According to Arab oral tradition, Islam first came to Africa with Muslim refugees fleeing persecution in the Arab peninsula. Islam came to root along the East African coast some time in the 8th century, as part of a continuing dialogue between the people on the East coast and traders from the Persian Gulf and Oman.
The Story of Africa| BBC World Service
- Islam came to root along the East African coast some time in the 8th century, as part of a continuing dialogue between the people on the East coast and traders from the Persian Gulf and Oman. Like early Christianity, Islam was monotheistic, that is, Muslims worship only one God.
- 1 How did Islam come to East and West Africa?
- 2 Why did Muslims come to East Africa?
- 3 How was Islam introduced into African culture?
- 4 How was Islam first spread from the Middle East to Africa?
- 5 How did Islam influence Africa?
- 6 Who first brought Islam to West Africa?
- 7 Why was Islam slow to spread in East Africa?
- 8 How did Islam spread to North Africa?
- 9 What happened to religion in West Africa when Islam was introduced?
- 10 What brought Islam Ghana?
- 11 What are three ways that Islam had an impact on West Africa?
- 12 How did Islam spread in the Middle East?
- 13 How did Islam start and spread?
- 14 When did Islam start to spread?
- 15 The History of Islam in East Africa
- 16 The Spread of Islam in Ancient Africa
- 17 The Red Sea to East Africa and the Arabian Sea: 1328 – 1330
- 18 Islam and Islamic Culture: Earliest Foreign Influences on Physical Activity in Pre-Colonial East Africa
- 19 The Spread of Islam in West Africa: Containment, Mixing, and Reform
- 20 Containment: Ghana and the Takrur
- 21 Mixing: The Empires of Mali and Songhay
- 22 Reform in the Nineteenth Century: Umarian Jihad in Senegambia and the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland
- 23 East Africa: The Rise of the Swahili Culture and the Expansion of Islam (Chapter 12) – The Worlds of the Indian Ocean
How did Islam come to East and West Africa?
Islam first came to West Africa as a slow and peaceful process, spread by Muslim traders and scholars. Goods passed through chains of Muslim traders, purchased, finally, by local non-Muslims at the southern most end of the route.
Why did Muslims come to East Africa?
1830, when Muslim congregations came into being well beyond the coast. This change was driven by expanding long-distance trade, slave trading and slave plantations, immigration from the Western Indian Ocean, especially Southern Arabia, and by the politics of the African societies interacting with these forces.
How was Islam introduced into African culture?
Islam gained momentum during the 10th century in West Africa with the start of the Almoravid dynasty movement on the Senegal River and as rulers and kings embraced Islam. Islam then spread slowly in much of the continent through trade and preaching.
How was Islam first spread from the Middle East to Africa?
Islam Spreads in Africa. First, Arab traders came from Asia into North Africa. They moved across the Sahara into West Africa. Later on, other merchant traders came by boat to the east coast. Islam spread as ivory, salt, slaves, gold, and many other items were traded and sold.
How did Islam influence Africa?
Islam in Africa has linked together diverse peoples through better cultural understanding and a spirit of cooperation and common weal. The historial impact of Islam upon trade, particularly in West Africa, greatly increased the wealth of African people and helped form many great African empires.
Who first brought Islam to West Africa?
OVERVIEW: – Islam arrived in sub-Saharan West Africa as early as the 8th century, travelling with Arab traders from North Africa. The Muslim merchants brought trade and goods to exchange for gold and facilitated trade by introducing concepts such as contract law and credit arrangements.
Why was Islam slow to spread in East Africa?
Why was Islam slow to spread across East Africa? It prospered from the gold trade with the Swahili trading communities on the Eastern coast of Africa. BIg wall in China.. What was the role of women in most African civilizations?
How did Islam spread to North Africa?
Following the conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE, Islam spread throughout West Africa via merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries, that is largely through peaceful means whereby African rulers either tolerated the religion or converted to it themselves.
What happened to religion in West Africa when Islam was introduced?
What happened to religion in West Africa when Islam was first introduced? West Africans remained faithful to their original religions. Islam quickly became the leading religion of the region. West Africans were resistant to Islam’s new ideas and ignored the religion.
What brought Islam Ghana?
History of Islam in Ghana Islam was introduced by traders of Sahelian tribes of West Africa. Prior to that, Da’wah workers had made contact and written extensively about the people including inhabitants of Bonoman states located in the hinterlands of contemporary Ghana.
What are three ways that Islam had an impact on West Africa?
As Islam spread in West Africa, people adopted new religious practices and ethical values. African Muslims learned Islam’s Five Pillars of Faith. They prayed in Arabic, fasted, worshiped in mosques, went on pilgrimages, and gave alms. They were taught to regard all Muslims as part of a single community.
How did Islam spread in the Middle East?
Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries. Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time.
How did Islam start and spread?
The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula. In other parts of the world, Islam spread through trade and commerce.
When did Islam start to spread?
Although its roots go back further, scholars typically date the creation of Islam to the 7th century, making it the youngest of the major world religions. Islam started in Mecca, in modern-day Saudi Arabia, during the time of the prophet Muhammad’s life. Today, the faith is spreading rapidly throughout the world.
The History of Islam in East Africa
History of Islam in East Africa dates back to around 1,000 years before the present. Until the mid-20th century, it remained primarily restricted to the coast and was intimately associated with the history of the Swahili cities that dotted the landscape along that coastline. The Swahili language continues to be important to many East African Muslims, as seen by the phrase “Swahili Islam,” which is encountered from time to time. East African Muslims are predominantly Shafiites, while some are also members of Sufi orders, particularly the Qadiriyya and Shadhiliyya.
Initial promises of equality for all religions under a secular system were made by the sovereign nation-states of the area.
This circumstance has resulted in the growth of Islamic preaching and activism groups, which have been bolstered by greater interaction with congregations in other parts of the Indian Ocean.
Atrocities were committed in Kenya by Islamist terrorists motivated by Somalia during the decade that followed the 2010 election.
Nonetheless, peaceful cohabitation between Muslims and adherents of other religions continues to be the norm in East Africa, despite the fact that the mechanics of this coexistence are sometimes poorly understood.
The Spread of Islam in Ancient Africa
In East Africa, Islam has been practiced from at least the year 1000. Until the mid-20th century, it remained mostly restricted to the coast and was intimately associated with the history of the Swahili cities that dotted the landscape along its length and width. Many East African Muslims continue to place a high value on the Swahili language, which gives rise to the expression “Swahili Islam,” which is heard from time to time in conversation. Muslims in East Africa are primarily Shafiites, while some are also members of Sufi groups such as the Qadiriyya and the Shadhiliyya.
Initial promises of equality for all religions under a secular system were made by the region’s sovereign nation-states.
This has resulted in the growth of Islamic preaching and activism groups, which have been bolstered by greater interaction with congregations in other parts of the Indian Ocean.
Atrocities were committed in Kenya by Islamist terrorists motivated by Somalia during the decade that followed the 2010 elections.
The practice of cohabitation between Muslims and adherents of other religions, however, continues to be the norm in East Africa, despite the fact that the mechanics of this coexistence are little understood.
A Note on Islam
Islam’s presence in East Africa dates back to around 1000 CE. Until the mid-20th century, it remained primarily restricted to the coast and was intimately associated with the history of the Swahili cities that dotted the landscape along its length. Many East African Muslims continue to place a high value on the Swahili language, as seen by the occasionally heard term “Swahili Islam.” East African Muslims are predominantly Shafiites, while some are also members of Sufi orders, particularly the Qadiriyya and Shadhiliyya schools of thought.
- Initial promises of equality for all religions under a secular system were made by the region’s newly formed nation-states.
- This has resulted in the growth of Islamic preaching and activism groups, which have been bolstered by greater interactions with congregations in other parts of the Indian Ocean.
- In Kenya, Islamist militants with Somali influences perpetrated a series of crimes during the 2010s.
- Nonetheless, peaceful cohabitation between Muslims and adherents of other religions continues to be the norm in East Africa, despite the fact that the mechanics of this coexistence are frequently poorly understood by scholars.
After the Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus conquered North Africa in the second half of the 7th century CE, Islam moved from the Middle East to take root throughout the whole continent during the second half of the 7th century CE. Through Islamized Berbers (who had been either pushed or coaxed to convert) it spread throughout West Africa in the 8th century CE, traveling from the east coast into the interior of central Africa, and eventually reaching Lake Chad, where it was eradicated. Meanwhile, the religion moved down through Egypt and then swung westward across the Sudan area below the Sahara Desert, where it is still practiced today.
Trade Routes Across the Sahara Aa77zz is an abbreviation for Aa77zz (Public Domain) Once the religion reached the savannah region, which stretches throughout Africa below the Sahara Desert, it was embraced by the governing African elites, however local beliefs and rites were frequently maintained or even incorporated into the new religion’s practices and ceremonies.
- In the east, the faith spread via the Mali Empire (1240-1645 CE) and the Songhai Empire (1240-1645 CE) (c.
- 1591 CE).
- 900 – c.
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Muslims in East Africa were up against stiff competition from Christians, who were firmly entrenched in Nubia and states such as the Kingdoms of Faras (also known as Nobatia), Dongola, and Alodia, as well as in the Kingdom of Axum (first – eighth centuries CE) in what is now Ethiopia, among other places.
- In addition, the Sultanates of Adal (1415-1577 CE) and Ajuran (1415-1577 CE) were two prominent Muslim states in the Horn of Africa during the same period (13-17th century CE).
