In What Way Was The Islamic Expansion Into India Similar To The Way Islam Expanded In Other Areas?

In what way was the Islamic expansion into India similar to the way Islam expanded in other areas? Islamic expansion into India was facilitated by both Islamic merchants and conquerors. Many people in lands subject to Muslim rule adopted Islam.


How did Islam expand into India?

Islam arrived in the inland of Indian subcontinent in the 7th century when the Arabs conquered Sindh and later arrived in North India in the 12th century via the Ghurids conquest and has since become a part of India’s religious and cultural heritage.

How did Islam spread & expand?

Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries. Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time. The caliphate—a new Islamic political structure—evolved and became more sophisticated during the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates.

How did Islam expand throughout the Middle East?

The Muslim community spread through the Middle East through conquest, and the resulting growth of the Muslim state provided the ground in which the recently revealed faith could take root and flourish. The military conquest was inspired by religion, but it was also motivated by greed and politics.

How did Islam expand to Europe?

Islam expanded into the Caucasus through the Muslim conquest of Persia in the 7th century and entered Southern Europe through the expansion after the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the 8th–10th centuries; Muslim political entities existed firmly in what is today Spain, Portugal, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle

How did Islam impact India?

ADVERTISEMENTS: Islam brought to India a conception of human equality, pride in one’s religion, a legal system which was in many ways an advance on the codes of the time Hindu rulers were influenced to work as the upholders of Hindu religion.

How did Islam spread to India quizlet?

How did Islam spread to India, and what impact did it have on the region? First came with Arab merchants and conquerors and then with the Maluks. They ruled the first Muslim, Indian Empire. Most Indians were Hindu which cause many conflicts for centuries.

How did Islam spread in sub continent?

Islam came to the Southeast Asia, first by the way of Muslim traders along the main trade-route between Asia and the Far East, then was further spread by Sufi orders and finally consolidated by the expansion of the territories of converted rulers and their communities.

Why did Islam spread so quickly quizlet?

Islam spread quickly because its leaders conquered surrounding territories. As Muhammad and the Muslim leaders that came after him conquered lands in the Middle East and beyond they spread the teachings of Islam. Islam spread quickly because its leaders treated newly conquered people well.

How did Islam spread in Central Asia?

Arrival of Islam and Medieval period The Battle of Talas in 751 between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang dynasty for control of Central Asia was the turning point, initiating mass conversion into Islam in the region. Most of the Turkic khanates converted to Islam in the 10th century.

How did Islam expand so quickly?

Islam spread quickly because of the military. During this time, on numerous accounts there were military raids. Trade and conflict were also apparent between different empires, all of which resulted in the spreading of Islam.

How did Islam impact the Middle East?

Islam, founded in seventh-century Arabia by the prophet Muhammad, altered the Middle East economically. Within a century, Muslims had conquered most of the Middle East and parts of Spain, and had created a unified economic sphere. Trade flourished and the Middle East experienced an economic and cultural renaissance.

What was one effect of the expansion of Islam?

What was one effect of the expansion of Islam between 632 and 750? Cultural and commercial connections were established over a sizable region.

How did Islam impact Europe?

The Islamic world also influenced other aspects of medieval European culture, partly by original innovations made during the Islamic Golden Age, including various fields such as the arts, agriculture, alchemy, music, pottery, etc.

What impact did Islam have on these regions has it spread?

The Impact of Islam. As Islam spread across the Arabian Peninsula and later across North Africa and the Middle East, it had an aggregating effect. The occupants of these areas had been nomadic tribes for a very long time. They were polytheistic and reaped all the political problems associated with polytheism.

How did Islam shape Europe?

Commercial and intellectual exchanges between Islamic lands and western Europe were considerable. Muslim maritime, agricultural, and technological innovations, as well as much East Asian technology via the Muslim world, made their way to western Europe in one of the largest technology transfers in world history.

Do you know how Islam spread in the Indian subcontinent?

CAIRO, Egypt, May 29th, 2017: The Indian subcontinent (which includes India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) is home to more than 500 million Muslims today, making it one of the world’s greatest concentrations of Muslims in terms of population size. Since Islam first arrived in India, it has made significant contributions to the region and its people. There are a plethora of ideas on how India got to be such a mostly Muslim country today. As far as politics is concerned, some (such as the Hindutva movement in India) are attempting to make Islam appear foreign to India by asserting that it only exists as a result of Muslim conquests from Arab and Persian lands.

The First Muslim Indians to Arrive in North America Traders from Arab countries came in touch with Indian traders as early as the 600s, during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him).

So it was only natural that when Arabs began to convert to Islam, they brought their new faith with them to the coasts of India.

Islam continued to flourish in coastal Indian cities and towns as a result of the continuation of commerce between Arab Muslims and Indians, both through immigration and conversion to Islam.

