What Are The Rules Of Islam? (Solved)

The five pillars – the declaration of faith (shahada), prayer (salah), alms-giving (zakat), fasting (sawm) and pilgrimage (hajj) – constitute the basic norms of Islamic practice. They are accepted by Muslims globally irrespective of ethnic, regional or sectarian differences.

What are the basic rules of Islam?

  • The Five Pillars of Islam are five basic rules in Islam that all Muslims should follow. The Five Pillars are: The Shahadah (Declaration of faith) – Trusting and understanding the words of the Shahadah. “There is no god but Allah. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.”. Muslims say this when they are accepting Islam, or in their daily prayers.


What are the rules or laws of Islam?

The Qur’an is the principal source of Islamic law, the Sharia. It contains the rules by which the Muslim world is governed (or should govern itself) and forms the basis for relations between man and God, between individuals, whether Muslim or non-Muslim, as well as between man and things which are part of creation.

What can Muslims not do?

This meat is called “halal.” Muslims are also prohibited from gambling, taking interest, fortune-telling, killing, lying, stealing, cheating, oppressing or abusing others, being greedy or stingy, engaging in sex outside of marriage, disrespecting parents, and mistreating relatives, orphans or neighbors.

What are the golden rules of Islam?

The golden rule, or the ethics of reciprocity, is an Islamic moral principle which calls upon people to treat others the way they would like to be treated. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, the golden rule is defined as: Any form of the dictum: do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

What is the first rule of Islam?

First pillar: Shahada (Declaration of Faith) The first pillar of Islam is the Shahada, the assertion of faith. There are two shahadas: “There is no god but God” and “Muhammad is the messenger of God”.

Who wrote the Quran?

The Prophet Muhammad disseminated the Koran in a piecemeal and gradual manner from AD610 to 632, the year in which he passed away. The evidence indicates that he recited the text and scribes wrote down what they heard.

When can you take hijab off?

The hijab, once worn as a scarf covering one’s hair and covering the body, can only be taken off in front of family members or women. A Muslim woman wearing the hijab will therefore usually refrain from showing her hair to any man not related to her by blood.

What do Muslims not eat?

A Muslim does not eat generally available meat or food that contains animal fats, in case it contains pork fat or fat from other animals not ritually slaughtered. Fish and eggs must be kept strictly separate from meat during preparation.

Can Muslims listen to music?

Music is strictly prohibited in Islam. In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful. Music is strictly prohibited in Islam. With regards to your question as long as the music is not being heard from the nasheed it will be permissible to listen to the nasheed.

Are Muslims allowed to date?

They have religious restrictions that limit physical contact in premarital relationships. Dating is still linked to its Western origins, which implies underlying expectations of sexual interactions — if not an outright premarital sexual relationship — which Islamic texts prohibit. But Islam does not forbid love.

Do to others what you want?

Two passages in the New Testament quote Jesus of Nazareth espousing the positive form of the Golden rule: Do to others what you want them to do to you. This is the meaning of the law of Moses and the teaching of the prophets. And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise.

What’s the platinum rule?

The Platinum Rule goes this way: “ Treat others the way they want to be treated.” The Platinum Rule is a very subtle yet powerful and important shift from false consensus. So, make the Platinum Rule your thought: Treat others the way they want to be treated.

What are some fun facts about Islam?

25 Interesting Facts about Islam

  • Islam means “surrender” or “submission”
  • Haji pilgrimage.
  • It’s the second largest religion in the world.
  • Muslims should pray 5 times a day.
  • The Quran is the holy book.
  • There are five pillars.
  • Jihad does not mean “holy war”
  • The original Arabic text of the Quran has not been altered.

What is Islam for kids?

Islam is an Arabic word meaning submission and obedience. It comes from a word meaning peace. Like Christians and Jews, Muslims are monotheistic which means they only believe in one God, who they call Allah. Muslims believe Jesus was a prophet. Jerusalem is a holy city to Muslims as it is to Christians and Jews too.

