In Which Empire Was A Shia Version Of Islam Made The Official Religion In The Sixteenth Century? (Perfect answer)

The Safavids made Shia Islam the official state religion in the early-16th century and aggressively proselytized the faith by forced conversion.

In which empire was a Shia version of Islam made the official religion in the sixteenth century group of answer choices?

The Safavid shahs established the Twelver school of Shia Islam as the official religion of the empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan region.

In which empire did the Shia version of Islam become the official religion?

Sunnis dominated the first nine centuries of Islamic rule (excluding the Shia Fatimid dynasty) until the Safavid dynasty was established in Persia in 1501. The Safavids made Shia Islam the state religion, and over the following two centuries they fought with the Ottomans, the seat of the Sunni caliphate.

In which empire was a Sunni version of Islam made the official religion in the fifteenth century?

In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517 and maintained Sunni Islam as the official religion.

Which empire ended the Byzantine Empire and came the closest to conquering Europe a Timur’s empire b Ottoman Empire c Delhi Sultanate D Mughal empire?

The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Was the Ottoman Empire Sunni or Shia?

The Turkish-speaking Ottoman royal family, the administration it created, and the educational and cultural institutions it eventually favored were all Sunni Muslim. However, subordinate Christian and Jewish sects also coexisted with Islam, which enjoyed the support and favor of the state.

Was the Safavid Empire Sunni or Shia?

Like most Iranians the Safavids (1501-1722) were Sunni, although like many outside Shi’ism they venerated Imam Ali (601-661), the first of the 12 Shia imams. Making Shi’ism the state religion served to distinguish Iranians from subjects of the rival Sunni-ruled Ottoman Empire.

How did Shia start?

Shia Islam originated as a response to questions of Islamic religious leadership which became manifest as early as the death of Muhammad in 632 CE. Historians dispute the origin of Shia Islam, with many Western scholars positing that Shiism began as a political faction rather than as a religious movement.

When did Persia convert to Shia?

Islam in Iran can be categorised into two periods – Sunni Islam from the 7th century to the 15th century and then Shia Islam post 16th century. The Safavid dynasty made Shia Islam the official state religion in the early sixteenth century and aggressively proselytized the faith by forced conversion.

How Shia become Sunni?

There is no conversion process from Shia to Sunni. It’s a spectrum of belief, it’s not a new religion. If you believe more in Shia fundamentals and schools of thought than Sunni ones, you are a Shia. Some people say the major difference is believing Ali was the first deserving Caliph, versus Abu Bakr.

Are Afghan Sunni or Shia?

Afghanistan is an Islamic emirate, in which most citizens follow Islam. As much as 90% of the population follows Sunni Islam. According to The World Factbook, Sunni Muslims constitute between 84.7 – 89.7% of the population, and Shia Muslims between 10 – 15%. 0.3% follow other minority religions.

Is UAE Sunni or Shia?

Approximately 11 percent of the population are citizens, of whom more than 85 percent are Sunni Muslims, according to media reports. The vast majority of the remainder are Shia Muslims, who are concentrated in the Emirates of Dubai and Sharjah.

Is Iran Shia or Sunni?

Iran is unique in the Muslim world because its population is overwhelmingly more Shia than Sunni (Shia constitute 95% of the population) and because its constitution is theocratic republic based on rule by a Shia jurist.

Who established Ottoman Empire?

The Ottoman Empire began at the very end of the 13th century with a series of raids from Turkic warriors (known as ghazis) led by Osman I, a prince (bey) whose father, Ertugrul, had established a power base in Söğüt (near Bursa, Turkey).

Who defeated Ottoman Empire?

Finally, after fighting on the side of Germany in World War I and suffering defeat, the empire was dismantled by treaty and came to an end in 1922, when the last Ottoman Sultan, Mehmed VI, was deposed and left the capital of Constantinople (now Istanbul) in a British warship.

Who is the leader of Ottoman Empire?

Osman I, a leader of the Turkish tribes in Anatolia, founded the Ottoman Empire around 1299. The term “Ottoman” is derived from Osman’s name, which was “Uthman” in Arabic. The Ottoman Turks set up a formal government and expanded their territory under the leadership of Osman I, Orhan, Murad I and Bayezid I.

