middle East through conquest, and the resulting growth of the Muslim state provided the ground in which the recently revealed faith could take root and flourish. The military conquest was inspired by religion, but it was also motivated by greed and politics.
How did Islam spread through trade?
Spread of Islam The expanse of Islamic trade had a direct result on the spread of the Islam religion. Traders brought their religion to West Africa where Islam quickly spread throughout the region. Areas in the far east such as Malaysia and Indonesia also became Muslim through traders and Islamic Sufis.
Where did Islam spread to quizlet?
About how far did Muslim rule spread in the 120 years after Muhammad’s death? Persia,Spain,Syria,Egypt,part of Asia,and a part of Africa. They spread about 40,000 miles.
How did Islam spread quickly throughout parts of Asia Africa and Europe?
First, Arab traders came from Asia into North Africa. They moved across the Sahara into West Africa. Later on, other merchant traders came by boat to the east coast. Islam spread as ivory, salt, slaves, gold, and many other items were traded and sold.
How did Islam spread to Europe?
Islam spread in Eastern Europe via the conversion of the Volga Bulgars, Cuman-Kipchaks, and later the Golden Horde and its successor khanates, with its various Muslim populations called “Tatars” by the Russians. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, large numbers of Muslims immigrated to Western Europe.
Who started Islam?
The rise of Islam is intrinsically linked with the Prophet Muhammad, believed by Muslims to be the last in a long line of prophets that includes Moses and Jesus.
Why did Islam spread so quickly quizlet?
Islam spread quickly because its leaders conquered surrounding territories. As Muhammad and the Muslim leaders that came after him conquered lands in the Middle East and beyond they spread the teachings of Islam. Islam spread quickly because its leaders treated newly conquered people well.
How did Islam spread in Central Asia?
Arrival of Islam and Medieval period The Battle of Talas in 751 between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang dynasty for control of Central Asia was the turning point, initiating mass conversion into Islam in the region. Most of the Turkic khanates converted to Islam in the 10th century.
Spread of Islam
- Describe how Islam expanded throughout the world and how caliphs maintained control over conquered countries.
- Because of the rise of the Arab Empire in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphates were established, who ruled over enormous areas of territory while seeking converts to Islam. A large number of complex centers of culture and science were established by the inhabitants of the Islamic world, who developed extensive commercial networks, traveled, became scientists and hunters, became physicians and philosophers, and developed advanced mathematical and medical theories. Historians distinguish between two distinct groups of converts who lived at the same period. The first group consists of animists and polytheists from tribal communities in the Arabian Peninsula and the Fertile Crescent, while the second group consists of monotheistic inhabitants from agrarian and urbanized societies in the Middle East. The Arab conquerors generally adhered to the traditional middle-Eastern pattern of religious pluralism in their dealings with the conquered populations, allowing other faiths to practice freely in Arab territory, despite the fact that widespread conversions to Islam occurred as a result of the breakdown of historically religiously organized societies.
A position of Islamic leadership, most typically found in the context of a mosque’s worship leader and the Sunni Muslim community as a whole.
Zoroaster condensed the pantheon of early Iranian gods into two opposing forces, which led to the emergence of an ancient Iranian religion and religious philosophy in the eastern ancient Persian Empire when the religious philosopher Zoroaster wrote his religious philosophy. Because of the development of the Arab Empire in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphates were established over a broad geographic region. A major factor in the rise of Islam was the missionary operations of missionaries, notably those of Imams, who were able to readily intermingle with the local population in order to spread Islamic teachings.
Islam spread outwards from Mecca towards both the Atlantic and Pacific seas.
The establishment of Muslim dynasties was swift, and subsequent empires such as those of the Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids, Seljukids, and Ajurans, Adal and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in India, Safavids in Persia, and Ottomans in Anatolia were among the largest and most powerful empires in history.
- In the wake of Islamic expansion in South and East Asia, Muslim cultures in the Indian subcontinent, Malaysia, Indonesia, and China developed into cosmopolitan and eclectic melting pots.
- In actuality, little has changed for the people of this new kingdom, who were originally subjects of the drastically diminished Byzantine and annihilated Sassanid empires, save in name.
- As a result, it was only in the following centuries that there was a true Islamization.
- The first group consists of animists and polytheists from tribal communities in the Arabian Peninsula and the Fertile Crescent, while the second group consists of monotheistic inhabitants from agrarian and urbanized societies in the Middle East.
- In contrast, “Islam was replaced for a Byzantine or Sassanian political identity as well as for a Christian, Jewish, or Zoroastrian religious allegiance” in sedentary and frequently already monotheistic communities, according to the authors.
- When the religious and political leadership came to a new understanding, it resulted in the weakening or complete collapse of the social and religious institutions of rival religious communities such as Christians and Jews.