- Islam achieved greater instant success on the Swahili Coast, which is farther south.
- As the native Bantu peoples and Arabs mingled, so did their languages, and intermarrying became popular.
- From the 12th century CE, when Shirazi merchants arrived from the Persian Gulf, Islam began to become more firmly entrenched in Europe.
- Curtin, a historian, describes it thus way: “In the end, the Muslim faith emerged as one of the most important determinants of Swahili identity.
- Despite the fact that Islam was a huge success on the coast, it had little effect on the peoples who lived in the interior of East Africa until the nineteenth century CE.
- A significant number of people were adamant in their refusal to accept this new religion in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary.
- In the following centuries, the Christian Portuguese came in Africa, on both the west and east coasts, where they posed a serious threat to the growth of Islamic civilization.
Kilwa has a magnificent mosque. Richard Mortel is a fictional character created by author Richard Mortel in the 1960s. Mortel’s character is based on the fictional character of the same name created by author Richard Mortel in the 1960s (Public Domain)
Reasons For Adoption
Islam expanded from the Middle East to take root over North Africa during the second half of the 7th century CE, when the Umayyad Caliphate (661-675 CE) of Damascus conquered the region by military means. In the 8th century CE, it expanded through Islamized Berbers (who had been pushed or encouraged to convert) through the trade routes that crisscrossed West Africa, traveling from the east coast into central Africa, and eventually reaching Lake Chad. The religion, meantime, had moved down through Egypt and swung westward across the Sudan area below the Sahara Desert, where it is still practiced nowadays.
Trafic routes over the Sahara ZzzZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ (Public Domain) Once the religion reached the savannah region, which stretches throughout Africa below the Sahara Desert, it was accepted by the governing African elites, however local beliefs and rites were frequently maintained or even incorporated into the new religion’s practices and beliefs.
- In the east, the faith spread through the Mali Empire (1240-1645 CE) and the Songhai Empire (13th century CE) (c.
- 1591 CE).
- 900 – c.
- 1490 CE), Islam’s encirclement of Africa below the Sahara Desert was complete.
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- There were several exceptions to this rule, like the Kingdom of Abyssinia, which did not become Muslim until the 14th century CE, following military intervention by the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt (1250-1517 CE) (13th-20th century CE).
- Beyond true religious commitment, African leaders may have recognized that embracing Islam (or seeming to do so) would be good to economic relations.
The arrival of Muslim traders from Arabia and Egypt in the Swahili coast cities and commercial centers began in the mid-8th century CE and continued for the next few hundred years.
As a result, a mixing of cultural traditions occurred, resulting in the development of a distinctive Swahiliculture.
For example, according to historian P.
In subsequent centuries, to be a Swahili was synonymous with being a Muslim ” (125).
The Christians of Nubia were not the only obstacle to overcome.
In addition to the Mossi people, who dominated territories south of the Niger River and assaulted places such as Timbuktu during the first half of the 15th century CE, there were other groups that battled against Islam’s wave.
States like the Kingdom of Kongo (14-19th century CE) on the western coast of Africa, where Europeans traded heavily, turned Christian, and the Islamic dominance of the Swahili coast was challenged beginning in the 16th century CE.
Kilwa is home to a magnificent mosque. Richard Mortel is a fictional character created by author Richard Mortel in the 1960s. Mortel’s character is based on the fictional character of the same name created by writer Richard Mortel in the 1960s (Public Domain)
Accommodating Ancient African Beliefs
After the Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus conquered North Africa in the second part of the 7th century CE, Islam expanded throughout the Middle East and into North Africa. In the 8th century CE, it expanded through Islamized Berbers (who had been pushed or encouraged to convert) through the trade routes that crisscrossed West Africa, traveling from the east coast into central Africa, and ultimately reaching Lake Chad. Meanwhile, the religion expanded down through Egypt and swung westward across the Sudan area below the Sahara Desert, where it is still practiced today.
Trans-Saharan Commercial Routes Aa77zz is an abbreviation for Aa77zz (Public Domain) Once the religion reached the savannah region, which stretches throughout Africa below the Sahara Desert, it was accepted by African governing elites, while local beliefs and rites were frequently retained or even incorporated into the new religion’s practices.
- 6th-13th century CE) from the late 10th century CE.
- 1460 – c.
- With the embrace of Islam by the kings of theKingdom of Kanem (c.
- 1390 CE) during the 11th and 13th centuries CE and the rulers ofHausalandfrom the late 14th century CE, Islam’s encirclement of Africa below the Sahara Desert was complete.
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- These Christian countries did not become Muslim until the 14th century CE, following military intervention by the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt (1250-1517 CE), with the exception of the Kingdom of Abyssinia (13th-20th century CE).