BBC – Religions – Islam: Ottoman Empire (1301-1922)

Syria’s Great Mosque is located in Damascus. The Ottoman Empire was one of the most powerful and longest-lasting empires in history, with a population of over 100 million people. It was an empire that was inspired by and supported by Islam, as well as Islamic institutions and institutions of learning. When it came to the Eastern Mediterranean, it displaced the Byzantine Empire as the dominant force. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (reigned 1520-66), the Ottoman Empire reached its zenith, when it extended to encompass the Balkans and Hungary, and eventually reached the gates of Vienna.

It continued to deteriorate during the next centuries, and the First World War and the Balkan Wars effectively brought it to a close.

It included the following at its height:

  • Turkey, Egypt, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Hungary, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, parts of Arabia, and much of North Africa’s coastal strip are among the countries involved.

Why was the Empire successful?

There were a variety of factors contributing to the Ottoman Empire’s prosperity, including:

  • A highly centralised system in which power was always handed to a single individual rather than being divided amongst opposing princes
  • A single family dominated the Ottoman Empire for seven centuries, and they did it with great success.
  • Education system that is controlled by the government
  • In addition, religion was infused into the political framework, with the Sultan being referred to as “the guardian of Islam.” a judicial system that is controlled by the state
  • When dealing with local officials, be ruthless. Promotion to positions of authority was primarily based on merit
  • Nevertheless, there were certain exceptions. The formation of coalitions across political and racial divides
  • Islamic ideology binds them together. With the goal of expanding Muslim territory through Jihad, they are united by the Islamic warrior ethic. Islamic organizational and administrative mechanisms bind the group together. Highly pragmatic, assimilating the greatest ideas from different cultures and adapting them to their own circumstances
  • Other religious organizations were urged to show allegiance
  • Private wealth and power were tightly controlled
  • Military force that is extremely powerful
  • A powerful slave-based army
  • Expert in the development of gunpowder for use as a military weapon
  • It was clear that the military culture penetrated the whole government.
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Origin

As a result of the Mongol conquest of Baghdad, the Seljuks established an autonomous Sultanate in eastern and central Asia Minor. During the Seljuk nobility’s reign of terror in 1301, Uthman, an Uzbek of the Ottoman clan, toppled the Seljuk aristocracy and declared himself Sultan of Asia Minor.

Rule of force

At first, the Ottoman Sultans’ power appeared to be in jeopardy. In order to establish their Empire, the Ottoman Sultans organized units of fanatical soldiers known as the orders of the Janissaries, who consisted of slaves and Christian converts who served as a crack infantry unit. The Ottomans inflicted a series of losses on the Christian Byzantine Empire, which was in decline at the time, and then aggressively advanced westward.

Constantinople

Constantinople served as the administrative center of the Byzantine Empire. When the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II seized the city in 1453, it was elevated to the status of the Ottoman Empire’s capital. Istanbul’s Sultan Suleymaniye Mosque (also known as the Suleymaniye Mosque) Mehmet massacred a large portion of the inhabitants and expelled the remainder, subsequently repopulating the city by bringing in people from other parts of Ottoman empire to settle there. When Constantinople was renamed Istanbul (the “city of Islam”), Mehmet set about reconstructing it both physically and politically as his capital.

Economics

Not only did Istanbul become a political and military capital, but it also became one of the world’s major trading centers as a result of its strategic location at the intersection of Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Bursa, another prominent city in the region, was a center for the silk trade at the time. It is obvious that several of the Ottoman conquests in the later period were undertaken with the intention of gaining control of additional trade routes. Among the items that were swapped were:

  • Silk and various types of textiles
  • Musk
  • Rhubarb
  • Chinese porcelain
  • Spices such as pepper
  • Dyes such as indigo
  • And other items

Economic prosperity in the Empire was also attributed in large part to Mehmet’s program of boosting the number of traders and artisans across the Empire. He initially enticed merchants to relocate to Istanbul, and eventually forcefully relocated merchants from seized provinces such as Caffa, which he considered a threat. He also urged Jewish traders from Europe to go to Istanbul and establish themselves in the city’s commercial community. Later rulers carried on with their policies.

