How was Islam able to cross the Sahara Desert in the eighth century? Muslim merchants from North Africa followed trading routes through the Sahara Desert. Muslim armies carried their faith west across the top of the entire continent.
- 1 How did Islam spread into India?
- 2 Who brought Islam to India in the 11th century?
- 3 Which of the following was a direct result of Islamic expansion into Spain?
- 4 Which of the following contributed to the overthrow of the Umayyad dynasty by the Abbasid dynasty?
- 5 How did Islam spread so quickly?
- 6 How did Islam spread on the Silk Road?
- 7 What will be the largest religion in 2050?
- 8 How did Islam spread in the 11th century?
- 9 How did Islam spread to India quizlet?
- 10 What two methods were commonly used in the spreading of Islam?
- 11 How did Islam split into two groups?
- 12 Who are the Moors today?
- 13 What advancements were made by the Islamic governments of the Umayyad empire?
- 14 What was one of the primary ways Islam’s golden age impacted the European Renaissance?
- 15 What role did Sufi missionaries play in spreading Islam?
- 16 The Spread of Islam in West Africa: Containment, Mixing, and Reform
- 17 Containment: Ghana and the Takrur
- 18 Mixing: The Empires of Mali and Songhay
- 19 Reform in the Nineteenth Century: Umarian Jihad in Senegambia and the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland
- 20 How was Islam able …
- 21 The Spread of Islam in Ancient Africa
- 22 North Africa – From the Arab conquest to 1830
- 23 Khārijite Berber resistance to Arab rule
- 24 The Maghrib under Muslim dynasties in the 8th–11th centuries
How did Islam spread into India?
Islam arrived in the inland of Indian subcontinent in the 7th century when the Arabs conquered Sindh and later arrived in North India in the 12th century via the Ghurids conquest and has since become a part of India’s religious and cultural heritage.
Who brought Islam to India in the 11th century?
The first great expansion of Islam into India came during the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs, who were based in Damascus. In 711, the Umayyads appointed a young 17 year old man from Ta’if to extend Umayyad control into Sindh: Muhammad bin Qasim.
Which of the following was a direct result of Islamic expansion into Spain?
Which of the following was a direct result of Islamic expansion into Spain? Charles Martel led armies in the battle at Poitiers in 732. what does this image demonstrate about the policies of Islamic rule in Spain? Jews were allowed to practice their religion in Islamic Spain.
Which of the following contributed to the overthrow of the Umayyad dynasty by the Abbasid dynasty?
Which of the following contributed to the overthrow of the Umayyad dynasty by the Abbasid dynasty? The Abbasids moved the capital to Baghdad. How did the Abbasid dynasty of the Islamic Golden Age differ from the earlier Umayyad dynasty? The focus on learning and knowledge attracted the best minds from around the world.
How did Islam spread so quickly?
The religion of Islam spread rapidly in the 7th century. Islam spread quickly because of the military. During this time, on numerous accounts there were military raids. Trade and conflict were also apparent between different empires, all of which resulted in the spreading of Islam.
How did Islam spread on the Silk Road?
Muslim merchants from the Arabian Peninsula had to pass through these islands of the south via the maritime Silk Roads to reach China’s ports. Therefore, one would say that Islam arrived in South-East Asia in a peaceful way through trade and interactions between Muslim merchants and the locals.
What will be the largest religion in 2050?
By 2050, Christianity is expected to remain the majority religion in the United States (66.4%, down from 78.3% in 2010), and the number of Christians in absolute numbers is expected to grow from 243 million to 262 million.
How did Islam spread in the 11th century?
Islam in east Africa: 8th – 11th century Africa is the first region into which Islam is carried by merchants rather than armies. It spreads down the well-established trade routes of the east coast, in which the coastal towns of the Red Sea (the very heart of Islam) play a major part.
How did Islam spread to India quizlet?
How did Islam spread to India, and what impact did it have on the region? First came with Arab merchants and conquerors and then with the Maluks. They ruled the first Muslim, Indian Empire. Most Indians were Hindu which cause many conflicts for centuries.
What two methods were commonly used in the spreading of Islam?
Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries.
How did Islam split into two groups?