  • A young 17-year-old teenager from Taif was selected by the Umayyads to extend Umayyad power into Sindh in 711.
  • According to Wikipedia, Sindh is the region around The Indus River in Pakistan’s Northwestern region, which is located in the subcontinent’s Northwestern section.
  • As he made his way into India, he faced little opposition.
  • As a result, most cities along the Indus River fell under Muslim authority peacefully and without any conflict.
  • Although many of the populace supported and approved of Muhammad bin Qasim’s Muslim invasion, the Raja of Sindh, Dahir, was hostile to it and prepared his army against the Muslim conqueror.
  • With the triumph, Muslims gained control of the whole province of Sindh.
  • In reality, practically everyone said that their day-to-day activities had not changed.

Those belonging to the Brahman caste, for example, remained to work as tax collectors, and the Buddhist monks continued to maintain their monasteries.

Consistency in Conversion Patterns The successive waves of Muslim troops that penetrated into India followed a pattern that was very similar.

Because pre-Islamic India was fully founded on a caste system in which society was divided into various portions, conversion to Islam was a gradual process that took place in stages over centuries.

This might occur for a variety of different causes.

In the caste system, your social standing is determined by the family you were born into.

By switching to Islam, people were given the opportunity to advance in society and were no longer subject to the Brahman caste’s authority.

If individuals desired to escape the caste system, they used to relocate to big population centers and convert to Buddhism, which was the traditional method.

Islam is not responsible for the brutal destruction of Buddhism in India, as is commonly believed.

Wandering instructors also had a significant role in spreading Islam to the general public.

Many of them advocated Sufi teachings, a more mystical approach to Islam that was popular among the general public.

Did Islam spread as a result of coercion?

Despite the fact that Muslim authorities succeeded Hindu rulers in the majority of places, society remained mostly unchanged.

If Islam were to spread by bloodshed and battle, the Muslim population in India today would only exist in the places that are closest to the rest of the Muslim world, which is not the case.

As a result, we are seeing pockets of Islam spread over the subcontinent.

Isolated Muslim populations can also be found in western Myanmar, central India, and eastern Sri Lanka, among other places.

If Islam were to be spread by force, as some claim, these Muslim communities would not exist today.

Because the Indian subcontinent continues to be a multi-ethnic and multi-religious environment, it is critical to understand Islam’s place in the region.

Written by Firas AlKhateeb and originally published in Lost Islamic History, this article is a reprint of the original.

Did you know?: The Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia through the Trade Routes

The Silk Roads are among the most important routes in our collective history, and they are still in use today. The establishment of ties between east and west was made possible by the construction of these highways, which exposed varied regions to a variety of different ideas and ways of life. Notably, many of the world’s main religions, including Islam, were spread as a result of these contacts, which is noteworthy. Following the establishment of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century, the religion began to spread eastward through commerce, which was aided by the construction of the maritime Silk Roads.

  1. This allowed them to control the East-West trade routes that ran over the maritime Silk Roads, which linked numerous key ports in eastern Asian countries together.
  2. Due to these exchanges, Islam was able to spread even farther, reaching people living in significant coastal towns on the Indian Subcontinent and in China, as well as those living in more remote South-eastern islands such as modern Indonesia and the Philippines.
  3. Historically, Muslim traders traveling from the Arabian Peninsula to China’s ports had to transit via these islands in the southern hemisphere through the maritime Silk Roads.
  4. According to popular belief, some of these traders eventually moved in Indonesia and assimilated with the locals.
  5. It is possible to see archeological evidence of Islam being practiced by monarchs in the 13th century by looking at tombstones inscribed with dates according to the Islamic year of Sumatran Kings from the 13th century.
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Furthermore, during the 13th century, contacts between Muslim merchants and the local population, as well as trade through the Silk Roads between the southern Philippines and other neighboring regions such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia, aided in the spread of Islam among the local population in those regions.

  • Islam, like Buddhism, was assimilated into the existing cultural and religious influences of the Southeast Asian areas in a similar way.
  • Sri Lanka has an ancient monastic hospital system that dates back thousands of years.
  • The Khwarazm region and the Silk Roads are intertwined.
  • The spread of Buddhism throughout South and Southeast Asia as a result of trade routes.

Sayyid Bin Abu Ali, a true representative of intercultural relations throughout the Maritime Silk Roads, was recently honored. Thailand and the Silk Roads of the Maritime Silk Roads The Greeks Have a Foothold in Central Asia Routes of the Maritime Silk Routes in Central Asia

BBC – Religions – Islam: Early rise of Islam (632-700)

The Muslim community grew throughout the Middle East as a consequence of conquest, and the expansion of the Muslim state that resulted offered a fertile environment for the newly revealed faith to take root and flourish. The religious inspiration for the military conquest was strong, but it was also fueled by wealth and politics. Men fought for the sake of their faith, the promise of loot, and the fact that their friends and other tribesmen were also engaged in combat. Hugh Kennedy’s 2001 book, The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State, is a good example of this.

