How Did The Teachings Of Islam Influence The Arts?

How did the teachings of Islam influence the arts? Because of religious teachings, Muslim artists did not portray God or human figures in religious art. They instead used abstract and geometric patterns, such as arabesque, and calligraphy.


How did the spread of Islam influence literature the arts and architecture?

How did the spread of Islam influence literature, the arts, and architecture? Islam introduced new themes to lititure. Many artist turned to calligraphy to express themselves. How did Muslim beliefs help to bring about mathematical and scientific advancements?

What are the major influences that formed and enriched Islamic art quizlet?

Islamic art was influenced by Greek, Roman, early Christian, and Byzantine art styles, as well as the Sassanian art of pre-Islamic Persia.

What are Islamic portable arts describe their importance and attributes?

What are Islamic portable arts? Describe their importance and attributes. Islamic portable arts were examples of Islamic art that could be moved easily, either because of size or type. They were highly sought items were considered a luxury and brought status to their patrons both from Islam and Europe.

What are the unifying themes of Islamic art?

Recurring Themes in the Art of the Islamic World

  • Religion. Perhaps the most significant shared feature of these regions is the presence of Islam.
  • Ornament.
  • Interconnections.
  • Diversity of Patronage.
  • Technical Innovation.

How did Muslims influence literature?

Medieval Muslims fostered the art known as adab, which came to imply the sum of intellectual knowledge that makes a man courteous and urbane. In addition to works in Arabic, Muslims also fostered a thousand-year tradition of classical Persian poetry, ranging from short quatrains to long epics.

How did Islam influence art in the Philippines?

The Development of Islamic Art in the Philippines In the 13th century, traders and missionaries have introduced the religion of Islam in the Philippines. Islamic art meshed with ethnic culture and produced a Filipino Muslim art that reflects the ethnic background and Islamic identity of the people.

Which features are most commonly used in Islamic art and architecture?

10 Distinctive elements of Islamic Architecture

  • Domes | Islamic Architecture. Domes usually appear as a part of roofs and ceilings and, are hemispherical structures.
  • Arches.
  • Muqarnas | Arabic Architecture.
  • Minarets.
  • Mihrab | Islamic Architecture.
  • Arabesque Art.
  • Hypostyle Hall.
  • Courtyards | Arabic Architecture.

What was the most highly regarded art in Islamic lands?

Calligraphy is the most highly regarded and most fundamental element of Islamic art. It is significant that the Qur’an, the book of God’s revelations to the Prophet Muhammad, was transmitted in Arabic, and that inherent within the Arabic script is the potential for developing a variety of ornamental forms.

Which best describes a major characteristic of Islam?

Which best describes a characteristic of Islam? Islam, like other major religions, is composed of sects which sometimes disagrees on beliefs and practices. Like like religious sculptures. Arabic survived in the Abbasid Empire.

What are some characteristics of Islamic art?

Terms in this set (6)

  • Tessellation. A pattern of shapes the fit together like a puzzle; only three polygons tessellate; symbolizes infinite power of Allah.
  • Complex Star Polygons.
  • Linear Repeat Patterns.
  • Reciprocal Linear Repeat Patterns.
  • Arabesques.
  • Calligraphy.

What is the primary form of art in Islamic cultures?

Calligraphy is a very important art form in the Islamic world. The Qur’an, written in elegant scripts, represents Allah’s—or God’s—divine word, which Muhammad received directly from Allah during his visions. Quranic verses, executed in calligraphy, are found on many different forms of art and architecture.

Why is calligraphy important to Islamic Arts quizlet?

Why is Calligraphy important in Islamic art? There was a huge focus on the written word and making it beautiful. Since they were not allowed to portray people or animals according to their commandments, Muslims made writing into art with intricate calligraphy.

What does Islamic art represent?

The art of the Islamic world reflects its cultural values, and reveals the way Muslims view the spiritual realm and the universe. For the Muslim, reality begins with and centers on Allah. Allah is at the heart of worship and aspirations for Muslims, and is the focus of their lives.

When did Islamic art begin?

Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced since the 7th century CE by people who lived within territories inhabited.

What is the most salient identifying and unifying characteristic feature of Islamic art?

Just as the religion of Islam embodies a way of life and serves as a cohesive force among ethnically and culturally diverse peoples, the art produced by and for Muslim societies has basic identifying and unifying characteristics. Perhaps the most salient of these is the predilection for all-over surface decoration.

How Did The Teachings Of Islam Influence The Arts

What role did the Islamic world have in the development of Western art? In addition to pottery, metalwork, and photography, to mention a few examples, it has had an impact on the production of works of art in other mediums such as theatre, architecture, and music as well.

How was Islamic art influenced by other cultures?

Early Christian, Byzantine, and Greek art forms were all affected by the Sassanian art of pre-Islamic Persia, as was the art of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Various nomadic migrations introduced Central Asian styles into the region, while Chinese influences had a formative effect on Islamic painting, ceramics, and textiles, among other mediums.