A disagreement over succession after Mohammed’s death in 632 split Muslims into Islam’s two main sects, Sunni and Shia.
Who are the Moors today?
Today, the term Moor is used to designate the predominant Arab-Amazigh ethnic group in Mauritania (which makes up more than two-thirds of the country’s population) and the small Arab-Amazigh minority in Mali.
What advancements were made by the Islamic governments of the Umayyad empire?
These included creating a common coinage, establishing Arabic as the official language throughout the empire, and standardizing weights and measures. They also built some of the most revered buildings of Islamic history including the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus.
What was one of the primary ways Islam’s golden age impacted the European Renaissance?
What was one of the primary ways Islam’s Golden Age impacted the European Renaissance? Islamic scholars preserved some of art and literature’s most classical works, inspiring the Europeans. Islamic scholars preserved some of art and literature’s most classical works, inspiring the Europeans.
What role did Sufi missionaries play in spreading Islam?
What role did Sufi missionaries play in spreading Islam? Sufi missionaries helped spread Islam by travelling around and convincing others to convert to Islam.
The Spread of Islam in West Africa: Containment, Mixing, and Reform
Margari Hill is a professor at Stanford University. accessible in PDF format as of January 2009 (1.14 MB) While Islam has been present in West Africa since the seventh century, the expansion of the faith in the territories that are now the modern republics of Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, and Nigeria was a lengthy and difficult process that began in the Middle East and ended in the Middle East. Much of what we know about the early history of West Africa comes from medieval records written by Arab and North African geographers and historians, who were primarily concerned with the region’s geography and history.
The economic objectives of some are emphasized, while the spiritual message of Islam is emphasized by others, and a number of others emphasize the prestige and impact of Arabic literacy in the process of state creation.
Despite the fact that commerce between West Africa and the Mediterranean predates Islam, North African Muslims were responsible for the expansion of the Trans-Saharan trade.
The trade routes Sijilmasa to Awdaghust and Ghadames to Gao, for example, connected Africa below the Sahara with the Mediterranean Middle East and were important commercial routes.
The Sahel region of West Africa was the site of the development of the three major medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and the Songhay.
Containment is the first stage.
The historical evolution of the medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay, as well as the 19th century jihads that resulted in the foundation of the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland and the Umarian kingdom in Senegambia, are illuminated by this three-phase paradigm.
Containment: Ghana and the Takrur
Islamic settlements tied to the trans-Saharan commerce were the only places where Islam could be found in the early days of civilization. Al-Bakri, an Andalusian geographer who lived in the 11th century, recorded details of Arab and North African Berber communities in the region during his time. A number of causes contributed to the expansion of the Muslim merchant-scholar class in non-Muslim nations, including: Islam encouraged long-distance trade by providing merchants with a helpful set of instruments, including as contract law, credit, and communication networks.
- In addition to having created script, they possessed other important abilities that aided in the administration of kingdoms.
- Additionally, merchant-scholars played a significant role in the expansion of Islam into the forest zones.
- Muslim populations in the forest zones were minorities that were frequently related to trading diasporas, according to historians.
- Al-Hajj Salim Suwari was a Soninke scholar who focused on the responsibilities of Muslims in non-Muslim societies.
- This practice has been in place for generations in the forest zone, and it continues to be effective today in areas where there are active Muslim minorities.
- Ghana The name was chosen as a means to pay homage to early African history.
- Peoples such as the Soninken Malinke, the Wa’kuri, and the Wangari have lived in this region for thousands of years.
Around the year 300 A.D., large settlements began to appear in the Niger Delta region.
Merchants trading in salt, horses, dates, and camels from northern Africa and the Sahara exchanged them for gold, lumber, and food from the countries south of the Sahara, according to historians.
This gave rise to one of Ghana’s most distinctive characteristics: the dual city; Ghana’s Kings benefitted from Muslim commerce while keeping them outside the country’s political centre.
African kingdoms eventually began to enable Muslims to enter into their societies.
Around this time, the Almoravid reform movement began in the Western Sahara and spread over modern-day Mauritania, North Africa, and Southern Spain, among other places.
Muslims in West Africa benefited from the Almoravid revolution, which brought greater consistency of practice and Islamic law to their communities.