- Expansion halted under the reign of the Abbasid Caliphate, and the major disciplines of Islamic philosophy, theology, law, and mysticism gained in popularity, as did the gradual conversion of the inhabitants inside the empire.
- There were three routes across Africa: over the Sahara via trading centres such as Timbuktu, up the Nile Valley through Sudan and Uganda, and down East Africa via colonies such as Mombasa and Zanzibar.
Following a general pattern of nomadic conquests of settled regions, the Arab-Muslim conquests of Europe followed a similar pattern in which conquering peoples became the new military elite and reached a compromise with the old elites by allowing them to retain their local political, religious, and financial authority.
- With its foundation in 670 CE by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba Ibn Nafi, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the oldest mosque in western Islamic countries and serves as an architectural icon of the expansion of Islam in North Africa.
- The Arab conquerors did not make the same error as the Byzantine and Sasanian empires, who had attempted and failed to impose an official religion on subject populations, resulting in hostility that made the Muslim conquests more palatable to the conquered peoples.
- Religious tolerance typified the early caliphate after military operations, which included the looting of several monasteries and the confiscation of Zoroastrian fire temples in Syria and Iraq, and people of all nationalities and religions were able to mingle in public life.
- In Iraq and Egypt, Muslim rulers worked in partnership with Christian religious leaders to achieve their goals.
- Some non-Muslim communities, on the other hand, were subjected to persecution.
- Zoroastrians were forced to pay an additional tax known as Jizya, and if they failed to do so, they were slaughtered, enslaved, or imprisoned as a result.
Jizya payers were exposed to insults and humiliation by the tax collectors, who demanded they pay the levy. In exchange for converting to Islam, Zoroastrians who had been kidnapped as slaves in battles were granted their freedom.
BBC – Religions – Islam: Early rise of Islam (632-700)
The Muslim community grew throughout the Middle East as a consequence of conquest, and the expansion of the Muslim state that resulted offered a fertile environment for the newly revealed faith to take root and flourish. The religious inspiration for the military conquest was strong, but it was also fueled by wealth and politics. Men fought for the sake of their faith, the promise of loot, and the fact that their friends and other tribesmen were also engaged in combat. Hugh Kennedy’s 2001 book, The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State, is a good example of this.
The history problem
It is possible to find many narratives from this time period regarding the early Muslim conquests, although most of the material is inaccurate and written in a style that glorifies the conquerors and their god. Although they provide some insight into the big events of the seventh century, they are just incomplete explanations. However, this is not to suggest that the Muslims were not courageous or that their belief that they were carrying out Allah’s will was not significant: it was unquestionably.
Despite the massive amount of words written, we have yet to discover the complete explanation for Muslim success.
Conversion by conquest?
Although it is impossible to determine if Islam was the driving force behind Muslim military development, one new book shows that Islam undoubtedly aided the rise of Muslim power.only one viable explanation exists for Arab success—and that is the spirit of Islam. The generous terms that the conquering troops frequently presented enabled their faith to be accepted by the subjugated inhabitants. Moreover, even though it was a young and upstart religion, its administration by simple and honest individuals was better to the corruption and persecution that were the norm in more sophisticated civilizations at the time.
- Nafziger and Mark W.
- And Islam reaped enormous benefits from the improbable military victories of the troops of Arabian Arabia.
- Simply said, Islam may have accelerated the conquests, but it also shown far more long-term viability.
- Islam at War: A History, edited by George F.
- Walton, published in 2003.
- Following the Ridda wars and the Arabs’ quick conquest of the majority of the Near East, the new religion was more clearly characterized as a monotheistic religion for the Arab people than it had been previously.
As is generally known, the Arabs made no attempt to force their religion on their new subjects, and in fact actively discouraged non-Arabs from converting to Islam at first. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800, by Jonathan P. Berkey, published in 2003.
The justification of conquest
Whether Islam was the driving force behind early Muslim imperialism or not, it could be used to offer justification for it in the same way that it had previously been used to defend Muhammad’s own actions against his adversaries. The Qur’an contains a number of passages that support military action against non-Muslims, such as:But when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem; but when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them (of war).
Qur’an 9:5 (from the Qur’an) You must fight all of those who deny the existence of Allah and the Last Day, as well as those who adhere to that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and who refuse to recognize the religion of Truth (even though they are) of the People of the Book.
Considering that the armies of those days were not like contemporary armies – rather, they were more like an association of tribal mercenary groups that received no compensation and received their sole material benefit from the spoils of war – this is hardly unexpected.
After Muhammad’s death
When Islam was elevated to a political stature and given the function of both a political and a religious force by Muhammad, the military conquests served to solidify this position. For a caliph like Umar, it appears that he considered himself first and foremost as the leader of the Arabs, and that their monotheistic religion served as the religious component of their new political identities. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800, by Jonathan P. Berkey, published in 2003.