Why is Islamic art important?

Muslim artists’ works of art reflect their religious and cultural beliefs, as well as the way they see the spiritual realm and the cosmos in general. For a Muslim, reality begins and ends with Allah, and it revolves around Him. Muslims place Allah at the center of their devotion and ambitions, and he is the central focus of their existence.

How has Islam influenced society?

In the same way, Islam promoted peace, togetherness, equality, and an increase in literacy levels. Islam has had a direct impact on society and has impacted the direction of development throughout history and in today’s current world, as well. During its movement to other places, Islam served as a catalyst for the development of civil rights.

What is the artworks of Islamic art?

In addition to miniature painting, artifacts such as Islamic glass or pottery, and textile arts such as carpets and needlework are also examples of Islamic art.

What influenced Islam?

Early Islamic architecture was inspired by the architecture of the Roman, Byzantine, and Persian empires, as well as the architecture of all other lands that the Muslims conquered in the 7th and 8th century. As Islam extended throughout Southeast Asia, it was also impacted by Chinese and Indian architecture in the region’s farther east.

What are some of the main characteristics of Islamic art?

the characteristics of Islamic art Floral themes, geometric forms, and calligraphy are three essential features of Islamic visual art that may be seen around the world. These aspects, which are frequently found in a variety of creative forms and genres, are influenced by concepts found in the Qu’ran.

Why was Islamic art created?

Developed by art historians in the nineteenth century to aid classification and study of the material initially generated under the Islamic peoples who emerged from Arabia in the seventh century, Islamic art is a contemporary term that may be defined as follows:

How did Islam change the course of European art and culture?

Diplomacy and commerce facilitated a continuous interchange of goods and ideas. Many Europeans were fascinated by the beauty and mystique of Islamic art, and Islamic aspects were rapidly adopted into local artistic expression. And it wasn’t simply art that captured the imagination of Europeans. Food, medicine, and science were all regarded with admiration and respect.

What was the impact of Islam?

However, it has also caused divisions between nations and has resulted in harsh and brutal bloodshed.

Historically, the influence of Islam on commerce, particularly in West Africa, resulted in a significant increase in the wealth of African people and the formation of several large African empires.

What significant achievements did the Islamic empire make in art?

The Most Important Points Scientists made significant advances in the domains of algebra, calculus, geometry, chemistry, biology, medicine, and astronomy, among other subjects. During the Islamic Golden Age, many other types of art thrived, including pottery, metalwork, textiles, illuminated manuscripts, woodwork, and calligraphy, to name a few.

What two religions influenced Islam?

Christianity emerged from inside the Jewish heritage, while Islam arose as a result of the interaction between Christianity and Judaism. While there have been divisions between these religions, there has also been a rich cultural exchange between Jews, Christians, and Muslims that has occurred in Islamic Spain and other places over the course of hundreds of years.

What impact has the Islamic religion had on art and architecture?

The skeletons of a carpet with a lattice and blossom pattern are seen. In part because Islam is more than a religion; it is also a way of life, and this has resulted in the formation of a distinct culture with its own particular visual language, which can be seen in art and architecture all around the Muslim world.

How did Islamic artists inspire artists of the Renaissance?

When new glass and ceramic technologies were introduced, they were followed by an increase in the popularity of Islamic ornamentation and shapes. With the introduction in Italy of readily transportable artifacts such as fabrics, carpets, metalwork, and ivories, as well as pottery and glass, patterns and styles from the Islamic world became more popular.

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How did art in the Islamic and Byzantine empires influenced each other?

The connection of the Byzantine empire with Islamic culture had a significant impact on its artistic production. The growth of Islam and its military successes posed the biggest danger to the security of the empire and its lands. Art became a vehicle of conflict and collaboration between the two sides as a reflection of the political milieu.

Who spread the teachings of Islam?

Following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40, the year 610 is commemorated as the beginning of Islamic history. Muslims all throughout the Arabian peninsula followed Muhammad and his companions in spreading the principles of Islam.

What makes Islam unique?

The difference between Islam and other religions is that Islam is more than just a set of beliefs to which one clings; it is a whole way of life. On a daily basis, Muslims put their their beliefs into action. Islam is called after the belief in a single God, Allah, and submission to His will, which are central to the religion.

What does Islam teach about other religions?

Muslims are not required to envision God, but rather to worship and revere him as a guardian, according to Islamic tradition. In Islam, idolatry of any type is strictly prohibited. (112:2) (Quran 112:2) Therefore, Muslims believe that worshipping any other gods or goddesses besides Allah (Shirk (polytheism)) is a sin that would result in one’s estrangement from Almighty Allah.

What did Islam contribute to literature?

Apart from works in Arabic and other languages, Muslims were responsible for the preservation of a thousand-year heritage of ancient Persian poetry, which ranged from tiny quatrains to large epics.

