How Was Islam Introduced Into Southeast Asia And West Africa? (Perfect answer)

What was the process of Islamization of Southeast Asia?

  • There are several theories to the Islamization process in Southeast Asia. The first theory is trade. The expansion of trade among West Asia, India and Southeast Asia helped the spread of the religion as Muslim traders brought Islam to the region. Gujarati Muslims played a pivotal role in establishing Islam in Southeast Asia.


How did Islam spread to Southeast Asia quizlet?

In general, how did Islam spread in southeast Asia? The conversion of southeastern Asia to Islam was accomplished by conversion of port cities, followed by extension into the back country.

In which empire was Asia version of Islam made the official religion in the 16th century?

Through their actions, the Safavids reunified Iran as an independent state in 1501 and established Twelver Shiism as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam.

Why did the maritime expeditions of the Indian Ocean basin sponsored by the Ming emperor suddenly stop?

Why did the maritime expeditions of the Indian Ocean basin sponsored by the Ming emperor suddenly stop in 1433? The emperor’s successors viewed expansion as a waste of resources.

How did Islam spread to India quizlet?

How did Islam spread to India, and what impact did it have on the region? First came with Arab merchants and conquerors and then with the Maluks. They ruled the first Muslim, Indian Empire. Most Indians were Hindu which cause many conflicts for centuries.

How did Islam spread in South Asia and Southeast Asia?

The expansion of trade among West Asia, India and Southeast Asia helped the spread of the religion as Muslim traders brought Islam to the region. Gujarati Muslims played a pivotal role in establishing Islam in Southeast Asia. The second theory is the role of missionaries or Sufis.

How did Islam spread to Southeast Asia?

Therefore, one would say that Islam arrived in South-East Asia in a peaceful way through trade and interactions between Muslim merchants and the locals. Similarly to Buddhism, Islam blended with existing cultural and religious influences of the Southeast Asian regions.

How did Islam influence the Ottoman Empire?

Although the Ottoman Empire was widely influenced by the faiths and customs of the peoples it incorporated, the most significant influences came from Islam. The ruling elite worked their way up the hierarchy of the state madrassahs (religious schools) and the palace schools.

How did Islam influence the government of the Ottoman Empire?

The Ottoman state based its authority on religion. The first warrior-sultans expanded the empire in the name of Islam. Sultans claimed the title of caliph, or successor to the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. Alongside the sultans, religious scholars, called ulama, played a significant role in running the state.

What three factors were responsible for the expansion of the Ottoman Empire beginning around 1300?

Established around 1300, the Ottoman Empire grew from a tiny state in northwestern Anatolia because of three factors: (1) the shrewdness of its founder, Osman (from which the name Otto- man comes), and his descendants, (2) control of a strategic link between Europe and Asia on the Dardanelles strait, and (3) the

How did the spread of Islam affect Indian Ocean commerce?

How did the spread of Islam affect Indian Ocean commerce? Muslim merchants and sailors established communities of traders from East Africa to the south China coast. How did the Silk Road trade affect peasants in China? Peasants focused more on producing luxury goods.

What was the purpose for the naval expeditions of the Ming Dynasty?

These expeditions were not voyages of exploration. Their main purpose was the reassertion of Chinese prestige to the south and west. They were commissioned to accept the submission and tribute of the foreign rulers they encountered.

Which religious traditions blended elements of Hinduism and Islam?

Which of the following religious traditions blended elements of Hinduism and Islam? Sikhism. Which of the following statements expresses a view of women found in the Quran? Women were spiritually equal to men.

What caused Islam to spread Asia and Africa?

The expansion of Islam into Asia was solidified with the formation of the Ottoman Empire in the 13th century. This vast empire helped the spread of Islam throughout the world. This fueled the Ottomans’ murderous expansion, which led to the conquest of many states and drove the expansion of Islam.

How did Islam first began to spread?

Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries. Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time. The caliphate—a new Islamic political structure—evolved and became more sophisticated during the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates.

How did Islam spread from the Middle East to Africa?

Following the conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE, Islam spread throughout West Africa via merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries, that is largely through peaceful means whereby African rulers either tolerated the religion or converted to it themselves.

Did you know?: The Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia through the Trade Routes

The Silk Roads are among the most important routes in our collective history, and they are still in use today. The establishment of ties between east and west was made possible by the construction of these highways, which exposed varied regions to a variety of different ideas and ways of life. Notably, many of the world’s main religions, including Islam, were spread as a result of these contacts, which is noteworthy. Following the establishment of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century, the religion began to spread eastward through commerce, which was aided by the construction of the maritime Silk Roads.

This allowed them to control the East-West trade routes that ran over the maritime Silk Roads, which linked numerous key ports in eastern Asian countries together.

Due to these exchanges, Islam was able to spread even farther, reaching people living in significant coastal towns on the Indian Subcontinent and in China, as well as those living in more remote South-eastern islands such as modern Indonesia and the Philippines.

Historically, Muslim traders traveling from the Arabian Peninsula to China’s ports had to transit via these islands in the southern hemisphere through the maritime Silk Roads.

According to popular belief, some of these traders eventually moved in Indonesia and assimilated with the locals.