The conquest of Arabia
Following Muhammad’s death in 632 CE, the new Muslim commonwealth began to experience difficulties. Some tribes came to the conclusion that, because their commitment to Islam had been largely to Muhammad himself, Muhammad’s death gave them the opportunity to renounce their allegiance to Mecca and to Islam. Furthermore, the Prophet had not given clear instructions as to who would be in charge of the community following his death, which made matters much more complicated. Fortunately, the community picked Abu Bakr, the Prophet’s close associate and father-in-law, to be his successor very soon after his death.
Abu Bakr took rapid military action against the villages that were attempting to secede from the government.
Expansion in the Middle East
The caliph Abu Bakr died in 634, and his successor was Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph, who governed until his death in 644. After becoming the ruler of a vast, cohesive kingdom with a well-organized army, Umar utilized this position as a vehicle to advance Islam’s expansion throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Umar’s first operations were against the Byzantine Empire, which he defeated. Following the crucial Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the Muslim troops seized the erstwhile Byzantine realms of Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, bringing them under their control.
It was made considerably simpler by the weakness of the Sassanid Empire, which had been devastated by internal disputes and a protracted battle with the Byzantine Empire when this conquest took place.
It was only a few years later that Muslim armies had already captured portions of Egypt to the south, as well as Anatolia and Armenia to the north.
Is proselytism still appropriate?
Islam, after Christianity, is the second most popular religion in the world, with around 1.8 billion Muslims practicing their faith globally. Despite the fact that Islam’s origins trace back far older, experts generally agree that it was founded in the 7th century, making it the most recent of the major global faiths. Islamic teachings were first taught at Mecca, which is now part of modern-day Saudi Arabia, during the prophet Muhammad’s lifetime. Today, the faith is expanding at an alarming rate around the world.
- The term “Islam” literally translates as “submission to God’s will.”
- Muslims are those who adhere to Islam
- Muslims are monotheistic and worship a single, all-knowing God, known in Arabic as Allah
- Muslims are those who adhere to other religions. Islamic adherents strive to live lives of total surrender to Allah and His will. Despite their belief that nothing can happen without Allah’s approval, they acknowledge that humans possess free choice. Islamic teachings hold that Allah’s word was given to the prophet Muhammad by the angel Gabriel, and Muslims believe that other prophets were sent to teach Allah’s law throughout history. They hold several of the same prophets in high regard as Jews and Christians, including Abraham, Moses, Noah, and Jesus, among others. According to Muslims, Muhammad was the final prophet. Moschees are sites of religious prayer for Muslims. In addition to the Kaaba shrine in Mecca and the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem, some notable Islamic holy sites are the Prophet Muhammad’s mosque in Medina and the Kaaba in Mecca. The Quran (also known as the Koran) is the most important religious document in Islam. Another significant literature is the Hadith (also known as the Sunnah). Muslims also hold some passages from the Judeo-Christian Bible in high regard
- Followers of Islam worship Allah via prayer and recitation of the Quran. It is their belief that there will be a day of judgment and that there is life after death. “Jihad,” which literally translates as “battle,” is a major concept in Islam. Despite the fact that the phrase has been used negatively in popular society, Muslims feel it refers to internal and outward attempts to protect their religious beliefs. Although uncommon, military jihad may be used in the event of a “just war” being declared.
Muhammad, also known as Mohammed or Mohammad, was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, around 570 A.D., and is considered to be the founder of Islam. According to Muslims, he was the final prophet sent by God to proclaim their beliefs to the rest of the world. Islam’s sacred writings and traditions claim that an angel called Gabriel came to visit Muhammad during his meditation session in a cave in the year 610 AAD. Muhammad was instructed by the angel to repeat the words of Allah. Muslims believe that Muhammad continued to receive revelations from Allah for the rest of his life, despite his physical limitations.
He preached that there was only one God, Allah, and that Muslims should devote their lives to worshipping this one and only God.
Muhammad and his supporters embarked on a journey from Mecca to Medina in 622. The Hijra (sometimes written Hegira or Hijrah) is a voyage that marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar and is commemorated on the Islamic calendar. A little more than seven years later, Muhammad and his throngs of followers returned to Mecca and completely subjugated the surrounding area. He preached until his death in 632, at the age of 84.
Following Muhammad’s death, Islam began to spread at an alarming rate. Following Muhammad’s death, a succession of leaders known as caliphs ascended to the throne. A caliphate was a system of leadership in which a Muslim monarch was in charge and was administered by a Muslim king. The first caliph was Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law and close friend, who reigned as the Prophet Muhammad’s successor. Caliph Umar, another father-in-law of Muhammad, ascended to the throne in 634 when Abu Bakr died around two years after he was chosen.