Along with the expansion of Islam into new areas, there has been an increase in literature written in a variety of languages, ranging from Swahili to Malay.

How does Gothic art relate to Islamic art?

Gothic architecture has Islamic origins, as evidenced by its architecture. It went on to become a distinguishing characteristic of Islamic religious structures. Although the trefoil arch was originally used as a decorative element in Umayyad shrines and desert palaces, it was not until the Middle Ages that it became widely accepted as a symbol of the Holy Trinity in Gothic architecture.

How did Islamic architecture impact the world?

While traditional architectural styles create harmony between structures and their surroundings, Islamic architecture fosters harmony between humans, the environment, and their Creator. The great Mosques of Cordoba, Edirne, and Shah Jahan, for example, utilised local geometry, materials, and methods to reflect the order and unity of Islamic Architecture in their own unique ways, while also expressing the order and unity of Islamic Architecture as a whole.

Islam – Religion and the arts

Before Islam, the Arabs had little art, with the exception of poetry, which they had brought to its full perfection and in which they were quite proud. Persia and Byzantium were the sources of inspiration for the Muslim Arabs’ art, just as they were for other types of civilization. Whatever components the Arabs took from other cultures, they Islamized in a way that combined them into a homogenous spiritual-aesthetic complex, according to historians. It wasaniconism, the theological taboo against figurative and representational depiction of live animals, that served as the most fundamental guideline guiding art.

  • The story attributed to the Prophet that a person who creates a representation of a living creature would be asked on the Day of Judgment to inject life into it, regardless of whether the tradition is historically accurate, unquestionably expresses the original attitude toward Islam.
  • So in Islamic aniconism, two factors are fused together: (1) rejection of pictures that have the potential to become idols (these images can be of anything), and (2) rejection of figures depicting living things (such as humans).
  • It is more or less the same attitude in Islam, with the additional aspect of attributing to the artist a breach of the sanctity of the principle of life, which is not present in other religions.
  • This fundamental premise, on the other hand, has experienced certain alterations.
  • Similarly, several members of the Umayyad and Abbsid dynasties, Turks, and Persians—in especially, the Shiah, who have generated a profusion of visual portrayals of Muhammad and hisfamily—fell into this category.
  • Third, they occur in low relief in plastic art for the same reason that they do in traditional art.
  • Although people appear in paintings, they have minimal realistic value and are mostly ornamental, with some symbolic significance.
  • Those of animals and a few human figurines that the Seljuqsbrought from eastern Turkistan are the only full-fledged plastic figures on display at this time.
  • Umayyad and Abbsid palaces in Spain and Iran, as well as the harem sections of the Mughal palaces in India, are examples of where frescoes may be seen.
  • Painting miniatures was intimately related with the art of book illumination, and this method for adorning the pages of books was patronized by princes and other members of the top social strata.

In addition, miniature painting is covered more below; seeIllustration of myth and legend for more information.)


Instrumental music was strictly prohibited by the orthodox throughout the early stages of Islam’s development. When it comes to vocal music, astajwd, a sophisticated and creative type of recitation of the Qur’an, has largely taken the place of traditional vocal music. Nonetheless, the Muslim royal courts were generous in their support and cultivation of music. Arab music was influenced by Persian and Greek music, among other influences. Al-Frba, a 10th-century philosopher, is credited with inventing thearghann, a musical instrument that was used for entertainment (organ).

The Sufis were the first to use both vocal and instrumental music into their spiritual activities, which spread across religious circles.

“Its head, its veins (strings), and its skin are all dry and dead; from where comes to me the voice of the Friend?” remarked the famous Sufi poetJalal al-Din al-Rama (died 1273), who was venerated equally by both orthodox and Sufi communities.


Drama and pure fiction were not permitted in literature; drama was prohibited because it was regarded a realistic art form, while fiction was prohibited because it was thought to be a kind of deception. The development of mythology was hampered by limits that were similar in nature. Selected classics of Indian literature, such as Alf laylah wa laylah (The Thousand and One Nights) and Kallah wa Dimnah (The Book of Days), were translated from the Persian, resulting in the introduction of secular prose into Arabic.

  • Much of this mythology found its way back into larger copies of The Thousand and One Nights and, as a result, has had an impact on later history writing, particularly in Europe.
  • Poetry, in particular, adapted itself well to this approach, which was freely employed in panegyrics, satires, and lyric poetry.
  • Arabic literature, in general, demonstrates a strong and vivid imagination that is not readily reconciled with the strict order that reason imposes on the human mind.
  • The most essential aspect of this was that it provided an especially good vehicle for a form of mystical poetry in which it is often hard to tell whether the poet is speaking of worldly affection or of heavenly affection.

Due to the same reason, poets have found poetry to be a successful shelter for thinly veiled departures from, and even outright attacks on, conventional literalist religion.