The history problem

It is possible to find many narratives from this time period regarding the early Muslim conquests, although most of the material is inaccurate and written in a style that glorifies the conquerors and their god. Although they provide some insight into the big events of the seventh century, they are just incomplete explanations. However, this is not to suggest that the Muslims were not courageous or that their belief that they were carrying out Allah’s will was not significant: it was unquestionably.

Despite the massive amount of words written, we have yet to discover the complete explanation for Muslim success.

Conversion by conquest?

Although it is impossible to determine if Islam was the driving force behind Muslim military development, one new book shows that Islam undoubtedly aided the rise of Muslim power.only one viable explanation exists for Arab success—and that is the spirit of Islam. The generous terms that the conquering troops frequently presented enabled their faith to be accepted by the subjugated inhabitants. Moreover, even though it was a young and upstart religion, its administration by simple and honest individuals was better to the corruption and persecution that were the norm in more sophisticated civilizations at the time.

  1. Nafziger and Mark W.
  2. And Islam reaped enormous benefits from the improbable military victories of the troops of Arabian Arabia.
  3. Simply said, Islam may have accelerated the conquests, but it also shown far more long-term viability.
  4. Islam at War: A History, edited by George F.
  5. Walton, published in 2003.
  6. Following the Ridda wars and the Arabs’ quick conquest of the majority of the Near East, the new religion was more clearly characterized as a monotheistic religion for the Arab people than it had been previously.

As is generally known, the Arabs made no attempt to force their religion on their new subjects, and in fact actively discouraged non-Arabs from converting to Islam at first. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800, by Jonathan P. Berkey, published in 2003.

The justification of conquest

Whether Islam was the driving force behind early Muslim imperialism or not, it could be used to offer justification for it in the same way that it had previously been used to defend Muhammad’s own actions against his adversaries. The Qur’an contains a number of passages that support military action against non-Muslims, such as:But when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem; but when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them (of war).

Qur’an 9:5 (from the Qur’an) You must fight all of those who deny the existence of Allah and the Last Day, as well as those who adhere to that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and who refuse to recognize the religion of Truth (even though they are) of the People of the Book.

Considering that the armies of those days were not like contemporary armies – rather, they were more like an association of tribal mercenary groups that received no compensation and received their sole material benefit from the spoils of war – this is hardly unexpected.

After Muhammad’s death

When Islam was elevated to a political stature and given the function of both a political and a religious force by Muhammad, the military conquests served to solidify this position. For a caliph like Umar, it appears that he considered himself first and foremost as the leader of the Arabs, and that their monotheistic religion served as the religious component of their new political identities. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800, by Jonathan P. Berkey, published in 2003.

The conquest of Arabia

Following Muhammad’s death in 632 CE, the new Muslim commonwealth began to experience difficulties. Some tribes came to the conclusion that, because their commitment to Islam had been largely to Muhammad himself, Muhammad’s death gave them the opportunity to renounce their allegiance to Mecca and to Islam. Furthermore, the Prophet had not given clear instructions as to who would be in charge of the community following his death, which made matters much more complicated. Fortunately, the community picked Abu Bakr, the Prophet’s close associate and father-in-law, to be his successor very soon after his death.

Abu Bakr took rapid military action against the villages that were attempting to secede from the government.

Expansion in the Middle East

The caliph Abu Bakr died in 634, and his successor was Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph, who governed until his death in 644. After becoming the ruler of a vast, cohesive kingdom with a well-organized army, Umar utilized this position as a vehicle to advance Islam’s expansion throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Umar’s first operations were against the Byzantine Empire, which he defeated. Following the crucial Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the Muslim troops seized the erstwhile Byzantine realms of Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, bringing them under their control.

It was made considerably simpler by the weakness of the Sassanid Empire, which had been devastated by internal disputes and a protracted battle with the Byzantine Empire when this conquest took place.

It was only a few years later that Muslim armies had already captured portions of Egypt to the south, as well as Anatolia and Armenia to the north.

Is proselytism still appropriate?

In order to see this content, you must have Javascript enabled as well as Flash installed on your computer. For complete instructions, go to BBC Webwise. In this debate, Christians and Muslims compare and contrast their respective histories of mission, conversion, and religious growth around the world. Is there a religion that has a monopoly on the truth?

However, while some earlier histories mention Islam being widely adopted beyond the Arab peninsula beginning in the mid-seventh century, in reality this did not occur for at least a century beyond that time period. According to Richard C. Foltz, the reason for this misunderstanding is due to a misinterpretation of the wordislam (which means “submission”), which has been used in Muslim histories to refer to the submission of one clan to the authority of another, rather than the spread of the Islamic faith in its proper sense.

To the contrary, Foltz claims that the act of submitting resulted in the formation of de facto non-aggression pacts between Muslim Arabs and their neighbors.