The Takruri realm was weakened as a result of the Almoravids’ conquest of trade routes and fortified fortifications. It would take more than a hundred years for the empire to disintegrate into a collection of minor kingdoms.
Mixing: The Empires of Mali and Songhay
Over the next several decades, African kings came to embrace Islam despite reigning over populations of varying religious and cultural beliefs and practices. The mixing phase, as specialists refer to it, was a period in which many of these kings combined Islam with conventional and local rituals. After a period of time, the populace began to embrace Islam, typically just adopting components of the faith that they found appealing. The Mali Empire (1215-1450) arose out of a series of fighting kingdoms in West Africa.
- It was a multi-ethnic state with a diverse range of religious and cultural organizations.
- However, while the empire’s founder, Sunjiata Keita, was not himself a Muslim, Mali’s rulers converted to Islam by 1300.
- He established Islam as the official religion of the country and traveled on a pilgrimage from Mali to Mecca in 1324.
- According to reports, his spending depreciated the value of gold in Egypt for a number of years.
- By the fifteenth century, however, Mali had essentially disintegrated as a result of internal dissension and warfare with the Saharan Tuareg.
- Hausaland was made up of a series of city-states that were connected by a network of roads (Gobir, Katsina, Kano, Zamfara, Kebbi and Zazzau).
- During the ninth century, the state adopted Islam as its religion.
Northern Nigeria today includes most of Hausaland and Bornu in the east, as well as the rest of the country.
The kings of Hausaland followed in the footsteps of the rulers of prior Muslim republics in blending indigenous traditions with Islam.
Despite the fact that Islam was the official state religion, the vast majority of the populace continued to adhere to their traditional religious beliefs.
In the period 1465-1492, Sonni Ali, the ruler of the country, punished Muslim academics, particularly those who denounced pagan rites and practices.
Two centuries later, the kingdom of Gao re-emerged as the Songhay Empire, bringing the kingdom back to life.
Under the reign of King Songhay (1493-1529), the Songhay’s territory grew well beyond the bounds of any previous West African empire.
One famous example is the Great Mosque of Jenne, which was constructed in the 12th or 13th centuries and is still standing today.
By the 16th century, the Niger Bend area was home to various centers of commerce and Islamic study, the most famous of which was the fabled city of Timbuktu.
Timbuktu was established as a trade station by the Tuareg.
In 1325, the city had a population of around 10,000 people.
Timbuktu drew academics from all across the Muslim world to attend its conferences.
The Songhay Empire came to an end in 1591, when Morocco captured the realm.
As a result of the dispersal of merchant scholars from Timbuktu and other major learning centers, learning institutions were transferred from urban-based merchant families to rural pastoralists throughout the Sahara.
A mystical Sufi brotherhood organization began to expand over this region somewhere during the 12th and 13th centuries.
In African Muslim civilizations, Sufi organizations played an important role in the social order and the propagation of Islam throughout the continent, and this continued far into the twentieth century.
Reform in the Nineteenth Century: Umarian Jihad in Senegambia and the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland
The jihad activities of the nineteenth century are the clearest example of the third phase in the growth of Islam in West Africa. During this time period, experts have emphasized the manner in which literate Muslims grew increasingly aware of Islamic theology and began to seek reforms on the part of the leadership. Historically significance because it symbolizes the transition from Muslim communities that practiced Islam in conjunction with “pagan” ceremonies and customs to cultures that fully embraced Islamic ideals and created Shariah (Islamic Law).
- Mauritania was the site of the first known jihad in West Africa, which occurred around the 17th century.
- Nasir al-Din, a scholar, was the leader of an unsuccessful jihad known as Sharr Bubba.
- In 1802, a Fulani scholar named Uthman Dan Fodio took the initiative and launched a massive jihad.
- Because of this movement, there has been a consolidation of power within the Muslim community, as well as educational and legal changes.
- His progeny carried on his legacy of literary creativity and educational reform into the modern day.
- One famous example was the jihad of al Hajj Umar Tal, a Tukulor from the Senegambia area, who was killed in the course of his mission.
- His conquests of three Bambara kingdoms took place during the 1850s and the 1860s.
