In Which Period Did Islam Spread Into Europe? (Question)

Islam gained its first genuine foothold in continental Europe from 711 onward, with the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The Arabs renamed the land Al-Andalus, which expanded to include the larger parts of what is now Portugal and Spain, excluding the northern highlands.

Spread of Islam – Wikipedia

  • In the mid 7th century AD, following the Muslim conquest of Persia, Islam penetrated into areas that would later become part of European Russia. A centuries later example that can be counted amongst the earliest introductions of Islam into Eastern Europe came about through the work of an early 11th-century Muslim prisoner whom the Byzantines captured during one of their wars against Muslims.


What time period did Islam spread?

Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time. Most of the significant expansion occurred during the reign of the Rashidun from 632 to 661 CE, which was the reign of the first four successors of Muhammad.

Where did Islam spread 1450?

Emergence of the Seljuks and Ottomans (950–1450) The expansion of Islam continued in the wake of Turkic conquests of Asia Minor, the Balkans, and the Indian subcontinent.

What did Islam introduce to Europe?

During the high medieval period, the Islamic world was at its cultural peak, supplying information and ideas to Europe, via Al-Andalus, Sicily and the Crusader kingdoms in the Levant. These included Latin translations of the Greek Classics and of Arabic texts in astronomy, mathematics, science, and medicine.

How did Islam spread in the 15th century?

The military expansions of the earlier period spread Islam in name only; it was later that Islamic culture truly spread, with people converting to Islam in large numbers. This spread of Islamic culture was facilitated by trade, missionaries, and changes in the political structure of Islamic society.

What year is the 7th century?

The Prophet Muhammad disseminated the Koran in a piecemeal and gradual manner from AD610 to 632, the year in which he passed away. The evidence indicates that he recited the text and scribes wrote down what they heard.

How did Islam spread in 600 CE?

Continuities 600 to 1450 C.E. Muslim merchants, pilgrims, and missionaries traded over the Silk Road. Maritime trade in the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean increased. Over the centuries these pilgrims helped to spread Islamic beliefs and values.

What happened between 600 CE and 1450 CE?

In the time period between 600 and 1450 CE, it was impossible for one empire to dominate the entire globe, largely because distance and communication were so difficult. Both the Islamic caliphates and the Mongol Empire fell at least partly because their land space was too large to control effectively.

How did Islam spread to Philippines?

Islam reached the Philippines in the 14th century with the arrival of Muslim traders from the Persian Gulf, southern India, and their followers from several sultanate governments in the Malay Archipelago. The first Muslims to arrive were traders followed by missionaries in the late 14th and early 15th centuries.

Why did Islam not spread to Europe?

Ultimately because Islam (like many other religions) spread by conquest, and when it started losing battles & campaigns in Europe instead of winning them, it stopped spreading there. Because the Polish Army turned them back at the siege of Vienna….

How did Islam spread to the West?

Following the conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE, Islam spread throughout West Africa via merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries, that is largely through peaceful means whereby African rulers either tolerated the religion or converted to it themselves.

How did Islam affect the early Middle Ages in Europe?

Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe were numerous, affecting such varied areas as art, architecture, medicine, agriculture, music, language, education, law, and technology. From the 11th to the 13th century, Europe absorbed knowledge from the Islamic civilization.

How did Europe respond to the spread of Islam?

Which of the following best describes how European powers responded to Islamic expansion? Europeans viewed the spread of Islam as a threat and actively worked to stop it. Military conquests by the Arab Empire and traders of Islamic faith were the primary means for spreading Islam to Africa, Europe, and Asia.

How did Islam spread to India?

Islam arrived in the inland of Indian subcontinent in the 7th century when the Arabs conquered Sindh and later arrived in North India in the 12th century via the Ghurids conquest and has since become a part of India’s religious and cultural heritage.

How did Islam start and spread?

The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula. In other parts of the world, Islam spread through trade and commerce.

Constitutional Rights Foundation

God’s words, as relayed to Muhammad by an angel, were finally written down in verses that became known as the Koran, or Book of the Prophet. This sacred book, as well as the sayings of Muhammad (known as the Sunna), served as the foundation for the new religion known as Islam. Islam literally translates as “to surrender” to God in Arabic. (The Arabic term for “God” is Allah, which means “the Almighty.” In Mecca, Muhammad did not have a lot of support from the people. To the contrary, his preaching against the corrupt methods of traders gained him many enemies in the town, which was dependent on commerce for its prosperity.

Medina had offered him to manage the country, which had been torn apart by political strife.

Local tribes rushed to the mosque in droves to convert to Islam.

By the time of his death, he had succeeded in uniting much of Arabia under Islamic rule, having personally led around 20 military expeditions against pagan Arab tribes in the process.

In addition, they establish civil and criminal laws (collectively known as theSharia).

From Arabia to Spain

Following Muhammad’s death in 632, a leader known as a caliph was appointed to take his place (meaning “successor”). The caliph served as the political and religious leader, although he was not a prophet in the traditional sense. The first caliph had an impossible task: he had to retain all of the Bedouin tribes under his authority. Fortunately, a campaign of “reconversion” was successful. As a result, in order to prevent the warrior Bedouins from battling one other, succeeding caliphs conducted military campaigns outside of Arabia.

  1. Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, as well as large portions of Afghanistan and Baluchistan, were among the territories captured.
  2. If they died in fight for God, they thought they would be considered martyrs and would be rewarded for forever in the hereafter in paradise.
  3. A portion of the riches, women, and slaves taken by Arab soldiers was distributed to them as compensation for their bravery.
  4. The people who were subjugated by the Muslims were frequently forced to choose a decision.
  5. The vast majority choose to convert.
  6. The levy eventually proved to be such a profitable source of money that many Muslim rulers openly discouraged people from converting to the faith.
  7. Dhimmis were regarded inferior by Muslims, and they were treated as inferiors as a result.