Building, particularly mosque architecture, is by far the most important representation of Islamic art, and it is the most visible. It exemplifies both the diversity of cultures that contributed to Islamic civilization and the unifying force of Islamic monotheism, which is represented by the expansive expanse of the mosque—a veritable externalization of the all-encompassing divine unity, heightened by the sense of infinity evoked by the arabesque pattern. While the arabesque is ornamentally gorgeous, it is symbolic of God’s unlimited expanse, which is represented spiritually by the arabesque.

Learn about the Dome of the Rock, the world’s oldest surviving Islamic structure, which was built in Jerusalem between 619 and 692 AD.

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There are several ancient structures that date back to 641–642, including the mosque of Amr in Egypt and the famousDome of the RockinJerusalem, which is not a mosque but a monument, consisting of a concentric-circular structure with four tiers and twelve columns, set on a high drum and resting on four tiers and twelve columns.

  • Located in Mecca, the early Syro-Egyptian mosque is a massively columned edifice with a prayerniche (mirb) facing the Kabah sanctuary.
  • The tapering brick pillars, the arches (each supported by numerous pillars), the vast arcades, and the four sides, known as eyvns, are all distinctively Persian traits seen in the world-famous Persian mosques.
  • Turkey holds the distinction of being the country with the greatest quantity and quality of mosques in the Muslim world.
  • The symmetry achieved by the Turkish architects was achieved by the use of one major dome, four semidomes, and four minor domes among them.
  • Fazlur Rahman is a Bangladeshi poet and writer.

How did the Islamic world influence Western art?

The Dice Players is a painting by Rudolf Weisse (1869–c. 1930), who lived from 1869 to 1930. Czechoslovakia is represented with an oil on panel. Malaysia’s Islamic Arts Museum is located in Kuala Lumpur. Julia Tugwell, co-curator, discusses her work. Influenced by the East: How the Islamic World Influenced Western Art and Architecture Olivia Threlkeld is a co-curator for the Middle East at the Museum of Modern Art. 16th of July, 2019 Inspired by the East: How the Islamic World Impacted Western Artexamines the ways in which European and North American visual arts have been influenced by the Islamic world throughout history.

The artifacts and artworks, which range from painting and ornamental arts to interior design and architecture, portray or relate to topics and styles from the Islamic World, particularly from the Middle East and North Africa, and are of various sizes and shapes.

This trend, on the other hand, has roots that date back to the 15th century and continues to be addressed in contemporary art.

After the Palestinian-American academic Edward Said’s landmark textOrientalism attracted critical attention to the issue in 1978, he continued to criticize the ways in which the West has imagined and portrayed the East in culture throughout the rest of the twentieth century.

His definition of the Orient was that it was “the location of Europe’s biggest, wealthiest and oldest colonies, the source of its civilizations and languages, its cultural adversary, and one of Europe’s deepest and most repeating visions of the Other.” Achieving a thorough understanding of such a vast subject is well beyond the scope of this show, which is dedicated to the art movement known as Orientalism.

  1. In this section, we respond to such criticisms by acknowledging concerns of distortion while also highlighting a long and rich history of impact and trade in both ways.
  2. a school founded by Giovanni da Veronese (1528–1588), An oil painting on canvas depicting Sultan Bayezid I, around 1580.
  3. Indeed, for centuries, Europe’s identity was determined by its relationship with its neighbors in the Middle East.
  4. Its eastern neighbors were the Safavid Empire (1501–1722), which was centered on modern Iran, and the Ottoman Empire (about 1300–1924), which encompassed modern Turkey, much of southern Europe, and the Arabic-speaking lands of North Africa and the Middle East.
  5. This may be observed in the replication of particular styles, such as this Iznik plate from the 17th century, which is a good example.
  6. During the Ottoman period (c.14th century – 20th century), the characteristic floral motifs were also popular on tiles that were used to adorn the inside of buildings.
  7. The Ottoman dynasty reigned from 1601 until 1625.

Inspired by Middle Eastern ceramics and designs, he created flowery patterns that appeared in trendy ceramics, stained glass, and furniture.

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In 1888–1897, four ceramic tiles were decorated by William De Morgan (1839–1917), who worked at the Sands End Pottery in Fulham.

‘Classifying’ different groups according to their attire, from sultans and mystics to dancers, became popular as a result of the popularity of costume books.

Moreover, the presence of Europeans in Middle Eastern towns afforded native painters the opportunity to indulge their own passion for the “strange” by painting portraits of European dandies and courtiers.

1703–1730), a famous artist at the court of Sultan Ahmet III, was born in Istanbul.

Painting from the Ottoman School, Turkey, around 1700.

In order to create their works of art, several of these painters traveled to the locations they represented, whether it was Constantinople (now Istanbul), Jerusalem, Cairo or Marrakesh.

Everything from detailed depictions of everyday life to imagined scenes from the harem appeared on a recurring basis in the photos.

The Prayer is a painting by Frederick Arthur Bridgman (1847–1928).