- Aside from true spiritual commitment, African leaders may have recognized that embracing Islam (or appearing to do so) would be good to commercial relations.
Muslim traders from Arabia and Egypt began establishing permanent residences in cities and commercial centers along the Swahili coast as early as the eighth century CE.
When Shirazi merchants arrived from the Persian Gulf in the 12th century CE, Islam became more firmly established.
Curtin: “In the end, the Muslim faith emerged as one of the most important aspects of Swahili identity.
Despite the fact that Islam was a huge success on the coast, it had little influence on the peoples who lived in the interior of East Africa until the nineteenth century CE.
Many people, in the face of this new religion, were adamant in their refusal to abandon their conventional beliefs.
In the following centuries, the Christian Portuguese came in Africa, on both the west and east coasts, where they posed a serious threat to the growth of Islam.
Kilwa’s Great Mosque Richard Mortel is a fictional character created by author Richard Mortel (Public Domain)
Islam had tremendous influence on many elements of everyday life and society, albeit these effects varied depending on the period and region in which they occurred. The arrival of Islam resulted in a broad deterioration of the social standing of various tribes in ancient African cultures. One of the most significant losers was the metalworkers, who had long been held in magical regard by the general public due to their abilities in forging metal. A similar statement may be made about individuals who discovered and mined valuable metals such as gold and iron.
- Also true is that in some cases oral traditions retained their cultural integrity, and as a result, we are presented with a parallel history, such as the biographies ofSundiata Keita(r.
- 1230-1255 CE), the founder of the Mali Empire In various African communities, men and women’s roles have evolved in the past, with some African societies formerly granting women a more equal standing with males than was the case under Muslim legislation.
- Some of the more cosmetic alterations included the use of Muslim-friendly names in place of Christian names.
- In addition, clothing has altered, with women in particular being pushed to wear more modestly, and teenagers being encouraged to hide their nudity.
- However, there were slight regional variations in the religion, just as there were in the religion itself.
- The introduction of Islam brought with it a plethora of technological advancements, including writing, numbers, arithmetic, measures, and weights.
Along with archaeology, these writers have made significant contributions to the reconstruction of ancient Africa following the European colonial period, during which every effort was made to obliterate the history of the continent lest it conflict with the racist belief that Africa had been waiting for civilisation for eons before it was discovered.
Did you like reading this article? Prior to publication, this paper was checked for correctness, dependability, and conformance to academic standards by two independent reviewers.
The Red Sea to East Africa and the Arabian Sea: 1328 – 1330
The trading ships made their way down the east coast of Africa, stopping at cities along the route to trade for African products such as ivory, gold, myrrh, which was used to produce a fine skin oil, animal skins, frankincense and ambergris, which were used to manufacture fragrances, and slaves, among other things. His first port of call was Zeila, a port in the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia that also had a significant Muslim population. He had a strong feeling towards Zeila “The world’s dirtiest, most unpleasant, and most smelly city, according to certain measures.
- He traveled southward, and after fifteen days, they arrived at Mogadishu, the busiest and wealthiest port in East African history.
- These traders carried their languages, cultures, and religions with them when they arrived in the area.
- The commercial ports of East Africa, on the other hand, were not isolated communities of foreign merchants.
- Many of the single Arab men who sought their fortunes along the coast of Africa intermarried into the local households, resulting in a large number of mixed marriages.
- Because Ibn Battuta had proven himself to be a genuine scholar of Islam’s religion and law by this point, he was welcomed as a guest by the local authorities.
- They proceeded on to the islands of Pemba and Zanzibar before arriving in Kilwa, which is now a part of the country of Tanzania.
- The earliest Muslims to arrive in small fishing communities and fishing ports along the coast were settlers from Arabia and the Persian Gulf who came to trade.
The vast majority of immigrants were males who settled in the United States through marrying into local households.
This family grew to be quite affluent.
Take a look at the remnants of the palace where they used to dwell.
Slavery was given to or acquired by Ibn Battuta on multiple occasions, according to his writings.
He also provides a brief explanation of how slaves were captured and given as presents.
He used to go on regular trips to the country of the Zinj people, attacking their settlements and stealing their treasure.
The ruling elite resided in stone mansions that were up to three storeys tall and equipped with indoor plumbing.
Ibn Battuta is said to have worshiped in the Great Mosque of Kilwa, which is currently in a state of destruction (below).
Given that Ibn Battuta’s depiction of the East African coast is the sole surviving eyewitness account from the medieval period, scholars have spent considerable time delving into the text.