The job of caliph was taken up by Uthman, Muhammad’s son-in-law, when Umar was slain six years after being proclaimed caliph. Uthman was assassinated as well, and Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, was chosen to be the caliph in his place. During the tenure of the first four caliphs, Arab Muslims conquered vast swaths of the Middle East, including Syria, Palestine, Iran, and Iraq, among other places. Islam also expanded throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia, as well as throughout the Middle East.
The caliphate system endured for decades and eventually gave rise to the Ottoman Empire, which ruled over significant areas of the Middle East from around 1517 until World War I brought the Ottoman Empire to an end on November 11, 1917.
Sunnis and Shiites
When Muhammad died, there was a heated controversy over who should take over as leader of the Muslim community. Due to this division among the Islamic community, two major sects emerged: the Sunnis and the Shiites. Sunnis constitute roughly 90 percent of all Muslims in the globe. They acknowledge that Muhammad’s first four caliphs were the legitimate successors to him. Muslims who follow the Shiite school of thought believe that only the caliph Ali and his descendants are legitimate heirs to Muhammad.
Shiite Muslims now have a significant presence in Iran, Iraq, and Syria, among other places.
Other Types of Islam
Other, minor Muslim denominations exist within the Sunni and Shiite communities, in addition to the larger ones. Some of these are as follows:
- Wahhabi: This Sunni sect, which was created in Saudi Arabia in the 18th century by members of the Tameem clan, is a branch of Islam. Followers adhere to Muhammad ibn Abd al-exceedingly Wahhab’s stringent interpretation of Islam, which he taught them. Alawite: This Shiite branch of Islam is widely practiced in Syria. Followers of the caliph Ali retain similar views about him, but they also mark various Christian and Zoroastrian feasts, as well. Nation of Islam (also known as the Muslim Brotherhood): This Sunni sect with a majority of African-American members was created in Detroit, Michigan, in the 1930s. A disagreement over the method of selecting a new leader caused this group to split from the Shiites. They are well-known for their hardline fundamentalism, and they are now referred to as Ibadis.
The Holy Quran. Nazaruddin Abdul Hamed/EyeEm/Getty Images Nazaruddin Abdul Hamed For Muslims, the Quran (also known as the Koran or the Qur’an) is regarded to be the most significant sacred book in existence. In addition to certain essential material that can be found in the Hebrew Bible, it also contains revelations that were delivered to Muhammad. The text is regarded to be God’s sacred word, and it supersedes all prior works in this regard. The majority of Muslims believe that Muhammad’s scribes recorded his utterances, which were later compiled into the Quran.
It is divided into 114 chapters, which are referred to as surahs.
Why the Quran Was a Bestseller Among Christians in Eighteenth Century America.
The Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijra calendar, is a lunar calendar used in Islamic religious devotion that is based on the lunar month of Ramadan. The calendar began in the year 622 A.D., commemorating Muhammad’s trip from Mecca to Medina, and has been in use ever since. According to the Islamic calendar, religious festivals and festivities are held on the appropriate days, including the month-long period of fasting and prayer known as Ramadan, which takes place during the ninth month of the calendar.
Just as there is no internationally acceptable image or symbol of Islam, there is no single image or symbol of Islam that is universally approved by all Muslims worldwide. Despite the fact that the crescent moon and star picture is considered to have predated Islam and was first used as a sign of the Ottoman Empire, the crescent moon and star image has been embraced as a symbol of Islam in several mostly Muslim nations. In various other contexts, like as the International Red Cross and Red Crescenthumanitarian help movement, a red crescent signifies that Muslims are accepted and treated as such by their fellow citizens.
As a result, the color green is sometimes connected with Islam, as it was supposedly a favorite hue of Muhammad’s, and it is frequently depicted prominently on the flags of nations with a largely Muslim population.
Five Pillars of Islam
Muslims adhere to five fundamental pillars that are fundamental to their faith. These are some examples:
- Declaring one’s trust in God and confidence in Muhammad is known as a Shahada. Salat: a five-times-a-day prayer (at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening) that includes the following: Zakat is a religious obligation to contribute to people in need. Sawm: to refrain from eating or drinking during Ramadan
- It is obligatory for all Muslims to do the Hajj at least once throughout their lifetime (if they are physically able to do so).
The legal system of Islam is referred to as Sharia Law. This faith-based code of behavior advises Muslims on how they should live their lives in practically every aspect of their lives, including marriage and family life. Men and women are required to dress modestly under Sharia law. It also includes recommendations for Muslim marriages as well as other moral concepts for Muslims. Those who break the rule are subjected to draconian penalties under Sharia law, which is well-known. In certain countries, for example, the punishment for stealing is amputating the offender’s hand.