The siege of Constantinople

It was the year 1453 when Sultan Mehmet II rode into the capital of Constantinople on a white horse, bringing to an end more than a thousand years of Byzantine rule in Europe. Why did the Ottomans succeed this time while previous attempts to conquer the city had mainly failed? In what ways did the fall of Constantinople have a ripple effect throughout the rest of the Christian world? These issues are discussed by Roger Crowley, novelist and historian, Judith Herrin, Professor of Late Antique and Byzantine Studies at King’s College London, and Colin Imber, previously Reader in Turkish at Manchester University, who are all experts in their fields.

Effects of the fall of Constantinople

After 1100 years, the Byzantine Empire came to an end with the conquest of Constantinople. The ramifications of this for Christian Europe were immense. The exodus of intellectuals from the new empire to Italy, where they were instrumental in igniting the Renaissance and promoting commerce with the East, was one unforeseen consequence of the new dominion. Despite the Pope’s call for a crusade to regain Istanbul from the Muslims, the Christian nations were unable to muster an army for him, and no attempt was made to retake the city.

This eventually led to the expeditions of Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, and Sir Francis Drake.

Other religions

A number of churches have been turned into mosques. Other than Muslim communities, non-Muslim communities were organized according to the meilletsystem, which granted minority religious/ethnic/geographical communities a limited amount of authority to regulate their own affairs – all while remaining subject to the overall authority of the Ottoman administration. In 1454, the first Orthodox Christian mill was erected. This resulted in the unification of Orthodox Christians into an unified community under the leadership of the Patriarch, who was granted significant authority by the Sultan.

Some millets paid taxes to the state as dhimmis, while others were excused from paying taxes because they were perceived to be providing services of value to the government.

The devshirme system

According to thedevshirme (‘gathering’) system, which was adopted in the 14th century and applied to portions of the empire, non-Muslims were required to send over some of their offspring as a levy. Christian villages that had been conquered, particularly in the Balkans, were forced to hand up twenty percent of their male offspring to the state. These youngsters were converted to Islam and forced to work as slaves, much to the dismay of their parents and Western pundits alike. The forcible abduction from their families and conversion was obviously painful and in violation of current notions of human rights, but for some, the devshirme system was a more privileged type of servitude than other forms of slavery (although others were undoubtedly ill-used).

In addition, a large number of them served in the Ottoman Empire’s elite military corps, known as the Janissaries, which was nearly entirely comprised of Christians who had been compelled to convert to Islam.

They were extremely important to the Sultan despite the fact that they were legally slaves.

Some of the’slaves’ were able to rise to positions of power and prosperity as a result of their enslavement.

Their social standing remained restricted, and their offspring were not permitted to inherit their money or follow in their footsteps when they passed away. The devshirme system was in use until the end of the seventeenth century, according to historical records.

Life under Mehmet

Following fights between Muslims and Christians, churches were transformed into mosques and mosques were converted into churches, depending on who had won the battle. Despite the fact that Mehmet transformed a large number of churches into mosques, he did not crush the Christian faith in general. There were a number of practical considerations behind this:

  • Christians constituted the majority of the population, suggesting that cohabitation would be more effective than war. For the purpose of putting Mehmet’s rule into effect, the church’s institutions donated a machine.

Mehmet, on the other hand, was influenced by the Islamic principle that Muslims should show respect for other religions. Mehmet not only accepted Christians, but he went out of his way to encourage Jews to settle in Istanbul as well. Because of their history of persecution by the Orthodox Christian Church, Jews found this to be particularly appealing. The non-Muslim communities (millets) were ruled by the Sultan, who exercised control over them through their religious authorities. To let them to live and worship in peace, these groups were allocated their own sections of towns.

After Mehmet

As a result of his death in 1481, Mehmet II selected his eldest son Bayezid to succeed him as Sultan of Istanbul. The Shi’a Muslims of the Ottoman Empire rose up in support of Bayezid’s brother Jem, and the Ottoman Empire was overthrown. They put down the uprising and went on to play a significant role in Ottoman politics for the rest of the century. As a result of the backing of the Janissaries, Bayezid’s son Selim built the groundwork for a globe Ottoman Empire based only on the autocracy of the Sultan.