It is possible to see archeological evidence of Islam being practiced by monarchs in the 13th century by looking at tombstones inscribed with dates according to the Islamic year of Sumatran Kings from the 13th century.

Furthermore, during the 13th century, contacts between Muslim merchants and the local population, as well as trade through the Silk Roads between the southern Philippines and other neighboring regions such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia, aided in the spread of Islam among the local population in those regions.

  1. Islam, like Buddhism, was assimilated into the existing cultural and religious influences of the Southeast Asian areas in a similar way.
  2. Sri Lanka has an ancient monastic hospital system that dates back thousands of years.
  3. The Khwarazm region and the Silk Roads are intertwined.
  4. The spread of Buddhism throughout South and Southeast Asia as a result of trade routes.

Sayyid Bin Abu Ali, a true representative of intercultural relations throughout the Maritime Silk Roads, was recently honored. Thailand and the Silk Roads of the Maritime Silk Roads The Greeks Have a Foothold in Central Asia Routes of the Maritime Silk Routes in Central Asia

Islamic world – Indian Ocean Islam

A comparable linkage was growing at the same time across another “sea,” the Indian Ocean, which united Muslims from South and Southeast Asia to Muslims from East Africa and southern Arabia in the same manner as the Sahara linked Muslims from North Africa and Sudan. There are some striking parallels between the two periods, including the cycle of advance and retreat, the transfer of foreign influences through trade routes, and the establishment of substantial local scholarship. There were also differences: Indian Ocean Muslims had to deal with the Portuguese threat as well as Hindus and Buddhists, rather than pagans, which meant that Islam had to contend with sophisticated and refined religious traditions that had written literature and significant political power, whereas pagans had to contend with simple and primitive religious traditions.

When Sultan Iskandar Muda (reigned 1607–37), Aceh reached the pinnacle of its affluence and significance in the Indian Ocean commerce, he promoted Islamic studies and expanded Muslim adherents throughout the country.

Because they were able to rely on a variety of sources, many of which were filtered via India, it is possible that Sumatran Muslims were exposed to a broader reservoir of Muslim learning than Muslims in many regions of the heartland.

Similarly to the process of naturalization and indigenization of Islam that was taking place in Africa, Abd al-Raf of Singkel, after studying in Arabia from approximately 1640 to 1661, returned home, where he made the first “translation” of the Qur’an into Malay, whose vocabulary and script had been greatly enriched by Arabic script and vocabulary during this period of time.

An Islamicate scholar born around 1650 in Nanking (Nanjing), Liu Xhi was responsible for some of the most important works of Islamicate literature in Chinese, including works of philosophy and law.

Meanwhile, a significant Islamic presence was establishing in Java, both inland and along the beaches; by the early 17th century, the first inland Muslim state in Southeast Asia, Mataram, had been created.

Mataram, in contrast to the more heavily Islamized republics of Sumatra, suffered, as did its equivalents in West Africa, from its failure to suppress indigenous beliefs to the satisfaction of the more orthodox ulama, as did its counterparts in West Africa.

It is this predicament that brings to light a significant issue of Islamicatehistory during the time of consolidation and expansion—namely, the regularly shown absorptive power of Muslim civilizations, a capacity that was soon to be challenged in hitherto unheard of ways.

Islam and the African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World •

History professor Omar H. Ali examines a lesser-known component of the worldwide African Diaspora, namely, the spread of African peoples and their cultures throughout the Indian Ocean basin, in the following essay written in English. Long before the arrival of Islam in the seventh century C.E., Africans had established themselves as a conspicuous presence in the Indian Ocean realm. Africans were enslaved and transported across the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Peninsula, as well as as far as the Indian subcontinent, for more than half a millennium prior to the foundation of the initialummah wahida -community of Muslims- in western Arabia.

  1. These seafarers navigated dhows that were pushed by seasonal winds as they transported and sold a variety of commodities, including slave cargo, between Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia, among other places.
  2. In the Indian Ocean realm, the foundation and spread of Islam by the Prophet Muhammad and his followers, beginning in 610 and continuing over the following centuries, would extend and build upon an existing African Diaspora that had already existed in the region.
  3. Muslims migrated from the Arabian Peninsula along the Zanj (parts of the East African coast) and eastward to the territories that include modern-day Iraq, Iran, India, Sri Lanka, and other parts of the world.
  4. By the mid-sixteenth century, Islam had not only established itself as the dominant religion in northern India but also had a number of vibrant communities in distant China, as well as in the Middle East and North Africa.
  5. As was the case with Islam’s westward spread over North and West Africa, Islam gained traction in the Indian Ocean through a combination of commerce, military conquest, and peaceful conversion—the latter of which was mostly accomplished through the labor of Sufi mystics (Muslim ascetics).
  6. They also developed syncretism—new religious and philosophical outlooks, such as Din i-Ilahi, promoted by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, which combined elements of Islam with Hinduism, Jainism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism—as a result of this integration.
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Like South Asian Muslims before them, African Muslim immigrants served to further Africanize Islam, as was the case in South Asia, with growing numbers of Africans (either Muslims before leaving Africa or converting to Islam after leaving Africa) constituting part of theummah east of the River Nile.