Islam and Islamic Culture: Earliest Foreign Influences on Physical Activity in Pre-Colonial East Africa
As stated in the Prologue, the word ‘Arabs’ is used generically to refer to a group of overseas foreigners who migrated from south-west Asia (the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf) to the coast of eastern Africa in the ninth century and established a permanent presence there. These Arabs were largely responsible for the spread of Islam in eastern Africa, according to historians. As explained in the Prologue, the phrase “eastern Africa” is used to refer to this region. Islam: A Historical Survey, 2nd edition, Gibb.
- The Caliph (Khalifa) is the successor of the Prophet Muhammad.
- Abu Baker al-Sediq (632–34), Umer Iben Khattab (634–44), Othman Iben Afan (644–56), and Ali Iben Abi Taleb (656–61) were the Caliphs who governed following the death of the Prophet Muhammad.
- A sociological study of the development of sport in Saudi Arabia is available from K.
- “The Development of Sport in Saudi Arabia: A Sociological Study,” p.
- Gibb, Islam: A Historical Survey, 2.Ibid., 3.Ibid., 45.
- See also Pirzada,Islamic Way Life of Warship: Salaah, Saum, Zakat, and Hajj, 181.Ibid., 181.Ibid., 39–42.Ibid., 41.
Pirzada, Islamic Way of Life of a Warship: Salaah, Saum, Zakaah, Hajj, 165.
Islam:Faith and Practice, chapter 13 by Ahsan.
Muslims believe that the Qur’an is a Book of Guidance as well as a miraculous work of creation.
Qur’an is an Arabic verbal noun that means’reading and reciting’, and it is derived from the root word ‘quran’.
As a result, Muslims believe the Qur’an as a revelation from Heaven, sent to Muhammad by the Archangel Gabriel and inscribed in his heart.
As a revelation, it was given to the Blessed Prophet, who then recited it to his people without making any additions or subtractions from it.
Pirzada, Islamic Way of Life on a Warship: Salaah, Saum, Zakaah, Hajj, 3.
For example, see Albahouth, “The Development of Sport in Saudi Arabia: A Sociological Study,” 131.Pirzada, “Islamic Way of Life of the Warship: Salaah, Zakaah, and Hajj,” 3.Ibid., 5.Hitti, “Islam: A Way of Life,” 6.Pirzada, “Islamic Way of Life of the Warship: Salaah, Saum, Zakaah, and Hajj,” 2.Pirzada,Islamic Way of Life on a Warship: Salaah, Saum, Zakaah, Hajj, and other religious practices 3.
- Among the many sources are Nasr, Islam: A Historical Survey, 93–96; Gibb, Islam: A Historical Survey, 62; and Rahman, Islam, 100.
- For example, Albahouth, ‘The Development of Sport in Saudi Arabia: A Sociological Study’, 134; 136; 137; and 138.
- For example, see Albahouth, ‘The Development of Sport in Saudi Arabia: A Sociological Study,’ which appears on page 137.
- The Translating Committee, The Holy Qur’an with English translation, 33.
For example, Albahouth, ‘The Development of Sport in Saudi Arabia: A Sociological Study’, 138; The Translating Committee, The Holy Qur’an with English Translation, 33; Sfeir, ‘Sport in Egypt: Cultural Reflection and Contradiction of a Society’, 189; and the Translating Committee, The Holy Qur’an with English Translation, 33.
- It’s unclear exactly whatmaysirwas talking about.
- Examples include F.
- the social laws of the Quran: Considered and Compared with those of the Hebrew and Other Ancient Codes, 114, by J.
- Roberts 33.
- It is possible that Islam is a game of chance; Rosenthal’s Gambling in Islam is 82.
- Nasr’s Islam: Its Ideals and Realities, 82.
- Rosenthal,Gambling in Islam, 10.Ibid., 9.Ibid., 13.Huizinga,Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture, 19.Ibid., 20.Ibid., 29.Ibid.Rosenthal,Gambling in Islam, 10.Ibid., 9.Ibid., 13.Huizinga,Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture, 19.Ibid., 20.Ibid., 29.
“Sport in Egypt: Cultural Reflection and Contradiction of a Society,” by Sfeir (1989), page 189.
Sufists refer to Islam as “the nut with a hole in it.” Shariaa serves as its shell, Tariqaa serves as its meat, and Haqiqa serves as its oil (that is invisible but present everywhere).
The Haqiqah is the essence of Islam, the source of all truth.
41–42), which examines the relationship between childhood learning and adult life.
See Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, page 443; The Chambers Dictionary, page 437 for more information.
“Sport in Egypt: Cultural Reflection and Contradiction of a Society,” by Sfeir (1990), page 190.
When the author visited the excavation site at the Kaole ruins in Bagamoyo in February 1997, he was told that preparations were in the works for more excavation to determine the precise date when the stone dwellings were constructed.
Oliver and Fage’s A Short History of Africa (pp.