Many Muslims, on the other hand, are opposed to such harsh measures.
Building the first mosque in Medina is attributed to the prophet Muhammad, who did it in the courtyard of his residence in Medina. Some of the precepts he established in 622 A.D. continue to be followed by mosques today. A mosque’s big open area or outdoor courtyard is frequently used for Muslim prayer. When praying in a mosque, a mihrab is a decorative feature or niche that symbolizes the direction to Mecca and, consequently, the direction to face when praying. Separate prayers are offered for men and women, and Muslims are permitted to attend a mosque five times a day for each of the five prayer periods.
The two most important Muslim festivals are as follows: The festival of Eid al-Adha commemorates the Prophet Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son in the service of Allah. Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting, comes to a conclusion on Eid al-Fitr, the feast of the harvest. Muslims also observe other religious festivals, such as the Islamic New Year and the birth of Muhammad, among others.
Recently, Islam’s alleged relationship with terrorism and mass murder has provoked heated political controversy in a number of nations, particularly in the Middle East. Radical Islam” has become a well-known moniker to define the religion’s association with acts of violence, despite its use being contentious at the time. Surveys recently conducted have revealed that in nations with large Muslim populations, the vast majority of Muslims hold highly unfavorable attitudes about terrorist organizations such as ISIS.
Islam is currently the fastest-growing religion in the world.
Islam,BBC. Islam is the second most popular religion in the world. Religious Tolerance is increasing in number. Islam in a Nutshell, CNN. The Fundamentals of Islam, and PBS. What is Sharia Law, and how does it work in practice? BBC. ISIS is reviled in countries with large Muslim populations, and this is especially true in Europe.
Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan research organization. The Religion Library’s Islam Rituals and Worship: Symbolism section has further information. The Islamic Calendar is available at TimeandDate.com.
Teachers Guide – Muslims
|Discussion and Activities|
|Beliefs and Daily Lives of Muslims|
Following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40, the year 610 is commemorated as the beginning of Islamic history. Muslims all throughout the Arabian peninsula followed Muhammad and his companions in spreading the principles of Islam. Following the death of the prophet Muhammad, military expeditions were launched into what is now Egypt and other regions of North Africa, which were dubbed “futuhat,” which literally translates as “openings.” Islam expanded around the world through trade and business in various regions of the world.
- In the year 570 C.E.
- He is descended from a noble family and is well-known for his honesty and uprightness of moral character.
- According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad has a visit from the angel Gabriel while on seclusion in a cave in Mecca when he reaches the age of 40.
- Later, Muhammad is instructed to summon his people to the worship of the one God, but they respond with animosity and begin to punish him and his followers as a result of his actions.
- After facing persecution in Mecca, Muhammad and his followers flee to the adjacent town of Yathrib (which would eventually become known as Medina), where the locals welcomed Islam.
- Muhammad builds an Islamic kingdom in Medina, which is founded on the rules given in the Quran as well as the inspired direction he receives from the Almighty.
- Muhammad comes to Mecca with a significant number of his supporters in the year 630 CE.
The prophet orders the removal of all idols and images from the Kaaba, which is thereafter rededicated to the worship of God alone.
after a lengthy illness.
In 638 C.E., Muslims cross the border into the region north of Arabia known as “Sham,” which encompasses Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, and Iraq.
and rout the Byzantine army in the process.
Islam begins to expand over North Africa in the year 655 C.E.
This also marks the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty’s reign of terror.
The Islamic state eventually gains control over nearly the whole Iberian Peninsula.
by Charles Martel’s forces.
From 1000 C.E.
The European Crusaders capture Jerusalem from the Muslims in 1099 C.E.
Islam continues to spread throughout Asia as of the year 1120 C.E.
Turkey’s Anatolia region becomes the site of the formation of the first Ottoman state in 1299 C.E.
Around the year 1800 C.E., over 30% of Africans who were forced into slavery in the United States were Muslim.
The Ottoman Empire, the last of the Islamic empires, is defeated and destroyed at the end of World War I, marking the end of the war.
Traditional religious ways of life are under attack, and in some cases, have been completely obliterated.
Even while it is founded on some Islamic concepts, it also includes several innovations, like the designation or pronouncement of Elijah Muhammad as a prophet.
Some Palestinian and Lebanese refugees, including Muslims and Christians, have fled to the United States from their home countries.
Muslim students come from all over the world to study in the United States.
opened the door even wider for Muslim immigration.
Muhammad, the son of Elijah Muhammad, takes over as head of the Nation of Islam and successfully integrates the majority of his followers into mainstream Islam.
C.E. 1979 was a year of transition. Eventually, the Iranian Revolution leads to Iran becoming known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, which is the first attempt at an Islamic state in the contemporary age.