  1. In this group of men and women was Bilal ibn Rabah, also known as “the Ethiopian” (al-Habashi).
  2. According to thehadith (traditions of the Prophet and his Companions), Bilal was one of Muhammad’s early converts, according to tradition.
  3. Bilal believed that there was only one god, whom he called Allah.
  4. After learning about Bilal’s perseverance, Abu Bakr (later known as the first Caliph of Sunni Islam) decided to free him.
  5. At some of Islam’s most crucial wars, Bilal fought beside the Prophet, including the bloody Battle of Badr in 624 against the Quraysh tribe of Mecca.
  6. Bilal, who has been described as “tall and dark,” with “lean features,” resided for a while in Basra, a major port city in southern Iraq, according to his friends.
  7. The Zanj Uprising was a revolt against the Zanj government.

Tens of thousands of enslaved men and women from the Sahel, the Horn of Africa, and other parts of eastern Africa, who were forced to work under some of the most brutal conditions possible to remove salt from the crust of the land surrounding Basra, rose up in revolt against their slave masters.

  • The insurrection of Bilal and his followers was not the first reported in the region of southern Iraq: a black slave named Rabah Shir Zanji (also known as the “Lion of the Zanj”) launched a revolution in Basra in 694-695, less than two generations after Bilal had resided in the city.
  • The majority of the rebel warriors under the command of the free Persian ‘Ali b.
  • A new government was formed in southern Iraq as a result of this insurrection, which predated by almost one thousand years the Quilombo dos Palmares maroon colony inBrazil and the Haitianrepublic’s infancy.
  • Fourteen years passed until the Zanj troops were defeated by Abbasid military power, thereby ending the insurrection turned state.
  • These rebels on the Lower Nile, like their forebears in southern Iraq two and a half centuries earlier, mounted on the very Arabian horses for which they had been tasked with caring, temporarily established their own state before being defeated by military force.
  • Nevertheless, the majority of Africans in the Indian Ocean region adapt into their local civilizations, which may include conversion to Islam in certain instances.
  • Many did so in order to take advantage of the benefits that came with being Muslim, such as broad trade networks, intellectual prominence, and political backing, among other things.

One thousand years after Bilal, who was regarded as a model of faith, another notable African from the Indian Ocean region would declare himself to be a servant of Allah as well.

He was born into slavery in Ethiopia about 1550 and later converted to Islam.

Later, he was given the title “Malik-king” after changing his name from Shambu to Ambar.

He was first educated in administration in the Hejaz (western Arabia), before being transported to the port city of Mocha in southern Arabia, followed by Baghdad, and finally arriving in central India’s Deccan plateau, which encompasses the majority of the Indian peninsula.

Ambar’s qualities and capabilities continued to be acknowledged in India, where he was elevated to ever-higher positions of power as a result of his efforts.

In 1590, however, he rose out in rebellion and created his own army, which consisted of 1,500 cavalry and infantrymen, many of them were African-Americans.

Over the following several years, he fought for a number of different Deccan kings and successfully resisted Mughal attempts to seize control of the region.

Unfortunately for the Mughal Emperor Akbar, he and his soldiers were unable to defeat Ambar in the Deccan, and the task was passed on to his equally disappointed successor, the Emperor Jahangir.

Despite Jahangir’s initial hostility toward theHabashi, he was eventually forced to acknowledge the effectiveness of his adversary’s military tactics.

He would also forge a naval alliance with the Siddis (other African-descended South Asians) on the fortified island of Janjira in order to shut off Mughal supply lines from reaching the mainland.

As a model capital, Ambar built canals and an irrigation system for the surrounding countryside.

He also instituted a progressive tax system and supported Islamic scholarship.

He provided property to Hindus, patronized Hindu intellectuals, and put Brahmins to positions of authority, including those of tax collectors and officials.

The Persistent Black Presence While Malik Ambar was a remarkable individual, the vast majority of Africans in the Indian Ocean region today (as was the case in Ambar’s own time) continue to be impoverished and politically disenfranchised.

Men and women of African descent live in significant numbers in southern Iraq, particularly in and around the city of Basra.

presidential primaries inspired black community leaders in Basra to run for public office for the first time in their lives.