Through our investigation of the concept of Orientalism, we hope to provide another perspective on this cultural interaction by showing that Orientalism embraces various sorts of visual and decorative arts – not simply painting, as is commonly supposed – and not just painting in particular.

These objects illustrate a centuries-old tradition of influence and exchange from East to West and West to East, whether as a result of diplomatic encounters or as spoils of war or simply as a result of travel.

Orientalism is still a highly heated and contentious concept, and Orientalist arts and crafts have seen a dramatic decline in popularity since the 1940s, but its visual language continues to be a valuable resource for artists in the contemporary day.

In response to Orientalist portrayals of the East, these works – such as Inci Eviner’s 2009 video workHaremand Lalla Essaydi’sWomen of Moroccotriptych – contradict and undermine works by previous European and North American artists, such as Inci Eviner’sWomen of Moroccotriptych.

Photographic prints arranged in a triptych, 2005.

Women are seen as active agents rather than passive objects, susceptible to the voyeuristic imaginings of European painters such as Delacroix, whoseFemmes d’Algeris referenced by the title of the series, rather than as things to be observed.

Getting their inspiration from the East: How the Islamic World Influenced Western Art The exhibition will be on display from 10 October 2019 until 26 January 2020.

Learn more and purchase tickets here. Jack Ryan lends his support. Standard Chartered Bank is the primary sponsor. In collaboration with the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia, this event was organized.

Islamic Belief Made Visual

When we study individuals from previous times, we have a better understanding of them. Visual literacy exposes many things about what these people were like, knew, and believed about themselves. Studying the geometric patterns that appear in so much of Islamic art may give students with vital insights about the technology, scientific understanding, and religious beliefs of the Muslim people throughout the time period studied. With familiarity comes an increased appreciation for the fundamental tie that exists between the art and the Islamic religion.

  • Geometric motifs were popular among Muslim artists and designers in all regions of the globe, at all eras, and for adorning every surface, whether it was walls or floors, pots or lamps, book covers or fabrics, and they were used to decorate every surface.
  • The logic and order inherent in the Islamic perspective of the cosmos were portrayed via this art form.
  • This practice was explained in part by the fact that Mohammad had cautioned against the worship of idols, which was seen to be a mandate against the portrayal of human or animal forms.
  • An even more significant explanation is that geometric systems and Islamic religious ideals, albeit articulated in various ways, both communicate the same ideas about universal values in distinct ways.
  • Muslims are supposed to adhere to a stringent code of conduct that dates back to Mohammad’s original formulation in the seventh century CE.
  1. Praying five times a day, according to a strictly specified ritual that includes words and actions
  2. Pronouncing the creed (chanting an affirmation that there is only one God, and that God is Allah)
  3. Pronouncing the creed distributing alms Fasting during the month of Ramadan (the timing changes according to the lunar calendar)
  4. Making at least one pilgrimage to Mecca during one’s lifetime

The rigid requirements for the formation of geometric patterns serve as a visual analogue to the laws of religious behavior in their application. The geometric patterns that are employed in Islamic art are aggressively two-dimensional in their design and execution. The three-dimensional physical world was not something that artists wanted to convey. They sought to make art that expresses an ideal, spiritual truth rather than a realistic representation of reality. Rather than three-dimensional representations, two-dimensional representations are preferable for ideals.

  • When shown in Islamic imagery, the star is a regular geometric form that represents equal radiation radiating in all directions from a center point.
  • When the star is in its center, it is also in the center of the circle from which it emerged, and its points are on the perimeter of the circle.
  • Due to the fact that the star’s rays radiate in all directions, the star is an appropriate emblem for the propagation of Islam.
  • Artists did not attempt to express themselves, but rather to produce beautiful products that could be enjoyed by all people, regardless of their background.
  • That is concerning to Westerners since the West places a high value on originality when judging an artist’s merits and abilities.

In Islam, on the other hand, the artist sees himself as a humble servant of the community, utilizing his abilities and creativity to convey awe of Allah, the one God who is everlasting and all-powerful, and who is worshipped as such.

Related Student Activity: Geometry and Islam

A brief student project that explains why patterns are utilized in Islamic texts, textiles, and architecture, as well as how to build two popular patterns using a compass and a ruler. Students will be able to:

  • Acquaint yourself with the significance of geometric patterns in the Islamic world
  • Recreate typical patterns that may be found in architecture, writings, and fabrics. Make use of a compass and a straight edge to practice
  1. Students should read and summarize the essay “Islamic Belief Made Visual” that was just mentioned. Hand out copies of the handout, “Construction of an Islamic Pattern,” to each student, along with a piece of paper or poster board, a compass, and a straight edge. Help pupils duplicate typical geometric designs seen throughout the Muslim world by demonstrating them and/or working with them one-on-one.

For primary school children, color the patterns to bring out the geometric shapes in the patterns themselves. Student artwork may be used to cover a bulletin board or a wall in your classroom. Copyright protected since 1998. Jane Norman is the author.