The Umayyad line took control of the expandingDar al-Islam, or “country of Islam,” over the course of the Islamic Golden Age.

The great majority of Muslims, known as Sunnis, believe that the Umayyads were the legitimate successors to the caliphate and that the caliphate was established by Allah.

It was about 100 years until the Umayyads came to power, during which time the empire expanded from the Middle East into Europe.

In 670, the soldiers of the Umayyad caliph launched an attack on the city of Constantinople, located in Asia Minor.

However, after seven years of siege, the Muslims were forced to abandon their initial effort to seize control of the city.

They were successful in defeating the Byzantines and converting the Berber tribes (also known as Moors).

During the year 711, a Muslim fleet made landfall on the Iberian Peninsula (the site of modern-day Spain and Portugal).

The invaders came up against Rodrigo, the Visigoth Christian monarch, who dispatched troops to repel them. Despite being outnumbered, the Muslims were able to overcome King Rodrigo. By 715, the Arab and Berber cavalry had conquered the majority of Iberia and made it their own.

Charles of the Franks

Following the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe in the 700s was divided into a plethora of kingdoms and even smaller dukedoms, all of which were at conflict with one another nearly constantly. There were no united nations in existence. The majority of people who lived in Europe were Christians, but other peoples continued to worship pagan religions. As a loose confederation of dukes, the Frankish Kingdom ruled over regions that would eventually become France as well as parts of Germany. Most of the power in this region was held by local dukes and their noblemen supporters.

  1. Approximately 200 years prior, the Franks had been converted to Christian faith.
  2. Charles was imprisoned by his grandmother Plectrude when Pippin died in 714 in order to ensure that her grandson, who was then a little boy, would succeed him as ruler of the kingdom.
  3. Several dukedoms in the Frankish realm launched an invasion against Plectrude’s territory.
  4. When Charles faced his first opponent, he was beaten.
  5. Despite the fact that Plectrude had persuaded the invaders to stop their invasion, they were attacked by Charles while returning home, and many of them died as a result.
  6. After numerous victories, he returned to his hometown to face Plectrude.
  7. For the remainder of his life, Charles was embroiled in a never-ending campaign of conquest and conquest throughout the Frankish realm.
  8. Charles went to war in order to gain territory, often from churches and monasteries, which allowed him to expand his army and become more powerful.

The Battle of Tours

In Iberia, while Charles and the other Franks were warring among themselves, the Muslims were preparing to confront the Franks. In 721, they launched incursions across the Pyrenees Mountains into Aquitaine, the Frankish duchy at the southernmost tip of the continent. The Muslims were beaten by Duke Eudo of Aquitaine in a single fight, but they continued to invade the region. The Muslim horsemen plundered and torched churches, monasteries, and entire cities as a result of their campaign. When Abd ar-Rahman, the Muslim ruler of Iberia, brought hundreds of horsemen and their families back into Aquitaine in 732, it was considered a major victory.

  • In the aftermath of his victory against Duke Eudo in combat, Abd ar-Rahman devastated the city of Bordeaux and demolished the cathedral of Poitiers, among other things.
  • Charles reacted swiftly, and an epic battle erupted near Tours not long after the first.
  • There are several questions surrounding this conflict.
  • However, we do know that a significant fight did occur, and that the Franks, commanded by Charles, were victorious.
  • The Muslim horsemen assaulted the Franks in square formations multiple times with swords and spears, battling with battleaxes, spears, and gigantic broadswords, and were victorious on each occasion.
  • Apparently, cavalry was utilized against them, according to a Frankish chronicle, which may imply that Charles was also using cavalry.
  • Abd ar-Rahman was speared to death as a result of the confusion.

Throughout the Western world, the Fight of Tours became remembered as the major battle that put a halt to the Muslim march.

Muslim insurgents continued to launch raids in the region north of the Pyrenees.

Charles continued to wage war against his Frankish adversaries, but now he had the extra honor of being hailed as the savior of Christendom.

The Muslims, on the other hand, stayed in Iberia for a further 700 years.

Many terms in the Spanish language are derived from Arabic, for example, alcalde (mayor), azcar (sugar), café (coffee), chisme (gossip), hasta (until), ricón (corner), andcero (andcero) (zero).

Christians eventually retook control of all of Spain in 1492, the same year that Christopher Columbus set sail for the New World. They ejected the Jews and Muslims who refused to convert to Christianity and were forced to leave the country.

The Gates of Vienna

An whole new line, the Abbasids, ascended to the throne of the Muslim Empire in 750 and built their capital in Baghdad. By 900, however, the empire had disintegrated into a number of smaller caliphates. Muslim conquests, on the other hand, persisted. It was about 300 years before the island of Sicily (off the coast of the Italian peninsula) was liberated from Muslim rule. Muslims also extended throughout India and the rest of the eastern hemisphere. A series of conflicts known as the Crusades began in the 11th century, when popes and kingdoms throughout Europe started a campaign against Muslims.

  1. The Crusaders eventually took control of the region and kept it for over a century after that.
  2. Baghdad was taken by the Mongols from Central Asia in 1258, and the city’s populace was murdered.
  3. However, in what is now modern Turkey, a new Muslim empire, the Ottoman Turks, rose to prominence.
  4. When Sultan Mahomet II of the Ottoman Empire authorized another effort to seize Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, it was in 1452 that the Ottomans succeeded.
  5. Within around 100 years, the Ottomans expanded their empire to include Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia, Albania, Romania, and Hungary.
  6. Both of the city’s assaults were unsuccessful.
  7. The Ottomans made the decision to lay siege to Vienna and set up camp outside the city walls in a beautiful tent camp that was far from the city center.
  8. Then, just before going into combat, he said to his soldiers, “It is not just a city that we have to rescue; it is the entire Christian world, and the city of Vienna serves as the bastion of that world.” This is a holy battle, and we must win it.
  9. The Ottomans’ goal of conquering Europe came crashing down in a defeat just outside the city walls of Vienna.
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“The Sick Man of Europe”

Following the Muslim defeat in the Battle of Vienna, the Ottoman Empire began to decline. Conservatives in the Ottoman government and army, as well as the city of Istanbul (then known as Constantinople), consistently fought attempts to reform their armies in order to protect themselves against European invasion. The European countries that had been conquered by the Ottomans gained their independence one after another. Egypt was captured by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798, and he governed the country for a brief period of time.