The Story of Africa

West AfricaTRADEIslam first came to West Africa as a slow andpeaceful process, spread by Muslim traders and scholars. The early journeysacross the Sahara were done in stages. Goods passed through chains of Muslimtraders, purchased, finally, by local non-Muslims at the southern most end ofthe route. Inthe 5th century transporting heavy loads long distance was made much easierby the introduction of the camel to the trade routes. There were manytrading partners in Sub-Saharan Africa. Gold was the main commodity soughtby the North. Until the first half of the 13th century the kingdom of Ghana was a key trading partner with the Muslim North.WESTAFRICAN KINGDOMS: THE KINGDOM OF GHANAThe kings of Ghana in the 11th centurywere not Muslims, but Muslims played a crucial role in their government.The great Spanish scholar Al Bakri describes the king of Ghana in the11th century, Basi, as being a man who:”…led a praiseworthy life on account of hislove of justice and friendship for the Muslims…The city of Ghana consistsof two towns situated on a plain. One of these towns, inhabited by Muslims,is large and possesses twelve mosques, in one of which they assemble forthe Friday prayer.There are salaried imams and muezzins, as well as jurists and scholars.” Al Bakri, from the Book of Routes and Realms, Corpusof Early Arabic sources for West African History, Levtzion and Hopkins.Another trade route forged by Muslim traderswent from Zawila (in what today is Southern Libya) down to Bornu and Kanem.Al Bakri regarded Zawila as a very important commercial crossroads, andfrom its description it is clearly a lively and prosperous centre of Islamicfaith:”It is a town without walls and situated in themidst of the desert. It is the first point of the land of the Sudan. It hasa cathedral mosque, a bath, and markets. Caravans meet there from all directionsand from there the ways of those setting out radiate. There are palm grovesand cultivated areas which are irrigated by means of camels…”Al Bakri, from the Book of Routes and Realms, quotedin Corpus of Early Arabic sources for West African History, edited by Levtzionand Hopkins.After Zawila, carrying on directly South, traderseventually reached the Kingdom of Kanem near Lake Chad, a flourishing commercialcentres between the 9th and 14th centuries. Kanem converted to Islam in the9th century. It was later superseded by the kingdom of Borno.By the 14th century the most powerful kingdom in West Africa was Maliunder the leadership of Sundiata. One of his successors, Mansa Musa, madea celebrated hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca. His retinue was so huge and luxuriouslydressed, and carrying such vast amounts of gold, that he became the talkof the Muslim world.As well as being very prosperous, Mali became a great seat of learning renownedthroughout the Muslim world.”We used to keep the Sultan company during his progress,I and Abu Ishaq al-Tuwayjin, to the exclusion of his viziers and chief men,and converse to his enjoyment. At each halt he would regale us with rare foodsand confectionery. His equipment and furnishings were carried by 12,000 privateslave women, wearing gowns of brocade and Yemeni silk.” An account of Emperor Mansa’s hajj, given to Ibn Khaldunby Al-Mu’ammar, quoted from the Muqaddima by Levtzion and Hopkins in Corpusof Early Arabic sources for West African History.ISLAMIC REFORM AND CONQUEST IN WEST AFRICABy the 14th century the ruling elite of the Hausacity states were all Muslim. They comprised Gobir (most northern), Katsina,Kano, Zazzau (the most southern), Zamfara and Kebbi.Themajority of the people did not convert until the 18th century, when a seriesof jihads were launched by the Fulbe, tired of the corrupt ways of the rulingelite.First the Muslim states of Futa Jallon (modern Guinea) and Futa Toro (southernSenegal) were established. Then the city states were conquered one by one. Thiswas accomplished by the Sokoto jihad under the leadership of Usman dan Fodio- scholar, military strategist and religious leader. Sokoto became the seatof a new Caliphate.Islam leaders spread the faith further into Yorubaland Nupe. Dan Fodio’s sonsMohammed Bello and Abdullahi took over the practical running of this great Muslimterritory.Listento the court musicians of the current Emir of Zazzau in Zaria, Northern NigeriaFIGHTING THE FRENCHThe momentum of reform was continued by UmarTal, a Tukulor scholar who conquered three Bambara kingdoms in the 1850’s-1860’s.The territory was taken by the French in the 1890’s. Another formidable enemyof the French was Samori Toure who kindled some of the glory of old Mali withhis Mandinka Empire and 30,000 strong army. He used the latest quick loadingguns, which his blacksmiths knew how to mend. After his death, his son was defeatedby the French in 1901.ISLAM AND COLONIALISM IN WEST AFRICAThe British colonial administrators had somerespect for Islam. They recognised its power to impose uniformity and spreada degree of literacy. When Queen Victoria sent two bibles to the Abeokuta mission,mindful of the spread of literacy through Koranic schools, she ensured one ofthem was in Arabic. Colonial officials who had served in Egypt, felt quite athome in the Muslim area of West Africa.In northern Nigeria, the British undertook not to interfere with the Muslimorder and exercised colonial authority through the Emirs. At the same time theydiscouraged people from going to North Africa to further their studies in theIslamic institutes of higher learning there, fearing the broadening of horizonsthis entailed would lead to a radical outlook. From 1922 onwards, Egypt enjoyedindependence and stood as an inspiration to many people in Africa still undercolonial rule.

Islamic Influence on Southeast Asian Visual Arts, Literature, and Performance

More than a thousand years ago, Islam began to spread into the countries bordering the South China Sea, and it has continued to this day. Islamic traditions and narratives were mostly carried into Southeast Asia by sailors, traders, holy men and adventurers who found it simple to transport because it did not require temples, priests, or congregants for its adherents to be transported. The history of Islam on the island of Java in the Republic of Indonesia, for example, is a useful case study for understanding how Islam has been localized in Southeast Asia.

  1. Java, the island on which Indonesia’s main cities, including the capital city of Jakarta, are situated, is home to over two-thirds of the country’s Muslims.
  2. Java’s coastline cities served as transit points for Muslims from all over the world: Arabia, Persia, India, Sumatra, and China.
  3. During the fourteenth century, Java became a focal point for stories traveling over the South China Sea between India and China.
  4. The intertwining of ancient Indian and Islamic narratives with contemporary ones, as well as their localization in Java, is the central focus of this article.