Islam’s deep traditions of art and science have had a global influence

A series of articles by Senior Religion and Ethics Editor Kalpana Jain, available on our website or as six emails delivered every other day, is available for those who want to learn more about Islam. The articles are written by Kalpana Jain, who is also the Senior Religion and Ethics Editor at The Conversation. Over the last few years, she has commissioned scores of papers about Islam authored by academics, which have appeared in scholarly journals. All of the pieces in this collection are drawn from that repository and have been reviewed for correctness by religious academics.

  • This week’s installment will continue that discussion.
  • Without a thorough awareness of Islam’s cultural and intellectual heritage, you may feel that your comprehension of the religion is lacking.
  • Islamic academics made significant contributions to the development of astronomy, medicine, and mathematics in the early centuries.
  • Example: The astronomer al-Qabisi, who was part of a long lineage of prominent Islamic astronomers, contributed to the formulation of a critique of the then-prevailing belief that the Earth was at the center of all that exists in the cosmos.
  • Some of the most important mathematical works ever published were authored by Islamic academics, including significant contributions to algebra and a commentary on the fourth-century BCE Greek mathematician Euclid, both of which were eventually translated into Latin.
  • In modern-day Iraq, many of these academics were stationed in the city of Mosul, which was held by the Islamic State from 2014 to 2017.

In the words of Mulder, “the city was home to a varied mix of people: Arabs and Kurds, Yazidis, Jews and Christians, Sunnis and Shiites, Sufis, and dozens of saints who were revered by people of various religions.” Before it was demolished by the Islamic State in 2014, the grave of the Prophet Jonah was photographed in 1932.

  1. The prophet Jonah is revered by Jews as a symbol of repentance.
  2. The account of Jonah is told in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, according to the Christian faith.
  3. “The lyrical beauty of Arabic poetry was acquired by the troubadour poets of medieval Spain,” argues scholarKishwar Rizvi.
  4. Christiane Gruber, an art history professor at the University of Michigan, discusses her research on the significance of birdhouses in mosques.
  5. In Sicily, the famed 12th-century Palatine Chapel borrows elements of its architectural style from the Fatimids, who ruled Egypt during the 10th and 12th centuries and were Shiite monarchs of Egypt.
  6. An example of how multiple theological viewpoints were accommodated inside Islam is illustrated by a 19th-century tile from Iran portraying a crucified Jesus surrounded by the Twelve Apostles, according to scholarAna Silkatcheva.
  7. “It appears to be a tile created for or by the Christian community in Persia during the period of Islamic control.” Many Muslims find that art history may be enlightening as well.
  8. Although Silkatcheva speaks about an unidentified 17th-century manuscript folio that represents the prophet, this suggests that visual images of the prophet were accepted in the ancient world.
  9. A silk robe from the Iranian Islamic Safavid era, which dates back to the 15th century.

From an essay authored by Kishwar Rizvi, Professor of Islamic Art and Architecture at Yale University, it is stated that silks from the Safavid empire (the Iranian dynasty that reigned from the 16th to the 18th centuries) were so popular that Polish rulers had their coats of arms sewn in Isfahan.

In the following issue: Why do women wear a headscarf? On, you can read all six pieces in thisUnderstanding Islam series, or you can have them delivered to your inbox if you sign up for our email newsletter course.

Articles from The Conversation in this edition:**

  • Is there anything lacking from Islam’s teachings? On the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur, Mosul’s rich and diverse heritage is remembered. There is no god except God: Islamic art is brought into the spotlight in this stunning show

Further Reading and Resources:

  • “The Shrines of the ‘Alids in Medieval Syria: Sunnis, Shi’is, and the Architecture of Coexistence,” by Stephennie Mulder: Scholar, is a book on the shrines of the ‘Alids in medieval Syria. Lesley Jones’ book on Islamic architecture goes beyond Islam’s sectarian history to reveal a past marked by cooperation and accommodation
  • ” Close Encounters in Medieval Provence: Spain’s Role in the Birth of Troubadour Poetry,” by Mara Rosa Menocal
  • ” Mathematics and Islamic Art,” by Stephennie Mulder: ” Mathematics and Islamic Art,” by Stephennie Mulder goes beyond Islam’s sectarian history to reveal a past marked by cooperation and accommodation. One of Jones’ magazine papers examines the effect of Islamic mathematics on art
  • Another piece, “How Islam Changed Medicine,” by Azeem Majeed, professor of primary care at Imperial College Faculty of Medicine in London, discusses the influence of Islamic mathematics on medicine.

Islam’s influence on the Black Arts Movement

3rd of October, 2019 A Duke academic discusses the importance of Black Muslim artists in the Black Arts Movement, which dates back to the 1960s. by Catherine AngstOn Wednesday, October 2nd, during Professor Ellen McLarney’s lecture, “Black Arts, Black Muslims: Race, Religion, and Culture,” San-cacophonous Ra’s soundtrack for Amiri Baraka’s A BlackMass echoed through the air. “It’s interesting that people think of Muslims as being anti-art and anti-music,” McLarney observed. “This initiative contradicts that perception.” McLarney is a professor at the Department of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies at Duke University, as well as the Department of Gender, Feminism, and Sexuality Studies at the university’s campus.