  1. The Russians advanced southward into Central Asia, posing a challenge to the Iranian state (later called Iran).
  2. Indonesia was colonized by the Dutch.
  3. Egypt was captured by the British in 1882.
  4. Following the war, the Ottoman Empire (which had sided with Germany during the conflict) was partitioned among the victorious European nations.
  5. Syria has been taken over by France.

Ataturk broke with 1,300 years of Islamic tradition when he established a secular government in Turkey, one in which the state was distinct from religious institutions. The caliphs and sultans were no longer in power.

For Discussion and Writing

  1. What factors, in your opinion, contributed to the success of Muslim kings in maintaining their empires together
  2. In what ways and when were the Muslim expansions into Europe from the west and the east halted? In the aftermath of World War I, what happened to the Ottoman Empire

For Further Information

Islam A good summary of the country’s history and traditions. According to the BBC. Richard Hooker wrote the text for IslamOnline. The History of Islamic Civilization: A Guide to the Past Islam in the Middle East and the Islamic History of the Middle East IslamiCity provides a thorough history of the city. The Islamic History Sourcebook on the Internet A massive collection of papers spanning all time periods. Islam’s historical development A quick overview of the past. According to the Barkati Islamic Web Site.

  • Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy, World Federation of KSI Muslim Communities, has written a restatement of the history of Islam and Muslims from CE 570 to CE 661, which is available online.
  • This is from ISL Software.
  • History of the Arab-Islamic World From the website
  • According to the Overview of World Religions, published by the St Martin’s College Division of Religion and Philosophy.

Time Lines

The Islamic World in the Early Period A timeline adapted from Exploring Ancient World Cultures: A Chronology. A Chronology of Muslim History in a Nutshell This is from ISL Software. Timeline of the Islamic Era Maps and chronologies are included. Chronology of Islam David W. Koel is a professor at North Park University in Chicago. Civilisations On this interactive map, you may follow the expansion of empires, especially Islamic empires, year by year. It is necessary to have Flash installed. This is from the BBC.

Encylopedia Articles

Islamic World in the Early Periods Exploring Ancient World Cultures provides a timeline of events. History of Islam in a Concise Chronology ISL Software is the source of this information. a chronology of Islamic events Maps and timelines are included. The History of Islam From North Park University in Chicago’s David W. Koel: Civilisations On this interactive map, you can follow the expansion of empires, particularly Islamic empires, across time. Flash is required. The BBC has provided the following information :

Web Directories on Islamic History

History of Islam on the Yahoo Directory History of Islam, according to the Google Directory Obtain Access to the Directory History of Islam is the subject of this project. Information for academic purposes: Islam BUBL LINK: Islam Islamic World: Islamic History Sites

Battle of Tours

The Battle of Tours, according to Wikipedia According to Edward Shepherd Creasy, the Battle of Tours took place in A.D. 732 and was one of the “Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: From Marathon to Waterloo.” The Jewish Virtual Library (JVL) is an online resource that provides access to a variety of Jewish resources.

The Battle of Tours is a historical event that took place in France in the 15th century. The Battle of Poitiers, 732, according to an anonymous Arab chronicler, according to the Medieval Sourcebook. Three accounts of the Battle of Tours in 732 from the Medieval Sourcebook

Biographies of Muhammad

Muhammad, according to Encarta (prophet) Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, according to the Columbia Encyclopedia Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet: The Life of Muhammad (Public Broadcasting Service) Islam: The Empire of Faith: Muhammad (Public Broadcasting Service) Drs. A. Zahoor and Z. Haq: Drs. A. Zahoor and Z. Haq: Prophet Muhammad’s biographical sketch MSA: USC: The Prophet Muhammad and His Companions Companions of the Prophet Biographies of Muhammad’s companions are available online. The following is a statement from the Muslim Student Organization at the University of Missouri-Rolla.

Arabic Words in Spanish

Quickly translate Arabic words into Spanish using Spanish Pronto! The Spanish Connection to the Arab World A collection of Spanish terms that have been adopted from Arabic.


The Oxford History of Islam is a comprehensive resource on the history of Islam. John L. Esposito contributed to this article. Paul Fouracre’s The Age of Charles Martel is a historical novel set in the nineteenth century. By Paul Fregosi, author of Jihad in the West: Muslim Conquests From the Seventh to the Twenty-First Centuries

The Golden Age of Islam

The majority of experts think that Muslims established the most advanced civilisation on the planet throughout the Middle Ages, and that this was the case. The following are some of the individuals who are credited with the emergence of Islamic culture. Create an outline for a report outlining who the person is and why the person is significant by selecting one individual and conducting research on that individual.

Significant People in the Muslim World in Medieval Times

As a result of Timur’s death in 1405, the balance of power began to shift from migratory peoples to stationary populations living in huge centralized empires. As a result of the failure of the last Ottoman assault against Vienna in 1683, the enormous empires that made this age so renowned began to shrink and weaken, just as western Europeans began to demonstrate their ability to expand and dominate across the world. Muslims had begun to recover from the severe effects of the plague (1346–48) and many of their countries were thriving when the era began in 1347.

Muslims were now pushed into direct and recurrent contact with Europeans, both via armed wars and through commercial transactions, and the Europeans often outperformed the Muslims in terms of economic performance.

Furthermore, the existence of numerous powerful and competing Muslim governments hampered the development of a coordinated reaction to the Europeans, and it may even have encouraged some Muslims to join themselves with the European adversaries of other Muslim countries.

The Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin—Preussischer Kulturbesitz is a state-owned cultural institution in Berlin, Germany.