Despite the fact that the French were in charge of the territory, colonial authorities faced a powerful adversary.
Following his death, French soldiers beat Toure’s son in a battle that took place in 1901.
Despite the fact that European forces were responsible for the fall of the Umarian state and the Sokoto Caliphate, colonial domination did little to prevent Islam from spreading over West Africa.
Sokoto Caliphate came to an end in 1903 when British soldiers invaded and annexed the region.
Contrary to colonial officials’ hopes and dreams, colonialism had far-reaching consequences for the Muslim society of Northern Nigeria.
Thus, Islam began to grow swiftly in new urban centers and regions, such as Yoruba land, as a result of this.
Despite the fact that Muslims lost political authority, Muslim communities made great strides throughout West Africa during the first decades of the twentieth century.
The trans-Saharan commerce route served as a key conduit for the spread of Islam throughout Africa.
Muslim communities have flourished in West Africa for more than a millennium, demonstrating that Islam is a substantial component of the continent’s cultural and religious environment.
- InTimeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. 2001), “Western Sudan, 500–1000 AD.”
- “Western and Central Sudan, 1000–1400 AD.”
- “Western and Central Sudan, 1600–1800 AD.”
- “Western and Central Sudan, 1600–1800 A.D.”
- “Western and Central Muslim Societies in the History of Africa. Nehemia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels’ book, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2004, is a classic (eds). The History of Islam in Africa is a fascinating subject. Spencer Trimingham’s History of Islam in West Africa was published by Ohio University Press in Athens, Ohio, in 2000. Oxford University Press, 1962
- New York: Oxford University Press, 1962
How was Islam able …
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The Spread of Islam in Ancient Africa
The Islamization of West Africa began with the conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE. Islam spread throughout the region through merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries, primarily through peaceful means, as African rulers either tolerated the religion or converted to it. Islam spread throughout the region through merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries. As a result of this, Islam expanded in and around the Sahara Desert. In addition, the faith came in East Africa when Arab traders crossed the Red Sea and established along the Swahili Coast in a second wave of migration after that.
Nonetheless, for at least six centuries, Islam spread largely peacefully and gradually wherever there were trade connections with the wider Muslim world of the southern Mediterranean, the Persian Gulf, and the Arabian Sea.The Spread of Islam in AfricaMark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA)However, for at least six centuries Islam spread largely peacefully and gradually wherever there were trade connections with the wider Muslim world of the southern Mediterranean, the Persian Gulf, and the Arabian Sea.
The religion was not universally accepted, and it did not keep its purity of origin, often coexisting with ancient rites and ceremonies, as was the case with other religions.
With religion came the introduction of new ideas, particularly in the fields of administration, law, architecture, and a variety of other facets of everyday life.
A Note on Islam
The rise of Islam in Africa was characterized by much more than only the transmission and adoption of religious concepts, it is maybe worth mentioning at the outset. According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) General History of Africa, Islam is more than a religion; it is a comprehensive way of life that encompasses all aspects of human existence. Muslim teachings give direction in all elements of life – individual and social, material and moral (including financial), political (including economic), legal (including cultural), and national (including international).
III, page 20) Given the foregoing, it is probably more understandable why so many African kings and elites were willing to embrace a foreign religion, especially when that religion also carried with it tangible benefits in terms of governance and riches.
After the Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus conquered North Africa in the second half of the 7th century CE, Islam moved from the Middle East to take root throughout the whole continent during the second half of the 7th century CE. Through Islamized Berbers (who had been either pushed or coaxed to convert) it spread throughout West Africa in the 8th century CE, traveling from the east coast into the interior of central Africa, and eventually reaching Lake Chad, where it was eradicated. Meanwhile, the religion moved down through Egypt and then swung westward across the Sudan area below the Sahara Desert, where it is still practiced today.
Trade Routes Across the Sahara Aa77zz is an abbreviation for Aa77zz (Public Domain) Once the religion reached the savannah region, which stretches throughout Africa below the Sahara Desert, it was embraced by the governing African elites, however local beliefs and rites were frequently maintained or even incorporated into the new religion’s practices and ceremonies.
- In the east, the faith spread via the Mali Empire (1240-1645 CE) and the Songhai Empire (1240-1645 CE) (c.