  1. From the late 1950s until the early 1970s, McLarney positioned her lecture at a time when the Civil Rights Movement, Black Power revolt, and the Black Arts Movement were all at their height.
  2. For the first time, Malcolm X is featured in a national platform in this documentary.
  3. “Who taught you to despise the texture of your hair?” McLarney said in a well-known Malcolm X speech, “Who taught you to hate the texture of your hair?” Who was it who taught you to despise the hue of your skin?
  4. Muhammad and ask him if he teaches hatred, you should ask yourself who taught you to despise yourself for being who God created you to be.” Several artists associated with the Black Arts Movement converted to Islam during this time period in history.
  5. Perhaps most notably, following the killing of Malcolm X in 1965, the poet and dramatist LeRoi Jones converted to Islam and adopted the name Amiri Baraka as a result of his conversion.
  6. McLarney observes that this play, as well as the Yakub narrative, has elicited a great deal of criticism directed towards the Nation of Islam; yet, she sees the play as a dramatized allegory that is representative of the time.
  7. Catherine Angst captured this image.
  8. McLarney discussed the works of Baraka, as well as those of other artist-converts such as Sonia Sanchez, Yusef Iman, and Marvin X, in her presentation.
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She also read from Sanchez’s poetry “Malcolm,” which has imagery that are reminiscent of Malcolm X’s speech “Who Taught You to Hate Yourself.” According to McLarney, “The Nation of Islam has been accused of violence, anti-Semitism, and misogyny, but if you look at their writings, they actually talk about self-defense in the face of genocide.” “In the face of this repeated onslaught against Black lives, this poetry talks about rebirth, new life, brotherhood and sisterhood, and nation-building,” he continued.

In conjunction with the Duke Islamic Studies Center and the Duke University Middle East Studies Center, McLarney’s presentation was part of the John Hope Franklin Center’s Wednesdays at the Center series.

A free public lecture series, Wednesdays at the Center is presented every Wednesday at noon in the Ahmadieh Family Conference Hall at the John Hope Franklin Center. The series is open to the public and is completely free (2204 Erwin Road, Room 240). The original post may be found here: Original Post

AP Art History: Understanding Islamic Aesthetics

One of the main goals of this brief introduction to the history of Islamic art is to provide a clear and accurate definition of Islamic aesthetics as well as the unique historical circumstances that led to its development. In doing so, we will be able to get a more comprehensive knowledge of the entire body of works of art designated Islamic, as well as justify the usage of the umbrella term “Islamic art.” Most importantly, it will dispel the idea that painting is prohibited in Islamic art and that the faith of Islam forbids figurative portrayal.

  1. It is difficult to identify the characteristics of Islamic art since this creative legacy contains numerous styles developed over a long period of time, as well as a wide geographical region with inhabitants who are multinational and multireligious in their religious beliefs.
  2. It is analogous to such broad art historical words as “Gothic” or “Baroque,” in the sense that it is a cultural identifier that preserves local and/or regional traits while at the same time serving as a general cultural indicator.
  3. So, what is Islamic art, exactly?
  4. All Islamic works of art are united by their reverence for an aesthetic that is directly related to the Muslim attitude and view of the universe, which is brought about by the precepts of the Muslim faith.

A Brief History

In the evolution of Islamic art, there are three distinct stages. The first phase encompasses the era leading up to its development, during which time the concept of Islamic art began to emerge in Muslim areas. Generally speaking, the period between 634 and 751 AD, which corresponds to the first sequence of Islamic conquests outside of the Arabian Peninsula, has been considered as the period of the development of an original system of forms that can be defined as Islamic in origin. This was the period during which the heart of the region that is still inhabited by Muslims today was captured.

In each conquered territory, the period during which an Islamic art developed is relative and varies from one province to the next, according to historical records.

Because of the freshly assembled collection of hadith, the legalistic side of Islam became a source of worry during this period, which resulted in more precise proscriptions against the arts.

These traditions are made up of stories and ideas that were developed in reaction to specific situations, rather than being generalizations.

Early Rules of Representation

Debunking the frequently accepted belief that there was a religious restriction on depiction is essential to understanding Islamic aesthetics. There has been no conclusive proof of this ban in either the Qur’an or the Hadith, according to the research conducted on this issue. The only allusions to pictures found in the Qur’an are in chapters referring to idols worshipped by pagans, which is the only time they are mentioned. The Qur’an, on the other hand, neither explicitly prohibits the creation of idols nor contains anything as strong as the condemnation of imagery found in Exodus 20:4 in the various texts of the Hebrew Bible, which states: “Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven images or any likenesses of anything which is in heaven or which is in the earth beneath or which is in the water beneath the earth.” (Exodus 20:4 in the various texts of the Hebrew Bible) Although there were no restrictions on portrayal during the early stages of Islam, there was an unwritten taboo against the depiction of live creatures in mosques during the later stages of the religion.