When the Muslim clans expanded into these territories, they had no difficulty ousting the Sassanian and Byzantine rulers and their soldiers; some communities, according to Foltz, even opened their doors to the Muslim Arabs and greeted them as liberators after the invasion.

Several other kingdoms ruled by Arab and non-Arab Muslim dynasties would come to dominate the entire world by 750, extending from Spain in the west all the way through northern Africa, across all of Persia and the entire Middle East, as far east as the eastern edge of the Tang Empire in the Tarim Basin, and crossing the Indus river into the Indian subcontinent.

  1. Instead, they were bound together by governments that were based on the interpretation of Islamic law and had a common history.
  2. For the most part, Muslims referred to their faith as “the Arab religion” (al-din al-‘arab), and they made little effort to convert non-Muslims to Islam.
  3. 3 Consistently distinguishing between reigning Muslims and conquered non-Muslims provided for smoother government and ensured Muslims a favored position under the rules of each of the numerous Islamic nations in which they lived.
  4. Fourteenth, non-Muslims were strongly encouraged to convert to Islam, particularly those who had previously held elite economic, social, and political positions.
  5. Apart from that, the Arabs saw in those they conquered a natural aptitude for administrative work.
  6. As government officials, it would appear that they should have converted to Islam, however they did not do so until after they began to advocate for the same rights as Arab Muslims.
  7. As a result of this development, Arab Muslims began to see non-Arab converts asmawla (or “clients”), so elevating themawla to the status of honorary clan member.

6 By the middle of the ninth century, Muslims had gained control of the western part of the Silk Route, and trade had emerged as the second most important element in Islam’s growth.

7Muslim traders journeyed as far as the Tang capital of Chang-an, as well as other towns in the Chinese empire, and even further to the east, to trade with the Chinese.

At 757, the Tang emperor handed Muslim troops lands in the western-most periphery of the empire as a prize for their assistance in putting down the uprising of An Lushan, and fifty years later Muslims were permitted to settle in Yunnan province.

8 Islam dictates that children of Muslim fathers must be reared as Muslims, which resulted in the establishment of a Muslim Chinese minority in certain locations during the Tang dynasty.

– John D.


Martin’s Press, 1999), p.

(2) Foltz, Richard C., Religions of the Silk Road: Overland Trade and Cultural Exchange from Antiquity to the Fifteenth Century (New York: St.


(3)Ibid., p.

(4)Ibid., p.

(4) Lewis, Bernad, et al (ed.).

II, Religion and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), page 224.

II, Religion and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), page 224.

(6 ) Ira M. Lapidus’s A History of Islamic Societies (Cambridge University Press, 1988) has the following passage: “A History of Islamic Societies” (p. 98). Foltz (1996), p. 96.

Understanding Sharia: The Intersection of Islam and the Law

Muslim-majority nations in the globe, numbering about fifty in total, have laws that make reference to sharia, the religious instruction Muslims believe God granted them on a variety of spiritual and earthly subjects. Certain laws in some of these countries mandate what opponents term severe criminal punishments, while others impose disproportionate limitations on the lives of women and minorities, according to the UN Human Rights Council. There is, however, a tremendous deal of variation in how governments interpret and apply sharia, and people frequently misinterpret the role that it plays in legal systems and in the lives of ordinary people.

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What is sharia?

More From Our Subject Matter Experts In Arabic, the term sharia refers to “the proper road.” In Islam, it refers to the divine guidance that Muslims must follow in order to live moral lives and grow in their relationship with God. Sharia is taken from two primary sources: the Quran, which is regarded to be God’s direct word, and hadith, which are thousands of sayings and practices attributed to the Prophet Mohammed and which collectively comprise the Sunna (the teachings of Mohammed). Some of the stories and narratives included in these texts were derived from those found in Judaism and Christianity, the other two major Abrahamic religions, while others were developed independently.

  1. Sharia, on the other hand, is mostly comprised on the interpretative tradition of Muslim academics.
  2. In the centuries after his death in the seventh century, and as the Islamic empire extended outward from Mecca and Medina, where he lived and died, in modern-day Saudi Arabia, the process of interpreting sharia, known asfiqh, evolved over hundreds of years.
  3. Muslims believe that sharia refers to the ideal, unchangeable principles that can only be comprehended by God, and that Islamic laws are those that are founded on interpretations of sharia (Islamic values).
  4. While modern Islamic seminaries have standardized the degree of expertise and the period of study required to qualify as a jurist, Khaled Abou El Fadl, an Islamic jurist and law professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, asserts that neither of these standards has been achieved.
  5. The perspective of Abou El Fadl is that “on each legal subject, there are 10 diverse opinions.” “There are 10 diverse points of view on each given legal matter.” Khaled Abou El Fadl, Muslim jurist and professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, is a scholar of Islamic law.
  6. The Islamic law system also serves as the foundation for legal opinions known as fatwas, which are given by Muslim scholars in response to requests from individual Muslims or from governments seeking guidance on a particular topic.