Can Muslims drink alcohol?

Although alcohol is generally considered to be haraam (forbidden) in Islam, only the most conservative countries actually impose a legal ban on it.

How many times do Muslims pray?

There are five daily prayers in the Muslim faith. While the basic requirement is that all Muslims should pray five times a day, the reality is that faith is practiced at the discretion of the follower. Some Muslims are stricter than others, while some cannot pray at certain times (i.e. menstruating women).

Daily Life of Muslims

Islam offers a plethora of laws for daily living as well as for interpersonal interactions. The Quran is the primary source of these principles, while the hadith, or records of the prophet Muhammad’s words or acts, is the second source of these laws.

  • Prohibitions: In Islam, anything that is deemed detrimental to the body, the mind, the soul, or society is banned (haram), but everything that is regarded good is permitted (halal) (halal). Muslims are not permitted to consume pork, alcohol, or mind-altering substances, according to Islamic law. Muslims are obligated to consume meat that has been killed and sanctified in accordance with Islamic principles. This type of meat is referred to as “halal.” Islam also prohibits Muslims from participating in sexual activity outside of marriage, disobeying parents, mistreating relatives or orphans, or assaulting or oppressing others. Religion and the role of clergy: In Islam, there is no hierarchy of clergy, and Muslim religious leaders do not have the authority to absolve individuals of their crimes. Every person has a direct and unmediated contact with God, with no need for a mediator. There are religious leaders or scholars, referred to as ulema, who have studied and are specialists in many parts of Islam, such as Sharia law, hadith, and Quranic recitation, among other things. The fact that Islam does not have a unified authority is also crucial to highlight
  • As a result, there exist discrepancies among Muslim academics. The process of becoming a Muslim is facilitated by Muslims being urged to share their beliefs with others. Muslims, on the other hand, are cautioned from attacking the views of others or engaging in confrontations or arguments regarding religious topics. Conversion does not take place in a formal ceremony. To become an Islamic convert, all one needs to do is believe in and utter the shahada.

BBC – Religions – Islam: Five Pillars of Islam

The Five Pillars of Islam are the most significant Muslim practices, and they are listed here. The Five Pillars of Islam are the five requirements that every Muslim is required to do in order to live a decent and responsible life in accordance with Islamic principles. The Five Pillars are comprised of the following:

  • Shahadah: the Muslim declaration of faith, recited with sincerity
  • Salat is the practice of reciting ceremonial prayers in the appropriate manner five times every day. In Islam, zakat is defined as the payment of an alms (or charity) tax to aid the destitute and the needy. Sawm is the practice of fasting throughout the month of Ramadan. Hajj is a pilgrimage to Mecca that takes place every year.

Why are they important?

Carrying out these responsibilities serves as the foundation for a Muslim’s life, tying together their everyday actions and their religious beliefs into a single thread of religious devotion. No matter how serious a person’s religious beliefs may be, Islam believes that it is meaningless to go through life without putting those beliefs into action and practice. Carrying out the Five Pillars reveals to others that the Muslim is putting their faith first, rather than attempting to fit it around their secular lifestyles.

Islamic Law – The Shariah

The Qur’an is the primary source of Islamic law, which is known as Shariah. It includes the norms by which the Muslim world is controlled (or should be ruled) and serves as the foundation for relationships between man and God, between individuals, whether Muslim or non-Muslim, and between man and the objects that are a part of the created order. A Muslim society is organized and administered according to the norms of the Sharia, and it offers the methods for resolving issues between people as well as between individuals and the state.

  • The Hadith and Sunna, which are supplementary sources to the Qur’an and comprise of the Prophet’s sayings as well as descriptions of his acts, are two types of sources.
  • Students in Djenné, Mali, recite a Qur’an verse from memory while wearing copyboards that are kept safely out of sight on their heads.
  • While additional sources of law exist, such as ijma’ (consensus), qiyas (analogy), and ijtihad (progressive reasoning by analogy), the Qur’an is the first and most important, followed by the Hadith and Sunna as sources of law.
  • In addition, we will not punish them until we have dispatched an Apostle to them.