  • This prohibition appears to have been imposed in connection with the demolition of idols at the Kaaba in Mecca, according to historical evidence.
  • Furthermore, no manifestations of any religious principles were authorized or tolerated under any circumstances.
  • More than everything else, there has never been, and will never be, a portrayal of God like the ones that may be seen so frequently in Christian art.
  • In order to avoid being accused of sacrilege, it is likewise nonsensical to depict him in a shape that was not his own design in the first place.
  • This was not owing to religious prohibition, but rather to historical necessity, which was prompted by the effect of the arts they experienced in conquered areas like as Byzantium, Iran, Egypt, and Mesopotamia, among other places.

They interpreted representations as being identical to the things they represented, and as a result, they saw them as trickery. Images were not only a key aspect of Christianity, but they were also considered to be one of the most destructive weapons that Christianity possessed, according to Islam.

Art as Expression of Religion

A new Islamic culture was developed, characterized by distinguishable habits and thoughts that were founded on the unwavering belief in the absoluteness and oneness of God and on the uncompromising belief in the oneness of God. This was diametrically opposed to the Christian conception of the divine. The Muslim community stressed the importance of the entirety of existence as well as the perfect integration of the secular and spiritual realms of life. It was not difficult for them to embrace all aspects of their conquered nations’ civilizations, cultures, and customs, so long as they were not in direct conflict with the teachings of Islam, which was the case in most cases.

  • At the same time, this emerging culture recognized the importance of developing a distinctively Muslim art form that could convert their easily recognizable habits and ways of thinking into aesthetically apparent forms.
  • The art form instead absorbed local forms, styles, and methods and merged them into its expression of Islamic values and beliefs through a variety of combinations of forms, styles, and techniques.
  • Muslim theologians in the ninth century imposed even stricter limits on, and outright resistance to, the use of pictures or representations in art.
  • Art, in their opinion, was a form of mimicry.
  • Perspective, chiaroscuro, and modeling were among the techniques that had to be abandoned in order to achieve the realistic image of nature.

The majority of Muslim artists did not forsake realistic painting; rather, they made certain that their work did not appear to be “authentic.” Following the rejection of the notion of imitation of nature, the miniature was considered as a two-dimensional visual space, with forms and colors arranged in a certain sequence inside the space.

  1. Not that the subject should be shown exactly as it appears in nature, but rather that the audience understands the independent universe that was constructed by the artist, complete with its own structure, language, and rules is vital in Islamic painting.
  2. According to the Islamic artist, God creates life by infusing it with a sense of individuality that is necessary for it to be alive.
  3. It was common for creatures and animals to be painted flat and two-dimensionally, representing just abstract representations of the ideals they represented.
  4. The absence of a third dimension represents the truth of the painting’s surface and draws attention to the fantasy world depicted in the artwork.
  5. According to this viewpoint, there are some spiritual laws that must be followed in order to grasp the link between God’s everlasting existence and the fleeting existence of the entire universe.

Islamic art is an intuitive art form that aspires to grasp the everlasting nature of things by providing evidence that both Beauty and God exist simultaneously. It is the art of taking in God’s majesty and splendor. 1 More information may be found in Papadopoulo’s Islam and Muslim Art.


A Study Of The Place Of Pictorial Art In Muslim Culture, by Thomas W. Arnold. Painting in Islam: A Study Of The Place Of Pictorial Art In Muslim Culture, by Thomas W. Arnold. B. W. Robinson provides an introduction to the book. Dover Publications, Inc. published the book in New York in 1965. Afif Bahnassi, Afif Bahnassi Jamaliat al-Fann al-Arabi (Jamaliat al-Fann al-Arabi) (Aesthetics of Arab Art). Kuwait: A’lam al-Ma’rifa Publishing House, 1979. Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom are co-authors of this article.

Yale University Press is based in New Haven and London.

Richard Ettinghausen is the author of this work.

The World Publishing Company, based in Cleveland, Ohio, published this book in 1962.

“The Man-Made Environment.” In Bernard Lewis’s edited volume, The World of Islam: Faith, People, and Culture, pp.

Thames & Hudson Publishing Company, London, 1976.

The emergence of Islamic art as it exists now.

The Murray Printing Company published this book in 1987.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (Seyyed Hossein Nasr).

The State University of New York Press published an edition of this book in 1987.

Tarikh al-Fann: al-Tasweer al-Islami al-Dini wa al-Arabi (Islamic and Arab Tasweer) (History of Art: Islamic Representational Art, Religious and Arabic).

Alexandre Papadopoulo is the author of this work.

Robert Erich Wolf was in charge of the translation.

Abrams, Inc.

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