Muhammad and the Faith of Islam [ushistory.org]
University of Southern California’s Muslim Students Association provided the image. In this passage from the Qur’an, which was originally written in Arabic, “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” is translated. According to the Qur’an (48:29), A religious vision was revealed to a guy who was meditating alone in a cave near Mecca. This vision set the groundwork for the establishment of a new religion. Muhammad was born in the year 610, and he was a man of many names. Islamic thought evolved from Muhammad’s thoughts, and the belief system that resulted from these concepts is now the foundation for Islam, which is one of the most commonly practiced religions in the world.
- Both of Muhammad’s parents died when he was six years old, and he was raised by his grandpa and uncle after that.
- A Bedouin family welcomed him into their home throughout his boyhood, as per the customs of rich families.
- Muhammad’s encounters with these persons are highly likely to have had a significant impact on the formation of Islamic thought.
- Over the following 20 years, he rose from obscurity to become a wealthy and well-respected trader who traveled across the Arab world.
- By the time he was 40 years old, he began receiving religious visions that would forever alter the course of his life.
A Revelation of Faith
Muhammad received a revelation while meditating in a cave on the mountain of Hira. Eventually, Muhammad came to think that he had been chosen by God to serve as a prophet and teacher of a new religion, Islam, which literally translates as “submission.” The elements of Judaism and Christianity were merged into this new religion. Religions’ sacred texts, as well as their famous prophets and leaders – Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others — were held in high regard. Muhammad addressed Abraham as “Khalil,” which means “God’s companion,” and designated him as the ancient patriarch of Islam.
Muhammad thought that he was God’s ultimate prophet and that he himself was the final prophet.
- There is just one worldwide God, and his name is Allah. Muslims are obliged to pray five times a day with their backs to Mecca, according to Islamic tradition. All Muslims are required to pay an annual tax, which is mostly used to assist the poor and needy. Muslims are prohibited from eating, smoking, drinking, or engaging in sexual intercourse from sunrise to sunset during the whole month of Ramadan. All capable Muslims are required to do the Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) at least once in their lives.
The Kaaba, Islam’s holiest location, is located in Mecca and is believed to have been erected by Abraham and his son Ishmael for the worship of Yahweh. Islam grew at a breakneck pace, engulfing most of what was formerly the ancient Near East, North Africa, and Spain, and eventually enveloping the whole world. The impoverished and slaves, in particular, responded favorably to Muhammad’s message.
However, his message was met with strong opposition from many quarters. As a result of the pushback, he appeared to become even more determined. As a result of years of openly pushing his opinions, he grew to be despised to the point that some began plotting his death.
From Mecca to Medina and Back
Muhammad escaped to the town of Medina in 622 because he was afraid for his life. The Hegira, which is Arabic for “flight,” was the name given to this voyage from Mecca to Medina. This year marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. When Muhammad and his entourage arrived in Medina, the locals greeted them warmly. Muhammad established the first mosque, also known as the Islamic temple, at Mecca and began the process of separating Islam from the religions of Judaism and Christianity, which had first inspired him.
Allah’s revelations to Muhammad lasted throughout his life.
During his time in Mecca, Muhammad was involved in a number of fights with the locals.
Before his death two years later, he had forced the conversion of the majority of the Arabian Peninsula to his new faith and established a tiny kingdom on the peninsula’s southern tip.
Many Islamic sects have a belief in jihad, which is a common thread running through them. Despite the fact that the actual meaning of the Arabic word is difficult to convey in English, the word jihad is most appropriately translated as “fight.” For the vast majority of Muslims, jihad is a personal battle against evil. The sacred wars of this spiritual conflict are fought within the minds and hearts of Muslims. Sometimes the fight takes the shape of a physical battle against those who do not believe in God.
- A small but vocal minority of Muslims, on the other hand, places a high value on holy war jihads.
- It is this idea of jihad that serves as an inspiration for Islamic extremist terrorist activity.
- It should be emphasized that mainstream Islam is a peaceful religion that opposes the concept of unjustified violence.
- The unfortunate thing is that Muhammad had not named a successor.
Despite these difficulties, a huge Islamic empire was established over the course of the following 12 centuries, resulting in a worshiper base that was unsurpassed by any other religion.
The Spread of Islam and its Relationship to Medieval Europe
When Islam initially appeared in Arabia in the middle of the seventh century, there was no indication that the movement would spread over the whole Middle East, as well as northern Africa and Spain, within 150 years. In the early days of Islam, the revelations and activities of the Prophet Muhammad, who traveled throughout Arabia between 610 and 632 CE preaching religious and moral reform, were directly tied to the expansion of Islam. The roots of the movement, on the other hand, were riddled with conflict.