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Fratricide

The policy of fratricide was instituted by Sultan Selim (the murder of brothers). The Sultan’s brothers would be imprisoned under this arrangement whenever a new Sultan was installed on the throne. It was agreed that the brothers (together with their boys) would be slain as soon as the Sultan had produced his first son. The new Sultan’s sons would then be imprisoned until their father’s death, after which the entire system would be restarted from the beginning. This frequently resulted in hundreds of sons being slaughtered while just one son was chosen to become Sultan.

Sultan and court

The Topkapi Palace’s main entrance is located in Istanbul, Turkey. The Sultans resided at Istanbul’s Topkapi Palace, which was built in the 15th century. It was via rites derived from the Byzantine court that he conducted his daily life. For example, the Sultan donned his silk robes only once before tossing them aside in disgust. (Many of these are now on display at the Topkapi Museum.) The Topkapi Palace housed a number of artefacts that were intended to legitimize the Ottoman Empire and to bolster the Sultan’s claim to be the leader of all Muslims, all of which were on display.

  1. When Cairo fell to the Ottomans, these items were brought in from Egypt.
  2. Every occupant of the Topkapi palace’s 230 tiny, gloomy chambers was under his rule, even the servants.
  3. The eunuchs were the sole members of the regular male crew.
  4. No one, however, could be relied upon.
  5. Favored males were elevated to control distant lands like as Syria, while males who were not in favor may be imprisoned behind the royal walls.
  6. The harem was lavish, hedonistic, and obscene in every way.

Despite this, having a woman in the harem might be beneficial to a family who has a woman in the harem. It implied favor, riches, and power; it implied access to the Sultan, who was the most powerful man in the Empire at the time.

Influences and Structure

Despite the fact that the Ottoman Empire was heavily impacted by the beliefs and practices of the peoples it acquired, Islam was by far the most significant source of influence. State madrassahs (religious schools) and palace schools were places of learning for the governing elite, who worked their way up the ranks. They were taught to be concerned with the requirements of the government while also being cognizant of the constraints imposed by Islamic law on their actions. The governing elite’s organizational structure represented a world of order and hierarchy, in which advancement and position were awarded only on the basis of merit.

Borneo-determinism was only applied to one position, that of Sultan.

Suleiman – a golden age

Selim’s son, Suleiman the Magnificent (ruled 1520-66), and his grandson, Selim II, were the rulers of the Ottoman Empire when it reached its zenith of grandeur (1566 – 74). Suleiman ascended to the throne as one of the world’s richest kings while he was a young boy. A large part of his strength came from the work his father Selim had done in stabilizing government, removing opposition, frightening (but not successfully conquering) the Safavid Empireof Iran into adopting a non-aggression policy, and conquering the Mamluk empires of Egypt and Syria, among other accomplishments.

Suleiman had no internal opponents for power, which was a good thing.

Suleiman was generally considered as the spiritual head of Islam, as well as the earthly ruler of the majority of Muslims, because the Ottoman Empire now encompassed so much of the land where Islam was practiced, as well as so many of the Islamic holy sites.

The riches and stability of the Ottoman Empire drew the best Muslim minds of the time, and artisans, painters, thinkers, and authors were all eager to go to Istanbul as a result of the Empire’s prosperity and stability.

Short-termism

The Ottomans were known for having an extremely short-term outlook. They were opposed to the notion of developing territory and making investments in it for the purpose of profiting from it in the future; land and peoples were exploited to the point of exhaustion and then more or less abandoned in favor of new territory.

Because of this approach, the Ottoman Empire was forced to rely on constant growth in order to maintain its stability. It was likely to collapse if it did not continue to grow.

Decline

Vienna was being besieged for a second time in 1683, and it was the final time the empire attempted to seize the city. It was a flop. A lack of success in conquering Europe and the accumulation of enormous new riches caused the Empire to lose pace and fall into a state of steady collapse. There were a number of additional causes that led to the Empire’s demise:

  • The European powers desired to expand
  • Economic difficulties
  • And other factors
  • Competition from commerce from the Americas
  • Competition from low-cost items from India and the Far East
  • And competition from other sources. The establishment of alternative trading routes
  • Unemployment is on the rise across the Empire
  • Competition from commerce from the Americas
  • Competition from low-cost items from India and the Far East
  • Competition from the European Union. Other trade routes are being developed. In the Empire, there is an increase in unemployment.
  • Because of this ostensibly compassionate procedure, individuals were elevated to the position of Sultan after years in jail – hardly the finest preparation for absolute authority.