Indic/Islamic Overlay and Temples and Mosques

On the temple walls of temples from the earlier Hindu-Buddhist period, in some areas of Southeast Asia where Islam would later be adopted, elaborate carvings depicting stories from the lives of the Buddha, or the gods and heroes of the Ramayana and Mahabharata epic stories, adorned the temple walls. The first mosques, which date back to the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, were built in a style that was comparable to the Hindu temples that can still be found on the Indonesian island of Bali, where Hinduism has remained the predominant religion.

  1. They were sites where Muslim men congregated on Fridays to worship together; they were also used as boarding rooms for travelers such as students, scholars, and tradesmen who were on their way somewhere else.
  2. Passing through these Islamic areas were people and ideas, and their imprints were left on the environment.
  3. All mosques feature a location for washing hands and feet before worshipping, as well as a clear direction toward the holy city of Mecca, in order to facilitate the formation of faith communities.
  4. This is the direction in which Muslims should pray when they are in the mosque.
  5. The first mosques on Java can be found on the north coast, where the first mosques on Java can be found.
  6. There is evidence that Chinese academics paused in south Sumatra, the bigger island to the north and west of Java, for a few years to study at huge Buddhist monasteries before continuing on to Buddhist monasteries in India, beginning in the seventh century.

During the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, the Islamic rulers of Java who were the first to adopt Islam as their official religion mixed elements of the Islamic courts of Mughal India with elements of local customs, as well as elements of Chinese Buddhist and Confucian traditions.

In recent years, they have undergone restoration, and many of its original elements have been preserved.

The minarets, domes, and arched windows that we see today in mosques throughout Southeast Asia are very recent additions to a tradition that originated in the late nineteenth century in the Middle East.

Oral Traditions and Stories

Temple walls from the ancient Hindu-Buddhist period were decorated with ornate sculptures depicting stories from the Buddha’s life as well as gods and heroes from the Ramayana and Mahabharata epics in various places of Southeast Asia where Islam would eventually be accepted. First built in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, the first mosques resembled the Hindu temples that may still be found today on the Indonesian island of Bali, where Hinduism has remained the predominant religion.

  • They were sites where Muslim men met on Fridays to worship together; they were also used as boarding homes for travelers such as students, academics, and tradesmen who were passing through.
  • In these Islamic areas, people and ideas moved through, leaving their mark on the surrounding landscape.
  • All mosques contain a location for washing hands and feet before worshipping, as well as a clear direction toward the holy city of Mecca, in order to facilitate the formation of believers’ communities.
  • Chinese traders and scholars would stop here on their way to other parts of the trading and religious world of the South China Sea or the Indian Ocean, and this is where the first mosques on Java were built.
  • A significant contribution to the growth of these north coast cities was made by the Chinese community.
  • Among the different visitors and traders from Arabia, India, and East Asia who introduced Islam to Java may have been Chinese merchants and travelers.
  • Demak, Cirebon, and Kudus were among the first cities in Java to construct mosques, which were completed in 1603.

In recent years, they have undergone restoration, and many of their original elements have been retained. We can only date back to the late nineteenth century that the minarets, domes, and arched windows that we see now in Southeast Asia were first included into the architecture of these mosques.

Shadow Puppet and Wooden Puppet Theaters

Many individuals in Javanese culture relied on oral storytelling for the preservation and transfer of information, and the shadow puppet and wooden puppet traditions played a crucial role in organizing knowledge. Javanese history, genealogy, ethics, and religious lore are all represented in these theatrical traditions, which constitute a collected body of knowledge. When it comes to puppet traditions, they may teach etiquette, appropriate language usage and mysticism, and they can even provide a little family therapy to the sponsor or patron of a play.

  1. On the Indonesian island of Java, there are a variety of shadow puppet and wooden puppet theater repertoires to choose from.
  2. Despite the fact that these tale cycles feature Indic figures linked with Hinduism in India, the Indic characters in Java are more at home in Islamic areas delineated by the mosque and the market.
  3. Some of the palace sites that serve as the setting for most shadow plays’ opening scenes appear to have been derived from the courts of Persia and India.
  4. Yudistira keeps a mystical charm known as the Kalimasada with him at all times.
  5. It is only Kalijaga who has been able to effectively understand Yudistira’s magic weapon to this point.
  6. This is only one example of the many ways in which Islam is linked to previous heroes and heroines, as well as older customs, throughout history.
  7. These collections are known as “repertoires of oral and written tales.” Early versions of the stories were likely introduced into Javanese through the Malay language, which was the language of trade and scholarship in areas of Sumatra and the Malay peninsula at the time of their transmission.
  8. Amir Hamzah has two devoted pals, figures fairly evocative of the clowns in other shadow play repertoires, named Umarmaya and Umarmadi.
  9. The Amir Hamzah tales are presented with wooden puppets in the area of north central Java called Kebumen.
  10. This is significantly different from the way that the stories exist in India, where they are part of north Indian and Pakistani Urdu poetic performance traditions of recitation, music, and poetry.