When it comes to Sunni Islam, fatwas are merely advisory; when it comes to Shiite Islam, practitioners are compelled to abide by the fatwas of the religious leader of their choosing. More From Our Subject Matter Experts

Why is it so controversial?

Islamic law, or Sharia, is a source of disagreement among Muslims and non-Muslims. One of the many reasons why sharia is controversial is that it is frequently compared with current legal systems in mostly secular nations, which is one of the many reasons why it is controversial. Abou El Fadl claims that when sharia is contrasted to premodern legal systems, “there isn’t anything that is contentious about it.” Sharia can also be viewed as problematic, depending on who is doing the interpreting of the Islamic law.

  • Debates over sharia tend to revolve on a few specific issues: More information on the Middle East and North Africa IslamReligion Observance of the Rule of Law Corporal punishment is a type of punishment.
  • Thehududpunishments, which include stoning, whipping, and amputation, are among the most heinous.
  • However, because implementing such sanctions necessitates passing stringent evidential requirements, experts believe they are primarily intended to act as a deterrent rather than to have a punitive effect when they are implemented.
  • Local and international outrage frequently dissuades authorities from enforcing such penalties in their entirety.
  • Additionally, when the Taliban governed Afghanistan in the 1990s, they instituted public executions and amputations, and they have stated that same penalties will be reinstated under their new government in Afghanistan.
  • Many non-Muslims believe that this phrase, which literally means “to strive,” exclusively alludes to a military fight between Muslim fanatics and non-Muslims.
  • The endeavor to attain a moral goal, as defined by sharia, can take many forms.

Tolerance for different religious beliefs.

As explained by scholars, premodern prohibitions enforced to non-Muslim minorities in Muslim countries, which were reinforced by specific hadiths subsequently included in the Muslim canon and which demand the death sentence for Muslims who commit apostasy, are at the root of this intolerance.

Aside from that, religious minorities in some Muslim nations have less rights under modern legislation and are subjected to various forms of discrimination.

As well as totalitarian nations, several countries that profess to provide religious freedom under their constitutions do not do so in practice (and routinely deny their citizens rights regardless of their faith).

However, despite the fact that experts agree that sharia does not prescribe a certain type of governance, it is utilized by various organizations to argue both against and in support of democracy.

Another school of thought holds that democracy has its roots in the Quran, which encourages “mutual consultation” among the people (42:38 Quran).

Islamist parties that are moderate in their outlook, such as Tunisia’s Ennahda Movement party, advocate for democracy as the ideal form of administration.

Women’s rights are important.

There is special sharia instruction that pertains to women, and some governments employ Islamic law to drastically restrict women’s rights, controlling how they dress and excluding them from or separating them in certain locations, for example.

Some Afghans and Western observers are concerned that Afghan women may be subjected to similar restrictions under the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

Several other regulations hinder women from starting divorce or marriage on their own, which contributes to child marriages and gender-based violence in society.

The rights of LGBTQ+ people.

In the most severe case, same-sex activity is punishable by death under Islamic law in 10 nations, including the United Kingdom. In other places, it is frequently severely penalized, as is the case in some more conservative Christian-majority countries such as the United Kingdom.

How much room is there for reform?

According to certain Muslim scholars, the Islamic concept oftajdidallows for the modification or elimination of acts that are prohibited by sharia. The notion of renewal is one that suggests that Islamic communities should be reformatted on a regular basis in order to maintain their purity. Others, on the other hand, believe that the kind of Islam that was practiced in the seventh century was the purest form of Islam. Furthermore, there is great disagreement about what activities are sanctioned by the Quran vs those that are derived from local customs.

Other researchers use this idea in a broader context: At Harvard University’s Intisar Rabb Center for Islamic Law, “the fact is that Islamic principles or Islamic laws may accommodate many things, therefore there is actually very little that Islamic law mandates or prescribes,” says Rabb, who is also a professor of Islamic law.

  • Dr.
  • Modern governments have been known to amend laws that were formerly deemed to be Islamic in nature.
  • “However, if it’s genuinely Islamic, why shouldn’t this change?
  • “It’s simply another example of how many of the laws that are referred to as Islamic are actually local, culturally inflected choices that have been given an Islamic gloss,” says the author.

How do governments in the Muslim world interpret and enforce sharia?