See, for example, Oliver and Fage, A Short History of Africa, 97; Coupland, East Africa and Its Invaders: From the Earliest Times to the Death of Seyyid Said in 1856, 19; Oliver and Mathew (eds.
Resumption of excavation work was initiated in the early 1990s, but by February 1997, when the author paid a visit to the sites, the work had been halted due to financial constraints.
Because the precise date of the establishment of the various tribes of Tanzania is unknown, the phrase ‘Swahili people’ is used to refer to the people who lived along the coast and on the nearby islands during the time of their formation, which was around 5,000 years ago.
However, in current times, it refers to a group of people who are a mix of Africans and Arabs’ ancestors.
As an example, see, for example, Spear, “The Kenya Complex: A History of the Mijikenda Peoples 1500–1900,” 306–35; de Vere Alen, “Swahili Culture and the Nature of East African Coast Settlement,” 306–35; Chittick, “An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Southern Somali Coast,” 115–30; Werner, ‘A Swahili History of Pate,’ and Davidson, “The Pouwels, ‘The Medieval Foundations of East African Islam,’ p.
- 204; see also Davidson, The African Genius, pp.
- For more information, see Greertz, Islam Observed: Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia, pages 18–9.
- Examples include Tanzania Culture and Society, which was published on the Internet in June 2001.
- Mathew, ‘The East African Coast Until the Arrival of the Portuguese,’ 105.Ibid., 106.Ibid., 107.Ibid., 108.Ibid., 109.Ibid.
- According to Freemann-Grenville, The Medieval History of the Coast of Tanganyika: With Specific Reference to Recent Archaeological Discoveries: With Special Reference to Recent Archaeological Discoveries (with special reference to recent archaeological discoveries), passim.
Among the works to be found are Pouwels, ‘The Medieval Foundations of East African Islam’, 202–4; de Vere Alen, ‘Swahili Culture Reconsidered: Some Historical Implications of the Material Culture of the Northern Kenya Coast in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, 105–138; Oliver and Fage, A Short History of Africa, 98; Chittick, ‘The Coast before the Arrival of the Portuguese “The Medieval Foundations of East African Islam,” 204.
“The Medieval Foundations of East African Islam,” 208.” “The Medieval Foundations of East African Islam,” 206.” “The Medieval Foundations of East African Islam,” 117.” “The Medieval Foundations of East African Islam.” Other religious groups include Christians, who account for 45 percent of the population, and animists, who account for 20 percent.
- The installation at the National Museum of Tanzania in Dar es Salaam.
- 47–78) for more information.
- Murray, A History of Board Games Other Than Chess, p.
- Murray, A History of Board Games Other Than Chess, p.
- Reefe and Cullin (eds.
- Reefe’s ‘The Biggest Game of All: Gambling in Traditional Africa’ (p.
- 94; Lanning, ‘Rock-Cut Mweso Boards,’ p.
- 158; Murray, A History of Board Games Other Than Chess, p.
- “Mancala, the National Game of Africa,” Culin, 97–8; “Mancala, the National Game of Africa.” Examples include Bell and Cornelius’ Board-Games Round the World: A Resource Book for Mathematical Investigations, which has a page number of 30.
- 1400 and 1800, respectively, are thought to be the dates of the type of mancala IV played in East and South Africa, as well as the stone boards discovered in Zimbabwe, according to archaeological evidence.
A history of board games other than chess can be found in Murray, A History of Board Games Other Than Chess (194); Cullin, Mancala: The National Game of Africa’ (94); Blacking, Games and Sport in Pre-colonial African Society’ (9–11); and Reefe, The Biggest Game of All: Gambling in Traditional Africa’ (54–5).
Furthermore, he believes that the evolution of thesolo -type may have taken place about 700–500 BCE.
In Murray’s A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess, he writes on page 164: “Ibid.
Among the works cited are Madeje, ‘Physical Education in Tanzania,’ passim; and Nkongo, ‘The Foundations of Physical Education,’ passim; and others.
freedom of religion and treats the individual as a citizen regardless of his or her religious affiliation.” In other words, it is not a state that is constitutionally tied to a specific religion, nor does it intend to promote or meddle with religion in any way.’ For further information, see Smith, ‘The Missionary Contribution to Education (Tanganyika) through 1914,’ p.92.
54-55 in Hargreaves, The Heroines of Sport: The Politics of Difference and Identity, a book about female athletes.
Hargreaves, Heroes of Sport: The Politics of Difference and Identity, p.
52. Ibid., p. See, for example, the main story in The Guardian and Mtanzania on Sunday, August 8, 1999. The Heroines of Sport: The Politics of Difference and Identity by Hargreaves (Hargreaves, The Heroes of Sport: The Politics of Difference and Identity, 48), 49), 50), 52), and 53).