Not until recently had Islamicate ideals and institutions more clearly demonstrated their capability of promoting centralized political power or supporting an Islamic lifestyle in areas where there was no organized state, whether in areas where Islam had been long established or in areas where it had only recently arrived.

Muslims developed the cultural patterns that they carried on into modern times during this time period, and Islam’s adherents increased to about the proportions that they have now.

The Ottoman Empire in southeastern Europe, Anatolia, the eastern Maghrib, Egypt, and Syria; the Safavid Empire in Iran and Iraq; and the Indo-Timurid Empire (Mughals) in India were all examples of how the unity of these territories was reflected via empire.

Other Muslims from distant locations were linked together by less formal and often commercial ties; growing commercial and political ties between Morocco and western Sudan produced a trans-Saharan Maghribi Islam; Egyptian Islam influenced the central and eastern Sudan; and consistent contacts between East Africa, South Arabia, southern Iran, southwest India, and the southern seas promoted a distinct Indian OceanIslam, with Persian as its language of communication.

  1. Although Persian came the closest to becoming an international language, the expansion and naturalization of Islam also resulted in a number of local languages becoming vehicles for Islamicate administration and high culture, including Ottoman, Chagatai, Swahili, and Urdu.
  2. Muslims were constantly in conflict with practitioners of other religions, and new converts frequently practiced Islam while continuing to follow their prior religious traditions.
  3. Major realignments and growth occurred during this time period.
  4. The Muslim monarchs of minor kingdoms presided over territories ranging from the Atlantic to Pacific, from the Balkans to Sumatra.
  5. There was only one Muslim kingdom left in Andalusia, and it was Granada, which stood up against Christian dominance of the Iberian Peninsula.
  6. It was Muslim who ruled the empire of Maliat Gao, which included several Saharan “port” cities, such as Timbuktu, that were centers of Muslim learning.
  7. Minor Muslim states were established along the Swahili coast, which was always more oriented toward the Indian Ocean than toward its own hinterland.
  8. Throughout western Anatolia and the Balkan Peninsula, the Ottoman state, led by Sultan Mehmed I, was attempting to recover from its loss at the hands of Timur.
  9. In Transoxania, the neo-Mongol, neo-Timurid Uzbek kingdom reigned.
  10. Even though Muslims were a minority in India, they were beginning to exert their dominance everywhere except in the southern region, which was dominated by the Vijayanagar dynasty at the time.
  11. Even in places where there was no structured state, such as the furthest reaches of Central Asia and southern China, dispersed tiny Muslim populations remained, frequently centered on oasis, as evidenced by the presence of oases in the region.

Realignment and consolidation had taken place almost everywhere in this swarm of nations, based on experiments with different types of legitimacy and organizational structure.

5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe

Islamic immigrants are a small minority in Europe, accounting for around 5% of the total population.”> But in certain countries, such as France and Sweden, the proportion of Muslims is larger than the overall population percentage. In addition, according to forecasts from the Pew Research Center, the Muslim percentage of the continent’s population is predicted to expand – and might more than quadruple – in the next decades. Political and social upheavals have already occurred in many European nations as a result of these demographic transitions, particularly in the aftermath of the recent influx of millions of asylum seekers, the vast majority of whom are Muslims.

According to the most recent demographic estimates from the Pew Research Center, the following are five facts concerning the number and composition of the Muslim community in Europe: 1 France and Germany have the greatest Muslim populations in Europe, followed by the United Kingdom (defined as the 28 current European Union member countries plus Norway and Switzerland).

Cyprus is the EU country in which Muslims constitute the highest proportion of the population (by population share): Most of the island nation’s 300,000 Muslims (25.4 percent) are Turkish Cypriots with longstanding ties to the country, making up nearly one-quarter of its total population (25.4 percent) (and not recent migrants).

  1. From the middle of 2010 to the middle of 2016, the proportion of Muslims in Europe increased by more than one percentage point, from 3.8 percent to 4.9 percent (from 19.5 million to 25.8 million).
  2. It is anticipated that the Muslim population in Europe will grow to 7.4 percent by 2050, even if further migration is completely halted.
  3. 3 Muslims are significantly younger than other Europeans and have significantly more children.
  4. On the other hand, half of all European Muslims are under the age of 30, compared to only 32 percent of non-Muslims in Europe of the same age.
  5. 4 Migration was the most important factor driving the increase in Muslim populations in Europe between the middle of 2010 and the middle of 2016.
  6. Approximately 1.3 million more Muslims have been granted (or are anticipated to be granted) refugee status, allowing them to remain in European countries.
  7. Natural growth was the secondary driver: there were 2.9 million more births than deaths among European Muslims during this time period.

Religious flipping is thought to be a minor component in Muslim population shift, with around 160,000 more persons moving away from Islam than were converting to the faith during this time period, according to some estimates.

Try our email course on Muslims and Islam

Every other day, four brief courses will be given to your mailbox to help you learn more about Muslims and Islam. Sign up right away! 5 The perceptions of Muslims differ significantly throughout European countries. According to a poll done by the Pew Research Center in 2016 in ten countries, unfavorable attitudes against Muslims predominated across eastern and southern Europe. Muslims, on the other hand, were rated favorably by the vast majority of respondents in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands.

While Muslims are disliked by 47 percent of Germans on the political right, they are disliked by just 17 percent of those on the political left.

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Please keep in mind that this is an updated version of a post that was initially published on January 15, 2015.

How Islam Created Europe

Islam had a significant impact on the way the world was perceived. And Islam is now rethinking what that means. Early and middle antiquity defined Europe as the world around the Mediterranean, or Mare Nostrum (“Our Sea,” as the Romans commonly referred to it), for centuries. It encompassed the countries of North Africa. Indeed, during the early fifth century A.D., when Saint Augustine resided in what is now Algeria, North Africa was considered to be just as important a center of Christianity as either Italy or Greece.