Most Muslim-majority nations have some form of sharia-based legislation, which often governs areas such as marriage and divorce, inheritance, and child custody and visitation arrangements. Only a few of Muslim nations, either in part or in full, apply sharia to their criminal laws. Governments tend to favor one of the major schools of Islamic law, known as madhhabs, over the others, despite the fact that individual Muslims do not normally adhere to a particular school in their daily life. Founded by different scholars, each school is named for the scholar who established it, and they differ in their approaches to interpreting Islamic law:

  • The Hanafischool is often considered as the most liberal and analytically oriented of the Islamic schools. It is favored by Sunnis in the Balkans, the Caucasus, Central Asia, China, Egypt, India, Pakistan, Turkey, and large parts of the Arab world
  • The Hanbalischool, Islam’s most conservative and focused on select texts, spawned the Wahhabi and Salafi branches of the movement, which are still popular today. This school is supported by Saudi Arabia and the Taliban
  • The Jafarischool, the largest Shiite madhhab, is chosen by Shia-majority Iran, Iraq, sections of Lebanon and South Asia, and eastern Saudi Arabia. In it, the fatwas of early jurists are given significant weight, and reason is given precedence over analogy
  • The Malikischool predominates in North and Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as areas of the Arab Gulf. As the sole school of thought that recognizes the consensus of the people of seventh-century Medina as a source of law, it is popular in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Yemen, and other parts of the Middle East. In this school, the sources of Islamic law were organized in descending order of authority, with the Quran ranked first, followed by the Sunna, the consensus of Muslim scholars, and analogy
  • It was the first school to organize sources of Islamic law in descending order of authority, with the Quran ranked first, followed by the consensus of Muslim scholars, and analogy

European-style law also had an impact on legal systems in Muslim nations, like Iran and Saudi Arabia, who both profess to solely follow Islamic law as their primary source of guidance. This is due in part to the consequences of colonialism, the necessity of economic modernity, and the fact that many of the elite who constructed the legal systems in Muslim-majority nations had their education in Western institutions of higher learning, among other factors. Political systems tend to include sharia-based rules in three ways, depending on who you ask.

  1. In certain Muslim-majority nations, such as Malaysia and Nigeria, the government maintains a secular legal system, but Muslims have the option of bringing some disputes before Islamic tribunals.
  2. God is the head of state.
  3. Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia are examples of the latter.
  4. Muslims are not required to follow sharia law, and non-Muslims are subject to the authority of special government committees and auxiliary courts in the majority of nations.
  5. Muslims living in secular governments include Azerbaijan, Chad, Senegal, Somalia, Tajikistan, and Turkey, all of which are Muslim-majority countries.

Despite this, Islamist political parties continue to vie for government and occasionally gain control in these nations. One such example is Turkey’s ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP), which is currently in power.

How do extremist groups interpret sharia?

a curated collection of unique analysis, data visualizations, and opinions that look at the debates and initiatives to improve health around the world Weekly. With the submission of your email address and the pressing of the subscribe button, you consent to receive information from CFR about our goods and services, as well as invites to CFR events. By using this website, you are also consenting to our Privacy Policyand Terms of Service. Islamist terrorist organizations are well-known for adopting puritanical interpretations of the Islamic law.

Such groups rely on violence and terrorism to advance their radical interpretations of Islamic law, to create and grow their authority, and to punish anyone who disagree with their viewpoint.

Leaders of such organizations frequently lack formal expertise in the interpretation of Islamic law.

“They are more concerned with power than they are with interpretation or with law as a sophisticated subject or area of knowledge,” Rabb explains further.

How do Muslim-minority countries approach sharia?

In some cases, some governments delegate authority to independent religious authorities to implement and adjudicate the laws of their respective faiths. According to the Islamic law of marriage, divorce, and inheritance, the United Kingdom (UK) authorizes Islamic tribunals to issue legally binding judgements provided both parties agree. Similar processes are in place for the Jewish and Anglican communities, respectively. In Israel, Christians, Jews, and Muslims, as well as adherents of a few other religions, can arbitrate family law cases in religious courts, which are separate from the civil courts.

As an alternative, policymakers in several Muslim-majority nations aim to prevent sharia from having an impact on national law or practice.

The wearing of veils or headscarves is prohibited in certain countries, such as France, where secularism is seen as an important component of the national identity and visible religious symbols are prohibited in specific public places.

Proponents of such legislation argue that they advance women’s empowerment and societal peace, while detractors argue that they violate individual liberties and unfairly target Muslims.

how did the muslim culture expand so rapidly?

Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries, among other methods of dissemination. Over time, Arab Muslim soldiers captured enormous swaths of territory and established imperial organizations. Islam expanded over the world. The propagation of Islam has spanned around 1,400 years. Following Muhammad’s death, Muslim conquests resulted in the establishment of caliphates, which controlled a huge geographical region. Conversion to Islam was aided by Arab Muslim soldiers conquering enormous territory and erecting imperial institutions throughout time.

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How did the Muslim culture expand rapidly?

Because of the development of the Arab Empire in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphates were established over a broad geographic region. A major factor in the increase in Islam conversions was the actions of missionaries, notably those of Imams, who were able to readily intermingle with the local population in order to spread religious teachings.

Why did the Muslim religion spread quickly?