The Spread of Islam in West Africa: Containment, Mixing, and Reform
Margari Hill is a professor at Stanford University. accessible in PDF format as of January 2009 (1.14 MB) While Islam has been present in West Africa since the seventh century, the expansion of the faith in the territories that are now the modern republics of Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, and Nigeria was a lengthy and difficult process that began in the Middle East and ended in the Middle East. Much of what we know about the early history of West Africa comes from medieval records written by Arab and North African geographers and historians, who were primarily concerned with the region’s geography and history.
- The economic objectives of some are emphasized, while the spiritual message of Islam is emphasized by others, and a number of others emphasize the prestige and impact of Arabic literacy in the process of state creation.
- Despite the fact that commerce between West Africa and the Mediterranean predates Islam, North African Muslims were responsible for the expansion of the Trans-Saharan trade.
- The trade routes Sijilmasa to Awdaghust and Ghadames to Gao, for example, connected Africa below the Sahara with the Mediterranean Middle East and were important commercial routes.
- The Sahel region of West Africa was the site of the development of the three major medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and the Songhay.
- Containment is the first stage.
- The historical evolution of the medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay, as well as the 19th century jihads that resulted in the foundation of the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland and the Umarian kingdom in Senegambia, are illuminated by this three-phase paradigm.
Containment: Ghana and the Takrur
Islamic settlements tied to the trans-Saharan commerce were the only places where Islam could be found in the early days of civilization. Al-Bakri, an Andalusian geographer who lived in the 11th century, recorded details of Arab and North African Berber communities in the region during his time. A number of causes contributed to the expansion of the Muslim merchant-scholar class in non-Muslim nations, including: Islam encouraged long-distance trade by providing merchants with a helpful set of instruments, including as contract law, credit, and communication networks.
- In addition to having created script, they possessed other important abilities that aided in the administration of kingdoms.
- Additionally, merchant-scholars played a significant role in the expansion of Islam into the forest zones.
- Muslim populations in the forest zones were minorities that were frequently related to trading diasporas, according to historians.
- Al-Hajj Salim Suwari was a Soninke scholar who focused on the responsibilities of Muslims in non-Muslim societies.
- This practice has been in place for generations in the forest zone, and it continues to be effective today in areas where there are active Muslim minorities.
- Ghana The name was chosen as a means to pay homage to early African history.
- Peoples such as the Soninken Malinke, the Wa’kuri, and the Wangari have lived in this region for thousands of years.
Around the year 300 A.D., large settlements began to appear in the Niger Delta region.
Merchants trading in salt, horses, dates, and camels from northern Africa and the Sahara exchanged them for gold, lumber, and food from the countries south of the Sahara, according to historians.
This gave rise to one of Ghana’s most distinctive characteristics: the dual city; Ghana’s Kings benefitted from Muslim commerce while keeping them outside the country’s political centre.
African kingdoms eventually began to enable Muslims to enter into their societies.
Around this time, the Almoravid reform movement began in the Western Sahara and spread over modern-day Mauritania, North Africa, and Southern Spain, among other places.
Muslims in West Africa benefited from the Almoravid revolution, which brought greater consistency of practice and Islamic law to their communities.
The Takruri realm was weakened as a result of the Almoravids’ conquest of trade routes and fortified fortifications. It would take more than a hundred years for the empire to disintegrate into a collection of minor kingdoms.
Mixing: The Empires of Mali and Songhay
Over the next several decades, African kings came to embrace Islam despite reigning over populations of varying religious and cultural beliefs and practices. The mixing phase, as specialists refer to it, was a period in which many of these kings combined Islam with conventional and local rituals. After a period of time, the populace began to embrace Islam, typically just adopting components of the faith that they found appealing. The Mali Empire (1215-1450) arose out of a series of fighting kingdoms in West Africa.
- It was a multi-ethnic state with a diverse range of religious and cultural organizations.
- However, while the empire’s founder, Sunjiata Keita, was not himself a Muslim, Mali’s rulers converted to Islam by 1300.
- He established Islam as the official religion of the country and traveled on a pilgrimage from Mali to Mecca in 1324.
- According to reports, his spending depreciated the value of gold in Egypt for a number of years.
- By the fifteenth century, however, Mali had essentially disintegrated as a result of internal dissension and warfare with the Saharan Tuareg.
- Hausaland was made up of a series of city-states that were connected by a network of roads (Gobir, Katsina, Kano, Zamfara, Kebbi and Zazzau).
- During the ninth century, the state adopted Islam as its religion.
Northern Nigeria today includes most of Hausaland and Bornu in the east, as well as the rest of the country.
The kings of Hausaland followed in the footsteps of the rulers of prior Muslim republics in blending indigenous traditions with Islam.
Despite the fact that Islam was the official state religion, the vast majority of the populace continued to adhere to their traditional religious beliefs.