- 1591 CE).
- 900 – c.
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Muslims in East Africa were up against stiff competition from Christians, who were firmly entrenched in Nubia and states such as the Kingdoms of Faras (also known as Nobatia), Dongola, and Alodia, as well as in the Kingdom of Axum (first – eighth centuries CE) in what is now Ethiopia, among other places.
- In addition, the Sultanates of Adal (1415-1577 CE) and Ajuran (1415-1577 CE) were two prominent Muslim states in the Horn of Africa during the same period (13-17th century CE).
- Islam achieved greater instant success on the Swahili Coast, which is farther south.
- As the native Bantu peoples and Arabs mingled, so did their languages, and intermarrying became popular.
- From the 12th century CE, when Shirazi merchants arrived from the Persian Gulf, Islam began to become more firmly entrenched in Europe.
- Curtin, a historian, describes it thus way: “In the end, the Muslim faith emerged as one of the most important determinants of Swahili identity.
- Despite the fact that Islam was a huge success on the coast, it had little effect on the peoples who lived in the interior of East Africa until the nineteenth century CE.
- A significant number of people were adamant in their refusal to accept this new religion in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary.
- In the following centuries, the Christian Portuguese came in Africa, on both the west and east coasts, where they posed a serious threat to the growth of Islamic civilization.
Kilwa has a magnificent mosque. Richard Mortel is a fictional character created by author Richard Mortel in the 1960s. Mortel’s character is based on the fictional character of the same name created by author Richard Mortel in the 1960s (Public Domain)
Reasons For Adoption
Islam expanded from the Middle East to take root over North Africa during the second half of the 7th century CE, when the Umayyad Caliphate (661-675 CE) of Damascus conquered the region by military means. In the 8th century CE, it expanded through Islamized Berbers (who had been pushed or encouraged to convert) through the trade routes that crisscrossed West Africa, traveling from the east coast into central Africa, and eventually reaching Lake Chad. The religion, meantime, had moved down through Egypt and swung westward across the Sudan area below the Sahara Desert, where it is still practiced nowadays.
Trafic routes over the Sahara ZzzZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ (Public Domain) Once the religion reached the savannah region, which stretches throughout Africa below the Sahara Desert, it was accepted by the governing African elites, however local beliefs and rites were frequently maintained or even incorporated into the new religion’s practices and beliefs.
- In the east, the faith spread through the Mali Empire (1240-1645 CE) and the Songhai Empire (13th century CE) (c.
- 1591 CE).
- 900 – c.
- 1490 CE), Islam’s encirclement of Africa below the Sahara Desert was complete.
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- There were several exceptions to this rule, like the Kingdom of Abyssinia, which did not become Muslim until the 14th century CE, following military intervention by the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt (1250-1517 CE) (13th-20th century CE).
- Beyond true religious commitment, African leaders may have recognized that embracing Islam (or seeming to do so) would be good to economic relations.
The arrival of Muslim traders from Arabia and Egypt in the Swahili coast cities and commercial centers began in the mid-8th century CE and continued for the next few hundred years.
As a result, a mixing of cultural traditions occurred, resulting in the development of a distinctive Swahiliculture.
For example, according to historian P.
In subsequent centuries, to be a Swahili was synonymous with being a Muslim ” (125).
The Christians of Nubia were not the only obstacle to overcome.
In addition to the Mossi people, who dominated territories south of the Niger River and assaulted places such as Timbuktu during the first half of the 15th century CE, there were other groups that battled against Islam’s wave.
States like the Kingdom of Kongo (14-19th century CE) on the western coast of Africa, where Europeans traded heavily, turned Christian, and the Islamic dominance of the Swahili coast was challenged beginning in the 16th century CE.
Kilwa is home to a magnificent mosque. Richard Mortel is a fictional character created by author Richard Mortel in the 1960s. Mortel’s character is based on the fictional character of the same name created by writer Richard Mortel in the 1960s (Public Domain)
Accommodating Ancient African Beliefs
However, as previously said, traditional indigenous traditions continued to be practiced, particularly in rural populations, as documented by travelers such as Ibn Batuta, who visited Mali in 1352 CE. Furthermore, Islamic studies were done, at least initially, in Arabic rather than native languages, which further limited their appeal outside of the educated clerical class of towns and cities. It may have been because African rulers could not afford to completely dismiss the indigenous religious practices and beliefs that were still held by the majority of their people, and which very often elevated rulers to divine or semi-divine status, that Islam did eventually take hold, though it was a distinct variation of the Islam practiced in the Arab world.