There are a variety of factors contributing to Islam’s rapid expansion. For starters, Mecca was connected to a large number of worldwide commerce routes. Another crucial factor was the fact that their troops had acquired a large amount of area. The decent treatment of conquered peoples by the Muslims was a third element in their success.

Why did Islam spread so quickly quizlet?

Islam spread swiftly as a result of the conquest of neighboring areas by its leaders. The teachings of Islam were spread when Muhammad and the Muslim leaders who followed him conquered territories throughout the Middle East and beyond. Islam flourished swiftly because its leaders provided excellent treatment to newly captured people.

How was Arabia transformed by the rise of Islam?

What changes occurred in Arabia as a result of the emergence of Islam? A new religion arose in the Arab world, and it quickly gained universal acceptance among the inhabitants. There was a rise of a new and robust state, which brought peace to the warring tribes of Arabia. … It provided a shared job for the Arab community, which helped to strengthen the fragile unity of the umma by bringing it closer together.

How did Islam spread so quickly throughout the Middle East?

The Muslim community grew throughout the Middle East as a consequence of conquest, and the expansion of the Muslim state that resulted offered a fertile environment for the newly revealed faith to take root and flourish. The religious inspiration for the military conquest was strong, but it was also fueled by wealth and politics.

Why did Islam spread so quickly in Africa?

In accordance with Arab oral history, Islam arrived on Africa with Muslim refugees escaping persecution in the Arab peninsula. After starting in Alexandria in North Africa (the Maghreb), it expanded fast westward, limiting the number of Christians to a few enclaves in Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia.

How did the spread of Islam help spread the Arabic language?

As previously said, one of the most important ways that Islam contributed to the growth of Arab culture was by making Arabic the common language of people in the regions where it expanded.

How did Islam develop in Arabia and how did its followers create a vast empire so quickly?

How did Islam evolve in Arabia, and how did its adherents manage to build such a massive empire in such a short period of time?

Muhammad built his new religious community and united much of Arabia under the banner of Islam through coercive discourse and negotiation, as well as by carefully supervising the internal affairs of the group and its connections with outsiders, among other methods.

How does this document explain how Islam spread so quickly?

What role does this document play in explaining why Islam may have expanded so rapidly? This paper demonstrates that there were a variety of methods for spreading religion and ideas to neighboring communities. Muslims proliferated throughout the world, according to the author, because of trade routes and the fact that merchants offered one other greater pricing than they did for non-believers.

What was one effect of the expansion of Islam?

What was one of the consequences of the Islamic expansion between 632 and 750? The caliphs forbade armed conquest in their territories. There has been an increase in the number of cultural and commercial ties across a large area. Most of the western European populace converted, with the exception of a few.

How did the early Islamic empire expand quizlet?

What factors contributed to the expansion of the early Islamic Empire? In order to expand their territory, dynastic leaders relied on a robust military. In many cases, treaties were formed that permitted residents to continue practicing their own religions, while they were required to pay additional taxes.

In what way was the Islamic expansion into India similar to the way Islam expanded in other areas?

What factors contributed to the expansion of the early Islamic empire? In order to expand their kingdoms, dynasty leaders employed a robust military. In many cases, treaties were negotiated that permitted citizens to continue practicing their own religions while also paying additional taxes.

How did Islam emerge?

Despite the fact that Islam’s origins trace back far older, experts generally agree that it was founded in the 7th century, making it the most recent of the major global faiths. Islamic teachings were first taught at Mecca, which is now part of modern-day Saudi Arabia, during the prophet Muhammad’s lifetime. Today, the faith is expanding at an alarming rate around the world.

How did Islam develop?

The Origins of Islam. Islam emerged in the early 7th century in the small desert town of Mecca, which is located in what is now Saudi Arabia and surrounded by the Byzantine and Sassanian empires. Muslims believe that revelations were given to Islam’s prophet, Muhammad, by the archangel Gabriel – Jibril in Arabic – and that these revelations were given to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel.

What are three factors that contributed to the spread of Islam in the Middle East and North Africa in the 7th and 8th century?

During the 7th century CE, after the Muslim Arabs conquered North Africa and established themselves as a state, Islam expanded throughout West Africa, primarily by peaceful ways, as African monarchs either accepted the religion or converted to it.

What changes did Islamic expansion generate in those societies that encountered it?

Specifically, what changes did Islamic expansion bring about in the civilizations that came into contact with it, and how was Islam itself modified as a result of such encounters? Many locations saw a significant increase in the number of people who converted to Islam, either completely or partially.

Why did Islamic culture flourish?

The terms in this collection (26) The question is, why did Islamic culture thrive despite the fact that the Muslim dominion was short-lived? Created magnificent cities where intellectuals and artists could come together. They would talk about how to make modifications and improvements.

How did Islam develop and change over time?

The Islamic civilization thrived and consolidated during the ninth and twelfth centuries, resulting in what we now identify as Islam.