Throughout history, as noted by the Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset, “all of European history has been a huge exodus toward the north.” It was during this northward migration that Germanic peoples (such as the Goths, Vandals, Franks, and Limes) helped to construct the rudiments of Western civilisation, with only far later discoveries revealing that the classical legacy of Greece and Rome had been lost to time.

  1. It would take many more decades before the current European state structure would be fully developed and institutionalized.
  2. New liberties were gained along the way, allowing the Enlightenment to take hold.
  3. Islam, on the other hand, did far more than simply determine Europe’s territorial boundaries.
  4. The academic Edward Said went even farther, saying in his bookOrientalism in 1978 that Islam had defined Europe culturally by showing Europe what it was in opposition to, and that this had defined Europe as a result.

It was imperialism that proved to be the culmination of this evolution: The Middle East was conquered by early modern Europe, beginning with Napoleon, who then deployed intellectuals and diplomats to study Islamic civilisation, deeming it to be beautiful, intriguing, and most importantly, inferior.

When dictatorships keep their peoples imprisoned within secure borders—borders that were artificially drawn by European colonial agents—Europeans can lecture Arabs about human rights without having to worry about the possibility of messy democratic experiments that could result in widespread migration.

  1. Islam is today assisting in the undoing of what it previously assisted in the creation of.
  2. Of course, the continent has been home to a variety of different groups in the past.
  3. They converted to Christianity and eventually founded polities that ranged in size from Poland in the north to Bulgaria in the south, and all of them were able to integrate themselves, however bloodily, into the developing European state structure.
  4. Today, hundreds of thousands of Muslims who have no desire to convert to Christianity are streaming into economically sluggish European countries, posing a threat to the delicate social harmony that has existed for centuries.
  5. As a result of the current migration, which is being pushed by conflict and state collapse, it is becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish between imperial cities and their former colonies.
  6. When confronted with the threat of civilization it previously ruled, Europe has responded by artificially re-creating national-cultural identities on extreme right and left sides of the political spectrum.
  7. The cultural purity that Europe seeks in the face of the Muslim immigrant inflow is simply impossible to achieve in a world where human contacts are rising at an alarming rate.
  8. Just as there was no turning back to feudalism in the nineteenth century, there is no turning back to nationalism today, at least not without risking calamity.
  9. “All reinstatements, all restorations, have always been charades,” says the author.
  10. As Said has established, empire had its demons, but its capacity to rule huge multi-ethnic areas surrounding the Mediterranean provided a solution of sorts that does not exist now, despite its many flaws.

The dementia of ideologies and coarse nationalisms will be the only things left to fill the hole if it does not grow in the direction of universal values in the near future. This would herald the demise of “the West” as a political force in Europe.

BBC – Religions – Islam: Muslim Spain (711-1492)

Muslims, Christians, and Jews lived side by side in the Islamic Spain of the Alhambra, which was a multi-cultural melting pot of people from three great monotheistic religions: Muslims, Christians, and Jews. Despite the fact that Christians and Jews were subjected to stringent regulations, for the most part, the three groups were able to coexist and, to a certain extent, profit from one another’s existence. This period of civilisation took Europe to a level of civilisation on par with the heights of the Roman Empire and the Italian Renaissance.


In 711, Muslim soldiers invaded and conquered the Iberian peninsula, which they did in seven years. When the Umayyad caliphate of Cordova was established in the 10th century, it rose to become one of the major Muslim civilisations, reaching its pinnacle. Following that, Muslim control began to wane and eventually came to an end in 1492 when Granada was invaded. Southern Spain, also known as Andulusia, was the stronghold of Muslim control.


A Muslim invasion and conquest of the Iberian peninsula began in 711 and ended after seven years. When the Umayyad caliphate of Cordova was established in the 10th century, it rose to become one of the major Muslim civilisations, reaching its pinnacle during that time period. Following that, Muslim power began to wane and eventually came to an end in 1492 with the conquest of Granada. Spain’s southernmost region, known as Andulusia, served as the stronghold of Islamic control.

  • It is divided into four periods: the Dependent Emirate (711-756), the Independent Emirate (756-929), the Caliphate (929-1031), the Almoravid Era (1031-1130), the Decline (1130-1492), and the Caliphate (929-1031).

Audio journey

In this audio feature, In the Footsteps of Muhammad: Granada, the Alhambra Palace, the best remaining palace of Muslim Spain, serves as the starting point for a historical trip across the city. In order to see this content, you must have Javascript enabled as well as Flash installed on your computer. For complete instructions, go to BBC Webwise.


An persecuted Christian chief, Julian, approached Musa Ibn Nusair, the governor of North Africa, in the year 711 and begged for assistance against Roderick, the despotic Visigoth king of Spain. Musa ibn Nusair, the governor of North Africa, agreed to assist Julian. Musa answered by dispatching the youthful general Tariq bin Ziyad, who was accompanied by an army of 7000 soldiers. The name Gibraltar is derived from Jabal At-Tariq, which is Arabic meaning ‘Rock of Tariq,’ and was given to the territory after the location where the Muslim troops arrived.

There is no question that Tariq attacked Spain, but the motivation for his invasion may have more to do with the Muslim desire to expand their domain than with Tariq himself.

Following their initial success, the Muslims were able to capture the majority of Spain and Portugal with minimal trouble, and in fact, with little resistance.


An persecuted Christian chief, Julian, approached Musa Ibn Nusair, the governor of North Africa, in the year 711 and begged for assistance against Roderick, the despotic Visigoth king of Spain. Musa ibn Nusair, the governor of North Africa, agreed to support Julian. Musa answered by dispatching the youthful general Tariq bin Ziyad, who was accompanied by an army of 7,000 soldiers. Jabal At-Tariq, which is Arabic for “Rock of Tariq,” was given to Gibraltar since it was the site where the Muslim troops first landed in the region.

The fact that Tariq invaded Spain is certain, but the cause for his invasion may have more to do with the Muslim desire to expand their dominion.