Last, on the island of Lombok, just east of Bali, a shadow theater tradition known as Wayang Sasak is performed where the Islamic characters of the Amir Hamzah stories are the good heroes and the Mahabharata characters are the enemies to be defeated, signifying the triumph of Islam over Hinduism in most of Lombok.

This repertory is a unique one, depicting historical clashes between the Balinese Hindus and the Muslim Sasaks of Lombok. But the Amir Hamzah stories are performed in Hindu Bali as well, and the musical accompaniment for Wayang Sasak is a Balinese type of music.

Writing Systems and Manuscript Traditions

Indic writing traditions are the earliest writing traditions that have been discovered in Java. They take the form of inscriptions on stones, written in a Sanskrit-based alphabet from southern India and based on ancient texts. Indian professionals have maintained the religious, technical, and artistic knowledge contained in Sanskrit as a result of their efforts. As far as we know, it may have never existed as a spoken language in its original form. These early inscriptions, which belong to the third and fourth century CE, are found on the mainland of Southeast Asia.

  • It is estimated that the Indian tales listed above were incorporated into the Ramayana text around the ninth century.
  • More poetry literature in Old Javanese may be traced back to the eleventh century, and it is reminiscent of poetic literature from northern India.
  • Many of the poems are linked to the Ramayana and Mahabharata cycles of stories, which have been performed throughout Java and Bali for thousands of years and continue to be performed today.
  • Documents relating to Islam that were written in Malay or Javanese originate from later periods of history.
  • Documents related to Islamic thinking were written in a variety of languages, including Javanese, Malay, and an Indic script.
  • Some of the manuscripts from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have been illuminated, and they are among the most important.

When the letters of the numerous alphabets used to inscribe Javanese manuscripts were considered to be potent amulets and charms, as well as bearers of knowledge, they were referred to as “bearers of information.” Writing was considered an art form in and of itself; in many cases, the people who produced the writings and those who copied them were two entirely separate persons.

  1. The Dutch colonial authorities, who ruled the several islands that make up modern-day Indonesia from the eighteenth century until World War II, were anxious that Islam would serve as a rallying point for anti-European feeling among the country’s population.
  2. R.
  3. Kartini was one of the most prolific writers in Java during the late colonial period.
  4. Kartini’s father was a regent in the city of Jepara, which is located on the north coast of Indonesia.
  5. She was therefore able to compose letters throughout the years when she was confined to her home and yard as a young girl, as was typical for ladies of high social standing until they married.
  6. To her Dutch acquaintances, she lamented the necessity for women to marry, about the polygamous environment in which she was nurtured, and about the plight of Javanese women, who were sometimes pushed into loveless marriages.
  7. In Indonesia, she is still revered as the nation’s mother, and she is lauded for her efforts to secure equal educational opportunities for women.
  8. He was well-known for his fervent talks in which he attempted to unite Islam, nationalism, and communism in an one statement.

In his talks, he frequently incorporated Islamic terms as well as allusions to characters from shadow-play productions. Until his removal from power in 1965, he served as Indonesia’s leader from the country’s proclamation of independence in 1945 until the country’s independence was declared in 1945.


Following Indonesia’s independence from the United Kingdom in 1949, Islam was able to develop in a number of ways. Java now has both puppet theatre and modern performing arts organizations, which is a rarity for the island. Some of the most well-known directors and dancers put up plays with Islamic themes on a regular basis. Using the talents of the well-known Javanese choreographer and dancer Sardono Kusuma, he brought the narrative of the great Islamic rebel Prince Diponegoro to life. In 1825, Prince Diponegoro led the Javanese of the central Javanese city of Yogyakarta in a revolt against the Dutch.

In 2003, he directed a number of plays that dealt with foreigners’ fears of Islamic men in the wake of September 11th.

She is well-known for her seductive style of jaipongan dance, as well as for her rigorous adherence to Islamic principles.

3.3C: Empires Belief Systems

Anger against corruption in the Church: In 1517, Martin Luther, a monk from Wittenberg, Germany, released his 95 theses, which marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. In this paper, Luther expresses his opposition to the Church’s practice of selling indulgences (tickets that people could buy to have sins forgiven). He also opposed the practice of simony, which he considered to be unethical (the sale of offices when the church bureaucracy). In 1521, Pope Leo X expelled Luther from the Church, prompting Luther and his supporters to found a new church, which became known as the Lutheran Church.

  1. During his seminary teaching career at the English university of Oxford, John Wycliffe (1328-1384) campaigned against some of the Catholic Church’s most fundamental principles.
  2. The Bible, he said, should be made available to everyone in their own tongue, and that retaining the book solely in Latin, as was the custom at the time, prevented people from learning about Christ’s stories.
  3. Many European monarchs considered the emergence of the Protestant Reformation as a weapon for undermining the power of the Catholic Church in their own countries.
  4. In response to the Pope’s refusal to grant his request, Henry took the side of English Protestants.
  5. The annulment of his marriage was granted rather promptly by the new English Church.
  6. Technology: New technologies such as the printing press assisted Protestant reformers in spreading their message throughout the world.
  7. By the time of the Protestant Reformation, which began in 1517, the printing press had been developed, allowing reformers to produce large quantities of anti-Catholic tracts.