- Following their expulsion from Mecca, the first Muslims formed a community under Muhammad’s guidance in the more northern city of Yathrib on the Arabian peninsula, which is located in the Arabian peninsula’s northernmost region.
- Nonetheless, despite its extensive geographic success, Islam remained mostly an administrative presence rather than a philosophy that had gained universal acceptance among the bulk of the population until around the year 1000.
- In addition, it has been proposed that controlling critical geographical places through political, economic, and military means was more essential than converting whole populations.
- The “People of the Book” were commonly known to as such since all three religions shared parts in their holy books and traced their lineage back to the figure of Abraham, and hence were referred to as such.
Cultures and religious beliefs impacted by Islam’s early expansion were diverse, including not only the previously polytheistic people of Arabia, but also Coptic Christians in North Africa, Eastern Orthodox Christians in Palestine and Asia Minor, Roman Christians in Spain, Nestorian and Arian Christians in the Holy Land, polytheistic Berber tribes in North Africa, and Jews of various kinds throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East.
The population of the Dar-al-Islam (Islamic territory) is estimated to have converted to Islam by the year 1000, nearly eighty percent of whom adhered to the faith revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in the seventh century and passed down through succeeding generations through the holy Koran (Qur’an), according to some estimates.
Elements of Islamic Belief.
When compared to various Jewish and Christian customs, the requirements for involvement in the religion of Islam were not as onerous as they may have been. In accordance with Muslim religious beliefs, the orders for five daily prayers (salat) and a month-long period of fasting (sawm) during the month of Ramadan appeared to be reinforcing the concept that people were “forgetful” of Allah (God). The most significant religious act, however, was simply conviction, expressed in the recitation of the creed or confession of faith (shahadah), which states that “there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His prophet.” In addition, Muslims were supposed to provide alms (zakat), which was charity given both to the destitute and in support of religious organizations.
People were guaranteed of eternal paradise if they adhered to the Prophet Muhammad’s teachings and obeyed Allah’s commandments without questioning.
Islamic law (orshari’a) does not appear to have been split into separate religious and civil spheres, as is commonly assumed.
Theijmaor customs of historical Islamic communities were included into this legislation.
Dynasties and Religious Divisions.
In the course of the development of the major Muslim dynasties, an Islamic presence in Spain first occurred at a very early stage. Al-Andalus or Andalusian Spain (also known as Andalusia) benefited from the presence of the Umayyad Dynasty, which began in Damascus in the middle of the eighth century and lasted until the eleventh century. It was able to trade with the North African coast, Palestine, and Syria as a result of the presence of the Umayyads. This resulted in the creation of thriving commercial areas as well as an era of artistic and intellectual progress.
There were also substantial religious disputes within Islam, which began to arise after the year 1000 and spread across the Islamic world.
The Sunni, who constituted the majority of the population, preferred to be guided by teachers, professors, preachers, and government officials more than any other type of authority figure.
A fifth of medieval Muslims, the Shi’ites, had shifted toward harsher and even more literal interpretations of Islamic law and theology, as well as depending on religious leadership that was more charismatic than the majority of their contemporaries.
Sufism began as more of a monastic movement and spread throughout the Islamic world.
Law and Philosophy.
In Islam, there were no priests with sacramental powers since individuals were regarded to be directly answerable to Allah and hence did not require the services of spiritual mediators. Any devoted Muslim might take the lead in prayer, ensuring that all were treated equally in Allah’s estimation. Certain dynasties, on the other hand, believed in the concept of amahdi (that is, a divinely directed savior or messiah) who might bring justice and righteousness to the world, restoring the genuine and appropriate word of Allah, if only people would follow his direction.
- As early as the ninth century, Muslim schools sprouted up all over the world, each one dedicated to the study of the origins of Islamic law.
- During the Islamic period, four separate schools developed in the major towns of Damascus, Medina, Baghdad, and al-Andalus.
- In the early twentieth century, the Islamic world was divided along religious lines.
- There were, however, renowned Muslim philosophers, such as Al-Ghazali (b.
- In the Christian West, the great advancements made by Muslim intellectuals had a significant impact on philosophers of the time.
Conflicts with Christianity.
The Holy Land was relatively free for Christian pilgrims throughout the first three centuries of Muslim rule, when they were allowed to go to the sacred places with a high degree of freedom. Their overland path generally led them across southeastern Europe, passing through Hungarian territory, Greece, Anatolia (Turkey), and Syria, to reach their destination. Individuals embarking on a boat voyage arrived in Egypt or straight in Palestine. As a result of the growing threat posed by Muslim presence on the borders of the Byzantine (Eastern Christian) Empire and the loss of Byzantine control over the Holy Land, the Christians launched the Crusades, which were partly motivated by religious ideological differences (Pope Urban II described the First Crusade as the will of God), but were also partially motivated by a desire to eradicate Islam.