Kemal Ataturk forged a new, more contemporary persona. Soon after, the very word “Turk” came to be associated with betrayal and violence. As a result, Turks like Kemal Ataturk, who was born late in the nineteenth century, were repulsed by the Ottoman Turkish political system and the culture that had developed as a result of the Ottoman Turkish political system. Seeing nothing but deterioration and corruption, he inspired the Turks to forge a new contemporary identity for themselves. The Ottoman Empire came to an end on November 1, 1922, when the sultanate of Istanbul was abolished and Turkey was declared a republic.

Chapter 13 Quiz Flashcards

The excursions to the Indian Ocean basin funded by the Ming emperor came to an abrupt halt in 1433, and it is unclear why this occurred. According to the emperors’ successors, growth was a waste of resources. What sources of inspiration did the Ming dynasty turn to in its efforts to recover from the disruption caused by mongol occupation? Chinese dynasties in the past have left a mark on their culture. For the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, which of the following best portrayed the fragmented and competitive political climate that existed in Europe?

  1. The official religion of whose empire during the sixteenth century was based on a Shia interpretation of Islam?
  2. For the purpose of gaining direct access to the products and resources of the Indian Ocean basin According to which of the following statements is accurate about the Mughal empire?
  3. What characteristics did the Mughal empire and the Songhay empire have in common?
  4. The Aztec Empire’s battles were tied to the practice of human sacrifice, which was widespread at the time.
  5. Create a complex bureaucracy in order to integrate and control its constituents.
  6. The Songhay Empire and the Ottoman Empire are two of the most powerful empires in the world.
  7. When it comes to the world’s main civilizations in the fifteenth century, which one of the following was the most centralized, cohesive, and prosperous?

Which empire was responsible for the fall of the Byzantine empire and came the closest to conquest of Europe? What were the responsibilities of subjugated people under the Aztec empire?

Safavid dynasty

This governing dynasty of Iran reigned from 1501 to 1736 and was instrumental in the founding of Twelver Shiism as the official state religion of Iran, which played a significant role in uniting the many ethnic and linguistic parts of the country into a single national consciousness. The Safavids were derived from Sheikhaf al-Din of Ardabl (1253–1334), who was the leader of the Sufi order of afaviyyeh (afawiyyah) and the founder of the Safavid Empire. However, although the early Afav order was originallySunni, following the jurisprudence of the Shfi school, it gradually shifted toward Shiism over time, presumably influenced by the widespread devotion of the prophet Al-Qaeda.

  1. As a result of the Mongol invasions, which began in the 13th century, the Islamic world was fundamentally altered.
  2. Despite this, the Afav order at Ardabl was far enough away from any major political centers to maintain its neutrality, allowing the Persian mystics to establish a substantial following of their own.
  3. As you take this quiz, you’ll get more interested in history.
  4. When Ismil I became the order’s sixth leader, the afavs had amassed enough backing from theKizilbash -local Turkmens and other dissatisfied heterodox tribes — to allow him to captureTabrz from the Ak Koyunlu (Turkish: “White Sheep”), an UzbekTurkmen confederation.
  5. The following ten years saw him subdue the major portion of Iran and annexe the Iraqi regions of Baghdad and Mosul, among other accomplishments.
  6. In August 1514, Ismael was soundly beaten at the hands of his Sunni adversary, the Ottoman sultanSelim I, at the battle of Chaldirn.
  7. Under the rule of Ismael’s eldest son, Shahahmsp I (1524–76), Iran suffered a significant deterioration, and Turkmen incursions into the nation became more frequent and unchallenged under the leadership of his inept successors.
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Knowing the limits of his military might, Abbs made peace with the Ottomans on unfavorable terms in 1590 and redirected his military efforts towards the Uzbek people.

The Kizilbash’s strength has been lessened, but the usage of weaponry has been increased.

In 1603, with his new force, Abbs beat the Turks, compelling them to cede all of the area they had conquered, and capturing the capital city of Baghdad.

King Abbs I (the Great) of Persia (Abbs I (the Great) of Persia A later artistic representation (year unknown) of Abbs I (the Great) of Persia, who was responsible for the planning and reconstruction of the city of Efahn in Iran.