Over time, it also had a significant impact on the political and social fabric of Europe, and eventually, the rest of the world.

The Catholic Church is being weakened as a result of: The Protestant Reformation exacerbated the Catholic Church’s already precarious position.

As a result, the Church’s influence over political activities in Europe began to wane as a result of this development.

Wars of religion: As Protestant ideas expanded and new Protestant communities sprung up across Europe, wars of religion erupted as Protestant organizations challenged the Catholic Church and the authority of Catholic authorities across the continent.

Most notably, the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), which resulted in the deaths of approximately 8 million people in Europe, was the most extensive and deadliest.

The conflict erupted.

Differing Christian practices: The Protestant Reformation was also responsible for the diversification of religious practices.

There are many of Christian faiths in existence now all across the world.

A number of Church beliefs and practices were reformatted (or confirmed) (or continued) during the Council of Trent (1545-1563).

They also agreed that priests needed to be properly trained and that new seminaries should be established for this purpose.

The Catholic Church, on the other hand, was adamant in its refusal to move toward Protestantism.

Despite ongoing opposition, translation of the Bible was prohibited. The Church also declared that beliefs such as the bread and wine served at communion were in fact Christ’s physical flesh and blood (transubstantiation).

The Spread of Islam in West Africa: Containment, Mixing, and Reform

Margari Hill is a professor at Stanford University. accessible in PDF format as of January 2009 (1.14 MB) While Islam has been present in West Africa since the seventh century, the expansion of the faith in the territories that are now the modern republics of Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, and Nigeria was a lengthy and difficult process that began in the Middle East and ended in the Middle East. Much of what we know about the early history of West Africa comes from medieval records written by Arab and North African geographers and historians, who were primarily concerned with the region’s geography and history.

  • The economic objectives of some are emphasized, while the spiritual message of Islam is emphasized by others, and a number of others emphasize the prestige and impact of Arabic literacy in the process of state creation.
  • Despite the fact that commerce between West Africa and the Mediterranean predates Islam, North African Muslims were responsible for the expansion of the Trans-Saharan trade.
  • The trade routes Sijilmasa to Awdaghust and Ghadames to Gao, for example, connected Africa below the Sahara with the Mediterranean Middle East and were important commercial routes.
  • The Sahel region of West Africa was the site of the development of the three major medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and the Songhay.
  • Containment is the first stage.
  • The historical evolution of the medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay, as well as the 19th century jihads that resulted in the foundation of the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland and the Umarian kingdom in Senegambia, are illuminated by this three-phase paradigm.

Containment: Ghana and the Takrur

Islamic settlements tied to the trans-Saharan commerce were the only places where Islam could be found in the early days of civilization. Al-Bakri, an Andalusian geographer who lived in the 11th century, recorded details of Arab and North African Berber communities in the region during his time. A number of causes contributed to the expansion of the Muslim merchant-scholar class in non-Muslim nations, including: Islam encouraged long-distance trade by providing merchants with a helpful set of instruments, including as contract law, credit, and communication networks.

  • In addition to having created script, they possessed other important abilities that aided in the administration of kingdoms.
  • Additionally, merchant-scholars played a significant role in the expansion of Islam into the forest zones.
  • Muslim populations in the forest zones were minorities that were frequently related to trading diasporas, according to historians.
  • Al-Hajj Salim Suwari was a Soninke scholar who focused on the responsibilities of Muslims in non-Muslim societies.
  • This practice has been in place for generations in the forest zone, and it continues to be effective today in areas where there are active Muslim minorities.
  • Ghana The name was chosen as a means to pay homage to early African history.
  • Peoples such as the Soninken Malinke, the Wa’kuri, and the Wangari have lived in this region for thousands of years.

Around the year 300 A.D., large settlements began to appear in the Niger Delta region.

Merchants trading in salt, horses, dates, and camels from northern Africa and the Sahara exchanged them for gold, lumber, and food from the countries south of the Sahara, according to historians.

This gave rise to one of Ghana’s most distinctive characteristics: the dual city; Ghana’s Kings benefitted from Muslim commerce while keeping them outside the country’s political centre.

African kingdoms eventually began to enable Muslims to enter into their societies.

Around this time, the Almoravid reform movement began in the Western Sahara and spread over modern-day Mauritania, North Africa, and Southern Spain, among other places.

Muslims in West Africa benefited from the Almoravid revolution, which brought greater consistency of practice and Islamic law to their communities.

The Takruri realm was weakened as a result of the Almoravids’ conquest of trade routes and fortified fortifications. It would take more than a hundred years for the empire to disintegrate into a collection of minor kingdoms.

Mixing: The Empires of Mali and Songhay

Over the next several decades, African kings came to embrace Islam despite reigning over populations of varying religious and cultural beliefs and practices. The mixing phase, as specialists refer to it, was a period in which many of these kings combined Islam with conventional and local rituals. After a period of time, the populace began to embrace Islam, typically just adopting components of the faith that they found appealing. The Mali Empire (1215-1450) arose out of a series of fighting kingdoms in West Africa.