- The internal chaos among the many Muslim dynasties, several of which were on the verge of gaining control of the Holy Land, was most certainly a contributing reason to the early successes of Christian invasions of the Holy Land, according to historical evidence.
- These battles are treated as if they were any other conflicts involving an invading enemy (most particularly in this case the French or “Franks”).
- The emphasis was on the “greater jihad,” which is the inward conflict that one must face.
- In the Islamic tradition, efforts associated with the “lesser jihad,” such as missionary activity, charitable contributions, mosque construction, and even ideals like as physically defeating one’s adversaries, would not become relevant until the twelfth century.
Throughout its early history, Islam engaged in large-scale military conquest, but the term jihadas, which is especially associated with holy war, did not occur until the Second Crusade (1146–1148), in reaction to Christian military threats, when the name first appeared.
Carole Hillenbrand’s book, The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, is available online (New York: Routledge, 2000). According to Marshall Hodgson’s book, “The Venture of Islam” (Chicago:University of ChicagoPress, 1974). P. M. Holt, Ann K. Lambdon, and Bernard Lewis are the editors of this book. The Cambridge History of Islam is a comprehensive history of Islam written by scholars at Cambridge University (Cambridge, England:Cambridge UniversityPress, 1977). The Koran has been translated. A. J. Arberry’s translation (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996).
Additionally, see Philosophy: Philosophy among Muslims and Jews; Visual Arts: Spanish Culture and the Muslims; and Religion: Islam and the Jews.
However, while some earlier histories mention Islam being widely adopted beyond the Arab peninsula beginning in the mid-seventh century, in reality this did not occur for at least a century beyond that time period. According to Richard C. Foltz, the reason for this misunderstanding is due to a misinterpretation of the wordislam (which means “submission”), which has been used in Muslim histories to refer to the submission of one clan to the authority of another, rather than the spread of the Islamic faith in its proper sense.
To the contrary, Foltz claims that the act of submitting resulted in the formation of de facto non-aggression pacts between Muslim Arabs and their neighbors.
When the Muslim clans expanded into these territories, they had no difficulty ousting the Sassanian and Byzantine rulers and their soldiers; some communities, according to Foltz, even opened their doors to the Muslim Arabs and greeted them as liberators after the invasion.
Several other kingdoms ruled by Arab and non-Arab Muslim dynasties would come to dominate the entire world by 750, extending from Spain in the west all the way through northern Africa, across all of Persia and the entire Middle East, as far east as the eastern edge of the Tang Empire in the Tarim Basin, and crossing the Indus river into the Indian subcontinent.
Instead, they were bound together by governments that were based on the interpretation of Islamic law and had a common history.
For the most part, Muslims referred to their faith as “the Arab religion” (al-din al-‘arab), and they made little effort to convert non-Muslims to Islam.
3 Consistently distinguishing between reigning Muslims and conquered non-Muslims provided for smoother government and ensured Muslims a favored position under the rules of each of the numerous Islamic nations in which they lived.
Fourteenth, non-Muslims were strongly encouraged to convert to Islam, particularly those who had previously held elite economic, social, and political positions.
Apart from that, the Arabs saw in those they conquered a natural aptitude for administrative work.
As government officials, it would appear that they should have converted to Islam, however they did not do so until after they began to advocate for the same rights as Arab Muslims.
As a result of this development, Arab Muslims began to see non-Arab converts asmawla (or “clients”), so elevating themawla to the status of honorary clan member.
6 By the middle of the ninth century, Muslims had gained control of the western part of the Silk Route, and trade had emerged as the second most important element in Islam’s growth.
7Muslim traders journeyed as far as the Tang capital of Chang-an, as well as other towns in the Chinese empire, and even further to the east, to trade with the Chinese.
At 757, the Tang emperor handed Muslim troops lands in the western-most periphery of the empire as a prize for their assistance in putting down the uprising of An Lushan, and fifty years later Muslims were permitted to settle in Yunnan province.
8 Islam dictates that children of Muslim fathers must be reared as Muslims, which resulted in the establishment of a Muslim Chinese minority in certain locations during the Tang dynasty.
– John D.
Martin’s Press, 1999), p.
(2) Foltz, Richard C., Religions of the Silk Road: Overland Trade and Cultural Exchange from Antiquity to the Fifteenth Century (New York: St.
(4) Lewis, Bernad, et al (ed.).
II, Religion and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), page 224.
II, Religion and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), page 224.
(6 ) Ira M. Lapidus’s A History of Islamic Societies (Cambridge University Press, 1988) has the following passage: “A History of Islamic Societies” (p. 98). Foltz (1996), p. 96.