Once they achieved their first victory, the Muslims were able to capture the majority of Spain and Portugal with little effort, and in fact, with little resistance. By 720, Muslims (or Moors, as they were known) had taken over a considerable portion of Spain.


Southern Spain, also known as Andulusia, was the stronghold of Muslim control. The word Andalusia is taken from the Arabic phrase Al-Andalus, which was obtained from the Vandals who had established themselves in the region before the arrival of the Arabs.

A Golden Age

The establishment of the Andalusian Umayyad dynasty, which reigned from 756 to 1031, marked the beginning of a period of stability in Muslim Spain. The credit for this goes to Amir Abd al-Rahman, who formed the Emirate of Cordoba and was successful in uniting the many Muslim factions that had invaded Spain to form a unified government to rule the country.

The Golden Age

When it comes to learning, the Muslim period in Spain is generally regarded as a “golden age” because of the establishment of libraries, universities, and public baths, as well as the flourishing of literature, poetry, and architecture. This flourishing of culture was made possible by the contributions of both Muslims and non-Muslims.

A Golden Age of religious tolerance?

It is commonly said that Islamic Spain was the “golden period” of religious and ethnic tolerance and interfaith concord between Muslims, Christians, and Jews; this is not entirely correct. Some historians argue that this notion of a golden age is inaccurate, and that it may lead current readers to assume, incorrectly, that Muslim Spain was tolerant by the standards of twenty-first-century Britain throughout this period. The truth is that the situation is more convoluted. In his writings, the eminent historian Bernard Lewis stated that non-Muslims in Islamic Spain had a form of second-class citizenship status, but he went on to argue that “second-class citizenship, albeit second class, is a kind of citizenship.” It includes certain rights, but not all of them, and is unquestionably preferable than having no rights at all.

Bernard Lewis’ book, The Jews of Islam, was published in 1984.

Life for non-Muslims in Islamic Spain

Jews and Christians did enjoy some freedom under Muslim rule, as long as they complied with a number of restrictions. In many respects, the non-Muslims of Islamic Spain (at least until 1050) were treated better than conquered peoples may have expected during that period of history, despite the fact that these restrictions would now be regarded absolutely immoral.

  • Unlike Muslims, they were not forced to live in ghettoes or other special locations
  • They were not slaves
  • They were not prevented from practicing their religion
  • They were not forced to convert or die under Muslim rule
  • They were not barred from engaging in any particular means of earning a living
  • And they frequently engaged in occupations that Muslims would have avoided.
  • These included unpleasant activities like as tanning and butchering, as well as enjoyable ones such as banking and dealing in gold and silver.
  • They might be able to get employment in the civil service of the Islamic authorities. Historically, Jews and Christians were able to make significant contributions to society and culture.

Work in the Islamic monarchs’ civil service is an option for them. Historically, Jews and Christians were able to make significant contributions to society and culture;

  • Acknowledged Islamic dominance
  • Accepted Islamic sovereignty
  • Paid a fee to the Muslim rulers known as Jizya, as well as higher rates of other levies on occasion
  • Avoided blasphemy
  • Did not attempt to convert Muslims
  • And cooperated with the laws established by the authorities. These were some examples:
  • Clothing restrictions, as well as the requirement to wear a particular badge
  • There are limits on the construction of synagogues and churches, and it is not permitted to carry firearms. A dhimmi could not inherit from or bequeath anything to a Muslim
  • A dhimmi could not own a Muslim slave
  • A dhimmi man could not marry a Muslim woman (but the reverse was acceptable)
  • A dhimmi could not give evidence in an Islamic court
  • Dhimmis would receive less compensation for the same injury than Muslims

Clothing restrictions, as well as the requirement to wear a unique identification badge Synagogues and churches are prohibited from being built, and firearms are not permitted to be carried. could not receive an inheritance from a Muslim; could not bequeath anything to a Muslim; could not own a Muslim slave; a dhimmi man could not marry a Muslim woman (but the reverse was acceptable); a dhimmi could not give evidence in an Islamic court; dhimmis would receive less compensation than Muslims for the same injury; and so on.

Why were non-Muslims tolerated in Islamic Spain?

There were a variety of reasons why Muslim kings allowed alternative religions, including:

  • Because both Judaism and Christianity were monotheistic religions, it is possible that their adherents were worshipping the same God.
  • Because both Judaism and Christianity were monotheistic religions, it is possible that their adherents were worshipping the same deity at the same time.
  • As a result, mass conversion or death were not feasible options
  • Prohibiting or regulating the beliefs of such a large number of people would have been too expensive.
  • Inviting non-Muslims to serve in government provided the monarchs with administrative support.
  • Individuals who were loyal (since they were not affiliated with any of the other Muslim factions) and who could be quickly reprimanded or dismissed if the situation demanded it (One Emir even went so far as to appoint a Christian as the commander of his guards.)
  • In the Qur’an, there are passages that state that Christians and Jews should be accepted as long as they follow specific standards.

Oppression in later Islamic Spain

Not all of Spain’s Muslim kings were tolerant of other cultures. During his reign, Almanzor robbed churches and put tight restrictions on people. Since the middle of the 11th century, the situation of non-Muslims in Spain has deteriorated significantly, as the rulers have become more severe and Islam has come under increased pressure from the outside world. Christians were not permitted to build taller buildings than Muslims, were not permitted to employ Muslim slaves, and were required to yield to Muslims on the street.