Increased trade and industrial activity with the West, as well as improvements in communication.

However, Christians were permitted, and various missions and churches were established in spite of the Safavid Shi’i enthusiasm.

Efahn was defeated by the Ghilzai Afghans of Kandahar in 1722.

Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Adam Zeidan was the author of the most recent revision and update to this article.

Free Flashcards about World History Exam 7

Question Answer Which of the following was the largest pastoral society in West Africa in the fifteenth century? The Fulbe Why did the maritime expeditions of the Indian Ocean basin sponsored by the Ming emperor suddenly stop in 1433? The emperor’s successors viewed expansion as a waste of resources In its effort to recover from the disruption of Mongol rule, where did the Ming dynasty look for inspiration? The culture of past Chinese dynasties Which of the following was a motivation for European expansion but not for Chinese expansion in the fifteenth century? To gain direct access to the wealth of Africa and Asia What feature did the Mughal Empire and Songhay Empire share? The rulers were Muslim, but the majority of the population was not The wars carried out by the Aztec Empire were linked to Human Sacrifice What did the Inca Empire do that the Aztec Empire did not do Built a bureaucracy to integrate and control its subjects Which of the following pairs of societies shared a common religion? The Songhay Empire and the Ottoman Empire The Inca and Aztec empires practiced similar gender-based systems in which women and men operated in two separate but equivalent spheres, a system that scholars call gender parallelism Which empire ended the Byzantine Empire and came the closest to conquering Europe? Ottoman Empire The ruler of the Songhay Empire made the pilgrimage to Mecca and asked to be given which title? Caliph of the Land of the Blacks .

In what way were the Aztec and Inca empires similar? Both started out as marginal peoples who conquered and absorbed older cultures In the fifteenth century, long-distance trade shifted to East Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean Which of the following is true of the Mughal Empire? It established unified control over most of the Indian Peninsula .

In which empire was a Shia version of Islam made the official religion in the sixteenth century? Safavid Empire Which city emerged as a major Muslim port city in the Indian Ocean basin in the fifteenth century? Malacca .

Refer to Map 12.1 in the textbook.

Which of the following distinguished the empires of Western Europe from other empires?

What contributed to higher literacy rates in the British colonies in North America than in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America? Protestantism, which was practiced by most British colonists, encouraged reading the Bible for oneself Which of the following contributed to the great dying in the Americas? Native American’s lack of immunity to European and African diseases What did the introduction of domesticated animals into the Americas make possible? Ranching economies How did silver from the mines of Mexico and Peru affect international commerce? It enabled Europeans to buy Chinese tea, silk, and porcelain Which of the following is an example of the Columbian exchange? The introduction of corn, and potatoes into the Afro-Eurasian Diet Which of the following regions experienced the least racial mixing and was the least willing to recognize the offspring of interracial unions? British North America Which of the following policies reflects mercantilist thinking? Accumulating precious metals Which of the following dominated the agricultural economy in British North America? Small-scale independent farms working their own land Why did some Native Americans aid the Spanish in their initial invasion of the New World? To gain an advantage against their own enemies How did many Native Americans in Mesoamerica and Peru respond to Spanish missionaries’ efforts to convert them to Catholicism? They blended their old customs into Catholic practices Which of the following describes slavery in Latin America? Slaves became self-reproducing after 1750, with all slaves born in the New World How did Chinese and Russian expansion into Central Asia affect the nomadic peoples inhabiting the steppe lands? They no longer enjoyed political independence and economic prosperity Which of the following describes what happened to the native populations of the steppes and Siberia as a consequence of Russian imperial expansion? Assimilation .

In which of the following empires did the process of expansion occur at the same time that a distinctive state was taking shape? Russian Empire Which of the following policies contributed to the growth of Hindu opposition to Mughal rule by the late seventeenth century? Reinstatement of Jizya In the conflict between the Islamic and Christian worlds, which event in the fifteenth century signaled that the Islamic world held the upper hand? The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople Which of the following offered Christian men a means of upward mobility within the Ottoman Empire? Devshirma Refer to Map 13.3 in the textbook.

The addition of Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet to the Chinese empire during the Qing dynasty led to The creation of the Court of Colonial Affairs . Map 13.1 in the textbook shows the Americas in which century? Eighteenth

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