  • It was a multi-ethnic state with a diverse range of religious and cultural organizations.
  • However, while the empire’s founder, Sunjiata Keita, was not himself a Muslim, Mali’s rulers converted to Islam by 1300.
  • He established Islam as the official religion of the country and traveled on a pilgrimage from Mali to Mecca in 1324.
  • According to reports, his spending depreciated the value of gold in Egypt for a number of years.
  • By the fifteenth century, however, Mali had essentially disintegrated as a result of internal dissension and warfare with the Saharan Tuareg.
  • Hausaland was made up of a series of city-states that were connected by a network of roads (Gobir, Katsina, Kano, Zamfara, Kebbi and Zazzau).
  • During the ninth century, the state adopted Islam as its religion.

Northern Nigeria today includes most of Hausaland and Bornu in the east, as well as the rest of the country.

The kings of Hausaland followed in the footsteps of the rulers of prior Muslim republics in blending indigenous traditions with Islam.

Despite the fact that Islam was the official state religion, the vast majority of the populace continued to adhere to their traditional religious beliefs.

In the period 1465-1492, Sonni Ali, the ruler of the country, punished Muslim academics, particularly those who denounced pagan rites and practices.

Two centuries later, the kingdom of Gao re-emerged as the Songhay Empire, bringing the kingdom back to life.

Under the reign of King Songhay (1493-1529), the Songhay’s territory grew well beyond the bounds of any previous West African empire.

One famous example is the Great Mosque of Jenne, which was constructed in the 12th or 13th centuries and is still standing today.

By the 16th century, the Niger Bend area was home to various centers of commerce and Islamic study, the most famous of which was the fabled city of Timbuktu.

Timbuktu was established as a trade station by the Tuareg.

In 1325, the city had a population of around 10,000 people.

Timbuktu drew academics from all across the Muslim world to attend its conferences.

The Songhay Empire came to an end in 1591, when Morocco captured the realm.

As a result of the dispersal of merchant scholars from Timbuktu and other major learning centers, learning institutions were transferred from urban-based merchant families to rural pastoralists throughout the Sahara.

A mystical Sufi brotherhood organization began to expand over this region somewhere during the 12th and 13th centuries.

In African Muslim civilizations, Sufi organizations played an important role in the social order and the propagation of Islam throughout the continent, and this continued far into the twentieth century.

Reform in the Nineteenth Century: Umarian Jihad in Senegambia and the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland

The jihad activities of the nineteenth century are the clearest example of the third phase in the growth of Islam in West Africa. During this time period, experts have emphasized the manner in which literate Muslims grew increasingly aware of Islamic theology and began to seek reforms on the part of the leadership. Historically significance because it symbolizes the transition from Muslim communities that practiced Islam in conjunction with “pagan” ceremonies and customs to cultures that fully embraced Islamic ideals and created Shariah (Islamic Law).

Mauritania was the site of the first known jihad in West Africa, which occurred around the 17th century.

Nasir al-Din, a scholar, was the leader of an unsuccessful jihad known as Sharr Bubba.

In 1802, a Fulani scholar named Uthman Dan Fodio took the initiative and launched a massive jihad.

Because of this movement, there has been a consolidation of power within the Muslim community, as well as educational and legal changes.

His progeny carried on his legacy of literary creativity and educational reform into the modern day.

One famous example was the jihad of al Hajj Umar Tal, a Tukulor from the Senegambia area, who was killed in the course of his mission.

His conquests of three Bambara kingdoms took place during the 1850s and the 1860s.

Despite the fact that the French were in charge of the territory, colonial authorities faced a powerful adversary.

Following his death, French soldiers beat Toure’s son in a battle that took place in 1901.

Despite the fact that European forces were responsible for the fall of the Umarian state and the Sokoto Caliphate, colonial domination did little to prevent Islam from spreading over West Africa.

Sokoto Caliphate came to an end in 1903 when British soldiers invaded and annexed the region.

Contrary to colonial officials’ hopes and dreams, colonialism had far-reaching consequences for the Muslim society of Northern Nigeria.

Thus, Islam began to grow swiftly in new urban centers and regions, such as Yoruba land, as a result of this.

Despite the fact that Muslims lost political authority, Muslim communities made great strides throughout West Africa during the first decades of the twentieth century.

The trans-Saharan commerce route served as a key conduit for the spread of Islam throughout Africa.

Muslim communities have flourished in West Africa for more than a millennium, demonstrating that Islam is a substantial component of the continent’s cultural and religious environment.

  • InTimeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. 2001), “Western Sudan, 500–1000 AD.”
  • “Western and Central Sudan, 1000–1400 AD.”
  • “Western and Central Sudan, 1600–1800 AD.”
  • “Western and Central Sudan, 1600–1800 A.D.”
  • “Western and Central Muslim Societies in the History of Africa. Nehemia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels’ book, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2004, is a classic (eds). The History of Islam in Africa is a fascinating subject. Spencer Trimingham’s History of Islam in West Africa was published by Ohio University Press in Athens, Ohio, in 2000. Oxford University Press, 1962
  • New York: Oxford University Press, 1962

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