  • Persecutors and executioners were on the loose.
  • As the Islamic empire crumbled and Christian authorities reclaimed more territory, Muslims living in Christian territories found themselves subjected to limitations that were comparable to those they had imposed on others in the past.
  • At the Alhambra in Spain, there is a Court of the Lions.
  • The mosque at Cordoba, which has now been turned into a cathedral, is still referred to as La Mezquita, which literally translates as “the mosque.” The construction of the mosque began around the end of the eighth century under the direction of the Ummayyad ruler Abd al Rahman ibn Muawiyah.
  • 912-961), when campaigns against the Christian frontier were launched every May.
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A view of the Mezquita mosque in CordobaIn the tenth century, Cordoba, the capital of Umayyad Spain, was unrivaled in terms of riches and culture, both in the East and in the West. Cordoba was described by one source as having a half-million residents who lived in 113,000 dwellings. It was estimated that 700 mosques and 300 public baths were located across the city and its twenty-one suburbs. The streets had been paved and were well-lit. There were more than seventy libraries, as well as booksellers.

There were exchanges and alliances between Muslim and Christian monarchs, such as the famed Spanish fighter El-Cid, who fought both against and alongside Muslims throughout his time on the battlefield.

Muslim, Jewish and Christian interaction

In practice, how did Muslims, Jews, and Christians interact with one another? Was this time of seeming tolerance grounded by a mutual respect for the sacred texts of the two countries? What factors contributed to the eventual fall of Cordoba and Islamic Spain? And are we guilty of romanticizing this time as a golden age of peaceful coexistence to an excessive degree? Melvyn Bragg sits down with three contributors to talk about these issues. They are: Tim Winter, a convert to Islam and lecturer in Islamic Studies at the Faculty of Divinity at Cambridge University; Martin Palmer, an Anglican lay preacher and theologian who is the author of The Sacred History of Britain; and Mehri Niknam, Executive Director of the Maimonides Foundation, a joint Jewish-Muslim Interfaith Foundation based in the capital.

Decline and fall

In 1085, the city of Toledo was conquered by Christianity. The breakdown of Islamic control in Spain was caused not only by increased hostility on the part of Christian nations, but also by disputes among Muslim rulers who were unable to cooperate. Both the center and the peripheries were affected by the decay. Towards the beginning of the eleventh century, the united Islamic Caliphate had been disintegrated into a tangle of petty kingdoms that were ripe for the plundering. Toledo, in Spain, was the first major Islamic city to be conquered by Christians, in 1085.

The commander was successful in bringing most of Muslim Spain back together.


It didn’t last very long. As a result of Yusuf’s death in 1106, according to one historian, “the rulers of Muslim nations resumed their practice of cutting one other’s necks.” Internal rebellions in 1144 and 1145 further destroyed Islamic unity, and Islam’s dominance over Spain was finally put an end to, despite sporadic military gains. In 1492, the Muslims were eventually forced to relinquish all sovereignty in Spain. To force all Muslims to convert to Christianity, the Christian authorities of Spain issued an edict in 1502, and when this failed to work, they put harsh restrictions on the remaining Muslim populations in the country.

Spread of Islam Flashcards

Section 100:00:00 is a ten-minute break in the action. Scholars, let us return to our lesson question. It’s located at the very top of the screen. In what ways did the expansion of Islam have an impact? After all, we just seen how Islam grew pretty quickly over North Africa, into Spain and Portugal, and eventually throughout Europe as we know it, as well as throughout the Middle East and into Asian countries. 00:00:20 As we move forward in this first section, we’ll continue to build on our previous knowledge by taking a closer look at the expansion of Islam and seeing whether it can genuinely assist us answer our lesson question.

  1. Section 200:00:00 (Section 200:00:00) TEACHER: Following Muhammad’s death in 632 CE, the Muslim community looks to new leaders to guide them.
  2. Furthermore, caliphs were chosen by their own clans.
  3. One fascinating aspect of Abu’s life is that many academics think that he may have been Muhammad’s father-in-law, which would make him Muhammad’s father-in-law.
  4. Following him were three caliphs who expanded Muslim-held territory and established the first Muslim empire, thereby completing the cycle.
  5. Always remember to have a peek at the key first.
  6. And as you can see, the entire region is covered with green, particularly the two most important cities, Medina and Mecca.
  7. Not only did they extend their reach from here, but they also extended their reach across the rest of the world, including North Africa, modern-day Egypt, and beyond into the Middle East.

As we go through this lesson, keep this map in mind, as it will demonstrate to you the extremely rapid expansion of Islam, not just in the Middle East, but also all across the rest of the world.

TEACHER: Just now, we learned about how Islam moved throughout North Africa and into Asia, as well as into Europe, in the span of a little more than a century.

One of them was trading.

The second method was through missionaries, who traveled to completely unexplored territory only for the purpose of converting people to Islam.

00:00:46 As for their conquests, we’ll take a look at those right now as well.

They had faith in the cause for which they were fighting.

As a result, they had better generals, and those generals were able to train better soldiers00:01:09than before.

Consequently, they were able to chip away at the two empires in question.

Now, at this historical period, there was a certain amount of religious tolerance00:01:38.

The rationale for this is that all “people of the book,” including Jews, Christians, and Muslims, were “people of the book.” In addition, due of their religious links to Islam, they were accorded particular treatment.

00:02:09 For example, Abraham is referenced in the Qur’an, the Torah, and the Christian Bible, all of which are considered sacred texts.

And this tax might be quite pricey at times.

Furthermore, these Jews and Christians, as well as others who00:02:32practiced other religions, were not permitted to preach their own religious views.

Finally, these other Jews, Christians, and adherents of other faiths were permitted to serve in official posts under Muslim rule.

However, we can also observe the tax, as well as the fact that they are unable00:02:56to disseminate their own religious ideas.

You’ve completed the first section of the class; there are just two more to go.

Take a look at the question from the class with me.

It asks, “What was the impact of Islam’s spread over the world?” The first00:00:18part of this series discussed the expansion of Islam during the four caliphate rulers following Muhammad’s death, and now is where we will begin answering that issue.

In this second section, we’ll continue our exploration of Muslim empires by taking a look at a number of them.

Those who are interested in participating should begin with the second section of the discussion.

After the caliphs, they were the first great Muslim dynasty to come to power after the caliphs.

00:00:22This means that the person in control had to be a member of the previous person’s family; for example, if your father died, the responsibility would pass to his son, and so on.