Ancestors were still honored, and in certain places, women were given more privileges than they would have had under strictly sharia rule.
Sankore Mosque, TimbuktuRadio Raheem is a local radio personality.
Islam had tremendous influence on many elements of everyday life and society, albeit these effects varied depending on the period and region in which they occurred. The arrival of Islam resulted in a broad deterioration of the social standing of various tribes in ancient African cultures. One of the most significant losers was the metalworkers, who had long been held in magical regard by the general public due to their abilities in forging metal. A similar statement may be made about individuals who discovered and mined valuable metals such as gold and iron.
- Also true is that in some cases oral traditions retained their cultural integrity, and as a result, we are presented with a parallel history, such as the biographies ofSundiata Keita(r.
- 1230-1255 CE), the founder of the Mali Empire In various African communities, men and women’s roles have evolved in the past, with some African societies formerly granting women a more equal standing with males than was the case under Muslim legislation.
- Some of the more cosmetic alterations included the use of Muslim-friendly names in place of Christian names.
- In addition, clothing has altered, with women in particular being pushed to wear more modestly, and teenagers being encouraged to hide their nudity.
- However, there were slight regional variations in the religion, just as there were in the religion itself.
- The introduction of Islam brought with it a plethora of technological advancements, including writing, numbers, arithmetic, measures, and weights.
Along with archaeology, these writers have made significant contributions to the reconstruction of ancient Africa following the European colonial period, during which every effort was made to obliterate the history of the continent lest it conflict with the racist belief that Africa had been waiting for civilisation for eons before it was discovered.
Did you like reading this article? Prior to publication, this paper was checked for correctness, dependability, and conformance to academic standards by two independent reviewers.
North Africa – From the Arab conquest to 1830
After the Arabs finished their conquest of Egypt in 642, they began raiding theBerber(Amazigh) area to the west of the country, which they dubbed Bild al-Maghrib (“Lands of the West”) or just theMaghrib (Lands of the West). This region became a province of the Muslim empire in 705 and was administered from Damascus by the Umayyad caliphs (661–750), who reigned from 661 to 750. The Arab Muslim conquerors of the Maghrib had a considerably longer-lasting influence on the culture of the region than any of the invaders who came before or after them.
Indigenous Christian communities in the region, which had been a significant part of the Christian world before to the Arab invasion, have all but vanished from the face of the earth.
Islam gained widespread acceptance and spread rapidly among these fiercely independent peoples, largely as a result of its teachings becoming an ideology through which the Berbers justified both their rebellion against the caliphs and their support for rulers who rejected caliphal authority (see below).
- Tunisiawas was attacked numerous times after 647, but no attempt was made to establish Arab sovereignty there until 670, according to historical records.
- Only after the Umayyads had established themselves as a caliphal dynasty in the 660s and had come to consider the conquest of the Maghrib in the perspective of their conflict with the Byzantine Empiredid they begin to take a systematic approach to the conquest of the Maghrib.
- Prior to his expulsion from the kingdom in 674, Uqbah established the town ofKairouan, which became the first Arab administrative center in the Maghrib.
- During the course of his expedition, Ab al-Muhjir Dnr was successful in convincing the Berber “king”Kusaylah to convert to Islam.
- Kusaylah was born in Tlemcen and raised in Tlemcen.
- When Uqbah was re-instated as commander of the Arab army in the Maghrib in 681, he insisted on imposing direct Arab administration over the whole territory, which was ultimately unsuccessful.
- While returning to Kairouan, Uqbah was assaulted at Biskra (in modern-day Algeria), on instructions from Kusaylah, by Berbers backed by Byzantine contingents, who were able to repel the onslaught.
- By the 680s, the Arabs had advanced far enough in their conquest of the Maghrib that they were unwilling to accept defeat at the hands of a Berber leader, even if he professed Islam, as a result of their efforts.