Trade, missionaries, and changes in the governmental structure of Islamic civilization all had a role in the spread of Islamic culture throughout the world.

What methods were used to spread Islam?

Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries, among other methods of dissemination. Over time, Arab Muslim soldiers captured enormous swaths of territory and established imperial organizations.

How did Islamic civilization spread to encompass such a vast empire?

The Islamic way of life spread through armed conquest, as has been the case with other civilizations throughout history. By conquering regions both within and beyond the Arabian Peninsula, the Islamic Empire grew in size and influence. The expansion of the empire was made possible by a competent military and a well-organized managerial structure.

How did Islam spread through the Sahara Desert?

Initially, Islam was introduced to West Africa through a leisurely and peaceful process, which was promoted by Muslim traders and academics. Journeys across the Sahara were made in phases during the early days of exploration. Goods were transported through a network of Muslim traders before being acquired by non-Muslims in the area at the southernmost end of the route.

What were the cultural and political effects of the expansion of Islam?

Overall, the arrival of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa aided the establishment of political empires, stimulated trade and prosperity, and boosted the flow of slaves throughout the continent. Islam was more appealing to kings in its purest form because the notion of the caliph linked political power with religious authority, making it more appealing to monarchs.

What were the major contributions of Islamic scholars?

Muslim Scientists and Scholars who are well-known He collected astronomical tables, developed Indian numbers (which later became Arabic numerals), formulated the earliest known trigonometric tables, and collaborated with 69 other experts to build a geographic encyclopaedia.

How did the early Islamic empire expand answers?

As a result of how they treated individuals and followers of various religions, as well as how becoming a Muslim or following their faith provided you with benefits, the early Islamic Empire grew. In Document B, the Muslim soldiers had the potential to misuse their position of authority over Theodemir and his supporters.

What is the caliphate system?

It was a semi-religious political system of governance in Islam in which the territories of the Islamic empire in the Middle East and North Africa, as well as the people living within them, were ruled by a supreme leader known as a Caliph (“Khalifa” in Arabic – which means “successor”), who was appointed by the Prophet Muhammad.

When did the Battle of Yarmouk take place?

The date was August 15, 636 AD.

How did Islam spread to India?

Islam came in the Indian subcontinent’s interior in the 7th century when the Arabs conquered the region. Sindhand was later brought to North India by the Ghurids during their invasion in the 12th century, and it has since formed a part of India’s religious and cultural history.

How did the traditions and religious views of pre Islamic peoples become integrated into the culture shaped by Islam?

Because pre-Islamic Arabs were Bedouins or nomads, the traditions and religious beliefs of pre-Islamic peoples were assimilated into the civilization established by Islam. There was a religious center for many Bedouins in Mecca, known as the Ka’ba, where they could pray to idols. … When it came to the formation of Islamic civilisation, how did regional variety factor in?

What factors allowed the Islamic empire to expand unify and thrive during its golden age?

What elements contributed to the Islamic Empire’s expansion, unification, and prosperity during its Golden Age?

The Quran, Abbasid forces expanding their frontiers, Islamic law, the Chinese paper-making process, and the House of Wisdom are all examples of topics covered in this course. What notable artistic accomplishments did the Islamic Empire have to its credit?

Who wrote the Quran?

Muslims believe that God verbally revealed the Quran to the last prophet, Muhammad, through the archangel Gabriel (Jibril), over a period of about 23 years, beginning in the month of Ramadan when Muhammad was 40 years old and terminating in 632, the year of Muhammad’s death.

What makes Islam unique?

Islamic tradition holds that God verbally revealed the Quran to the last prophet, Muhammad, through the archangel Gabriel (Jibril), over a period of about 23 years, beginning in the month of Ramadan, when Muhammad was 40, and terminating in the year 632, the year of his death.

Who wrote the Quran and when?

From AD610 to 632, the Prophet Muhammad distributed the Koran in a piecemeal and gradual manner, culminating in his death in 632. According to the evidence, Jesus recounted the passage and scribes took notes on what they had heard him say.

How was Arabia transformed by the rise of Islam?

What changes occurred in Arabia as a result of the emergence of Islam? A new religion arose in the Arab world, and it quickly gained universal acceptance among the inhabitants. There was a rise of a new and robust state, which brought peace to the warring tribes of Arabia. … It provided a shared job for the Arab community, which helped to strengthen the fragile unity of the umma by bringing it closer together.

Spread of Islamic Culture | World History | Khan Academy

How did Islam spread so quickly and how did the muslim culture grow so quickly quizlet What has changed about Islam since 1500, which continents it has extended to, and what is the essence of Islamic culture and civilisation What factors enabled the Islamic empire to capture so many nations in such a short period of time, and what were the consequences of the emergence of Islamic states? Timeline for the spread of Islam See more entries in the FAQ category.

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