Many of Muhammed’s early followers, however, were opposed to them for a variety of different reasons.

Furthermore, throughout Muhammad’s lifetime, the Umayyads were essentially Muhammed’s adversaries.

And there are still two key divisions in the organization today.

00:01:16 If this is the case with Islam, it will progressively splinter.

Both of them are Muslims, yet they belong to two different communities.

Where you had the Roman Catholic Church and the00:01:40Eastern Orthodox Church, there was also the Eastern Orthodox Church.

But let’s take a closer look at this division of labour.

SHI’A We’ll start with the Sunnis and work our way down from there.

They continued, and they backed the Umayyads, who we had just learnt about earlier.

Keep in mind that we’re comparing and contrasting things.

We’re also on the lookout for any discrepancies.

The Shias are the next group to be discussed.

The Shi’as, on the other hand, were opposed to Umayyad authority and thought that only imams selected by Allah were qualified to interpret the Qur’an.

Because they believe imams are flawless, or that they are manifestations of God on earth, which is what they believe.

Therefore, you can see that there existed a rift between Islam and other religions.

Now, the Sunni sect of Islam, or the Sunni division of Islam, is followed by 85 percent of the world’s Muslim population.

Sunni Islam is practiced by the vast majority of people in Saudi Arabia.

00:03:18 As you can see, it’s also divided by political boundaries, which makes sense.

This split has persisted to the present day.

Remember that the Umayyads ruled over a huge area of land, as depicted on the map you’ve just seen.

Remember that bureaucracy is comprised of governors or departments that00:00:19assist the emperor or the caliph in the administration of this vast empire.

But what we began to notice was that the individuals in power, these little elite groups, were not actually dispersing or sharing the money equitably to the rest of the population.

Furthermore, it would finally lead to the downfall of the Umayyads.

But first and foremost, I’d like to direct your attention back to this map.

Then there are the Caliphates, which encompasses the entire region in pink.

However, corruption throughout the Umayyad Empire contributed to their eventual demise once more.

The Abbasids were the name of this new dynasty.

00:01:44 In other words, the individuals at the top were in total command.

They concentrated their efforts on expanding eastward into India.

They treated Muslims who converted to Islam on an equal footing.

However, the most important point from this is that throughout the Abbasid If you were a Dynasty, you would have witnessed the emergence of the Golden Age of Islam, which saw significant development and numerous breakthroughs in the domains of art and science, as well as an increase in the quantity of trade and intellectuals.

You have completed the first two sections of the class.

You’re doing a fantastic job.

I’m really proud of each and every one of you.

00:00:11 Regardless of the screen size, it is always at the top of the screen.

And how, in the second section, the expansion of Islam paved the way for the establishment of the numerous Muslim empires that we also studied.

Taking a look at the final section now, scholars.

Section 1200:00:00 (Section 1200:00:00) TEACHER: First, I’d want to discuss a plan with you before we dive into the Golden Age of Islamic civilization.

We’ll be comparing and contrasting the roles of women under the Umayyad and Abbasid regimes, to put it another way.

And, as previously stated, the role of women is something we’re looking into.

In the first place, women had a very crucial part in the compilation, or putting together, of the Qur’an.

It’s worth noting that Muhammad’s wife, Khadijah, was also a successful businesswoman, which is a fascinating fact to consider.

Now, let’s go back to this.

00:01:08 Women were now restricted to the house under Abbasid control, and they were required to cover their faces when they stepped out in public.

Societies, on the other hand, became much more paternalistic.

In addition, Islamic law preserved certain rights00:01:32that would otherwise be denied in other cultures.

Section 1400:00:00 (Section 1400:00:00) TEACHER: Islam’s golden age was characterized by a relentless pursuit of knowledge, and knowledge was highly prized at the time.

To begin with, scholars translated classical Greek texts into Arabic, which is a first in this field.

00:00:22 That was the first.

The third point to mention is that universities and libraries were built during this period.

Now let’s take a look at some of the real fields that saw significant advancement throughout this time period, such as science and mathematics.

In the first place, there is al-Razi, who was responsible for a lot of improvements in medicine.

As well as the description or directions, which may be shown at the top of the page.

The development of the astrolabe is, or was, the second significant event.

And this was especially important if you were sailing.

The third point to mention was this individual right here, al-Khwarizmi.

00:02:02 In other words, if you go to math class and you enjoy algebra, you can thank this gentleman right here, since he is the one who came up with the concept of algebra in the first place.

Well, this gentleman here here, he really used the work of Euclid and other Greek mathematicians to assist in the development of algebra.

He also drew on the work of Archimedes for inspiration.

These were frequently used in conjunction with one another.

00:02:48This is a mosque in the Syrian capital of Damascus.

This particular location deserves a deeper examination.

Please allow me to assist you.

00:03:08 As a result, you can observe the mingling of cultures once again.

As a result, a mosque is considered to be the ultimate form of art in Islam.

00:03:32 It’s a type of art, and it generally begins as a little object, such as a flower, and gradually expands to become a much larger image.

Upon closer inspection, it appears to be quite geometric in nature.

This means that throughout Islam’s golden age00:03:59, there were numerous accomplishments in a variety of fields, including science and mathematics as well as art and architecture.

Section 1600:00:00 (Section 1600:00:00) TEACHER: A number of consequences resulted from Islam’s Golden Age.

And you might wonder, how would it accomplish such a feat?

Furthermore, the second point to mention is that new ideas, new inventions, and new technologies would spread through the trade network.

The final set of variables, as previously stated, would enable the Europeans to make significant strides forward throughout the 14th century.

As a result, we may date Muhammad’s death to 632.

After the fall of the Umayyad Dynasty, the Abbasid Dynasty arose, which lasted until the Mughal invasion of Baghdad in 1258, when it was overthrown.

There are a number of other events taking place during this time frame. You can observe the beginning of Justinian’s reign in 527. In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople, bringing the city under their control.

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