- After retaking Kairouan, the first army, under the direction of Zuhayr ibn Qays al-Balawi, advanced westward to Mams, where Kusaylah was defeated and murdered.
- In 693, the second Arab army, under the command of Asssin ibn al-Numn, was despatched from Egypt to the Levant.
- After defeating Khinah in 698, Ibn al-Numun occupiedCarthage, the administrative center of Byzantine government in Tunisia, and began erecting the town ofTunis, which is still standing today.
The Maghrib, or at least its eastern section, was turned into a province of the Umayyad Caliphate in 705 by Ibn al-successor, Numn’s Msi ibn Nuayr, and so detached from thewilyahof Egypt, to which it had previously been administratively linked.
Khārijite Berber resistance to Arab rule
While posing as champions of a religion that recognizes the equality of all believers, Arab rulers in the 8th century emphasized their ethnic distinctiveness and exercised authority with little regard for Islamic religious norms. This was the dominant feature of political life in the Maghrib during this time period. After the Berbers converted to Islam in great numbers, this contradiction manifested itself in their ties with them, particularly when they served in the Arab army, which is known to have included Berber contingents under the direction of assan ibn al-Numn and his successor Mish ibn Nuayr.
- Despite the fact that they professed Islam, they were considered asmawl (“clients”) of the Arab tribes, and as a result, they were treated as second-class citizens and paid lower wages than the Arab fighters.
- The concerns of the warriors brought to light the widespread hatred of Berbers, which was fueled by practices such as the imposition of human tribute on Berber tribes, which allowed the Arab ruling class to obtain slaves, particularly female slaves, for the benefit of the Arab ruling class.
- 717–720) is the first recorded Umayyad caliph to have opposed the imposition of human tribute and commanded that it be abolished completely.
- The enlightened policies of this devout caliph, on the other hand, did not survive his brief rule.
- In their battle against Umayyad authority, the MuslimKhrijitesect made use of this revolutionary potential to their advantage.
- In the year 740, a significant Berber uprising against Arab control erupted in the province of Tangier.
- He was the sect’s first leader.
By 742, they had consolidated control over the whole country of Algeria and were attacking the city of Kairouan.
In 697, the Umayyad army defeated a Khrijite revolt in Iraq and established Ib dominance in Tripolitania as a consequence of the operations ofd s (“propagandists”) dispatched from the group’s primary headquarters in Iraq after the Khrijite rebellion there had been subdued by the Umayyad army.
Only the southern region of Tunisia, which was held at the time by a Berber tribe affiliated with the Ufri Khrijites, was under the power of the Fihrid dynasty, which controlled the whole country save for the south.
However, the Ibiyyah in Tripolitania immediately named one of their religious leaders as imam (the Khrijite counterpart of the Sunnicaliph), and in 758, they took Tunisia from the ufriyyah, thereby ending the Islamic period.
The Abbsids were only able to enforce their power on Tunisia, eastern Algeria, and Tripolitania, at the time.
In 800, Arab forces rose up against the Abbsid governor and Ifriqiyyah was changed into an Arab kingdom, which was controlled by the Aghlabid dynasty under the auspices of the caliphs of the Abbsid empire.
After employing his men to restore order in Tunisia, he was able to establish himself as the province’s ruler and consolidate his power.
The caliph’s agreement in Ibn al-takeover Aghlab’s of control was tied to the latter’s ongoing acknowledgement of Abbsid suzerainty and payment of tributes to Baghdad, according to Hrin al-Rashd.
The Maghrib under Muslim dynasties in the 8th–11th centuries
Because of their uprising against caliphal power in the name of Islam, the Berbers formed religious ties with other Muslim opponents of the caliphs, and Islamic political ideals and religious values gained popularity in Berber culture as a result of their resistance. Additionally, their rebellion resulted in the rule of caliphs being replaced by the rule of four separate Muslim states dominated by dynasties that either nominally recognized caliphal authority, as was the case with the Aghlabids, or completely rejected it, as was the case with the other three states, as was the case with the other three states.
The longevity of the four republics was dependent on the balance of political forces inside the area itself, which was in flux at the time.