In the period 1465-1492, Sonni Ali, the ruler of the country, punished Muslim academics, particularly those who denounced pagan rites and practices.
Two centuries later, the kingdom of Gao re-emerged as the Songhay Empire, bringing the kingdom back to life.
Under the reign of King Songhay (1493-1529), the Songhay’s territory grew well beyond the bounds of any previous West African empire.
One famous example is the Great Mosque of Jenne, which was constructed in the 12th or 13th centuries and is still standing today.
By the 16th century, the Niger Bend area was home to various centers of commerce and Islamic study, the most famous of which was the fabled city of Timbuktu.
Timbuktu was established as a trade station by the Tuareg.
In 1325, the city had a population of around 10,000 people.
Timbuktu drew academics from all across the Muslim world to attend its conferences.
The Songhay Empire came to an end in 1591, when Morocco captured the realm.
As a result of the dispersal of merchant scholars from Timbuktu and other major learning centers, learning institutions were transferred from urban-based merchant families to rural pastoralists throughout the Sahara.
A mystical Sufi brotherhood organization began to expand over this region somewhere during the 12th and 13th centuries.
In African Muslim civilizations, Sufi organizations played an important role in the social order and the propagation of Islam throughout the continent, and this continued far into the twentieth century.
Reform in the Nineteenth Century: Umarian Jihad in Senegambia and the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland
The jihad activities of the nineteenth century are the clearest example of the third phase in the growth of Islam in West Africa. During this time period, experts have emphasized the manner in which literate Muslims grew increasingly aware of Islamic theology and began to seek reforms on the part of the leadership. Historically significance because it symbolizes the transition from Muslim communities that practiced Islam in conjunction with “pagan” ceremonies and customs to cultures that fully embraced Islamic ideals and created Shariah (Islamic Law).
- Mauritania was the site of the first known jihad in West Africa, which occurred around the 17th century.
- Nasir al-Din, a scholar, was the leader of an unsuccessful jihad known as Sharr Bubba.
- In 1802, a Fulani scholar named Uthman Dan Fodio took the initiative and launched a massive jihad.
- Because of this movement, there has been a consolidation of power within the Muslim community, as well as educational and legal changes.
- His progeny carried on his legacy of literary creativity and educational reform into the modern day.
- One famous example was the jihad of al Hajj Umar Tal, a Tukulor from the Senegambia area, who was killed in the course of his mission.
- His conquests of three Bambara kingdoms took place during the 1850s and the 1860s.
Despite the fact that the French were in charge of the territory, colonial authorities faced a powerful adversary.
Following his death, French soldiers beat Toure’s son in a battle that took place in 1901.
Despite the fact that European forces were responsible for the fall of the Umarian state and the Sokoto Caliphate, colonial domination did little to prevent Islam from spreading over West Africa.
Sokoto Caliphate came to an end in 1903 when British soldiers invaded and annexed the region.
Contrary to colonial officials’ hopes and dreams, colonialism had far-reaching consequences for the Muslim society of Northern Nigeria.
Thus, Islam began to grow swiftly in new urban centers and regions, such as Yoruba land, as a result of this.
Despite the fact that Muslims lost political authority, Muslim communities made great strides throughout West Africa during the first decades of the twentieth century.
The trans-Saharan commerce route served as a key conduit for the spread of Islam throughout Africa.
Muslim communities have flourished in West Africa for more than a millennium, demonstrating that Islam is a substantial component of the continent’s cultural and religious environment.
- InTimeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. 2001), “Western Sudan, 500–1000 AD.”
- “Western and Central Sudan, 1000–1400 AD.”
- “Western and Central Sudan, 1600–1800 AD.”
- “Western and Central Sudan, 1600–1800 A.D.”
- “Western and Central Muslim Societies in the History of Africa. Nehemia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels’ book, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2004, is a classic (eds). The History of Islam in Africa is a fascinating subject. Spencer Trimingham’s History of Islam in West Africa was published by Ohio University Press in Athens, Ohio, in 2000. Oxford University Press, 1962
- New York: Oxford University Press, 1962
East Africa: The Rise of the Swahili Culture and the Expansion of Islam (Chapter 12) – The Worlds of the Indian Ocean
In conjunction with an expansion of commerce between regional and international markets, the culture of the Swahili city-states reaffirmed its position as one of the world’s semi-peripheral areas, coevolving with the system’s centres from the eleventh century onward. Islam established itself exclusively along 1,500 kilometers of coastline – and not in any other part of the country – in a process that was obviously contemporaneous with the growth of cities and trade, both in terms of time and location.
(generally speaking, a semi-periphery exhibits politico-religious and economic organizational forms that derive from its dominant cores as well as from the peripheries from which it springs).
Hierarchized societies arose as a result of the adoption of organizational concepts from both African and Arabo-Persian cultures.