These provisions are interpreted in accordance with a number of rules, including the position of a given ayah within the context of the surah, which in turn is interpreted in accordance with its position in the sequence of revelations, its reference to other revelations, and its historical context in relation to specific conditions that existed at the time of the given revelation, among others.

When referring to a specific provision and then a general provision dealing with a specific scenario, for example, one must follow these principles.’ An unqualified general provision cannot be seen as contradicting a particular provision, and a specific rule takes precedence over an unqualified general statement.

Except in cases where it is specifically banned, reasoning by analogy and application by analogy are both authorized.

In a similar vein, contradictory interpretations of some prescriptions will not change the plain intent of the prescriptions.

“When at all possible, avoid sending the Muslim to Hudud, and if you are able to discover a way out for the Muslim, then do it immediately.

“Hadith (proverb) of the Prophet If individuals were granted in accordance with their claim, men would claim the riches and lives of (other) people; nevertheless, the burden of evidence is with the claimant, and the swearing of an oath rests on the person who refuses.” Hadith (proverb) of the Prophet Muslim scholars do not believe that Islam is a changing religion, but rather that it is a religion and legal system that is applicable at all times.

  1. Because of this, it is the application that is sensitive to change.
  2. Islam was a spiritual, social, and legal revolution fourteen centuries ago, and it still is now.
  3. This is essentially the belief of educated fundamentalist Muslims who have come to terms with their faith.
  4. Islam, at its pinnacle of civilization, during the seventh and eleventh centuries, was neither authoritarian nor backward in its policies or practices.

Lo! Allah commands you to return deposits to their rightful owners and, if you must adjudicate amongst people, to do so in a fair and impartial manner. Lo! This is a lovely thing that Allah has admonished you about. Lo! Allah is the Almighty Hearer and Seer. 4:58 in the Qur’an

What is Sharia law? What does it mean for women in Afghanistan?

a caption for the media Take a look at the most important moments from the Taliban’s press conference. In their declaration, the Taliban assert that they would administer Afghanistan in accordance with Sharia, or Islamic law. Following the withdrawal of US and coalition soldiers from the nation, the militant Islamist organization has seized control of the country.

What have the Taliban said?

During the Taliban’s first news conference after assuming power, a spokesperson stated that topics such as freedom of expression and women’s rights will be protected “within the framework of Islamic law,” but the party has not yet offered any specifics on what this will entail in practical terms. The Taliban have long been renowned for their severe interpretation of Sharia law, which includes punishments like as public executions of convicted murderers and adulterers, among other things.

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What is Sharia?

The Islamic legal system is known as Sharia. In Islam, it is drawn from the Quran, which is the religion’s sacred book, as well as the Sunnah and Hadith, which are the actions and sayings of Muhammad. Religious scholars may provide decisions as advice on a particular topic or question in cases where an answer cannot be deduced immediately from these sources of information. Getty Images is the source of this image. According to the Arabic language, Sharia literally translates as “the clear, well-trodden way to water.” Sharia serves as a rule of conduct that all Muslims are expected to follow, including prayers, fasting, and charitable contributions to the destitute.

What does this mean in practice?

Getty Images is the source of this image. Image caption,Sharia law dictates that both men and women should wear modestly, yet how this is interpreted differs from country to country. For Muslims, Sharia may guide them through every facet of their everyday lives. In some cases, such as when a Muslim’s coworkers invite them to the pub after work, they may seek counsel from a Sharia expert to ensure that they are acting within the legal framework of their faith. Other areas of daily life in which Muslims may seek advice from Sharia include family law, banking, and business, to name a few.

How are rulings made?

Sharia, like any legal system, is complicated, and its application is totally dependent on the competence and training of those who apply it. Islamic jurists provide counsel and make decisions. A fatwa is a piece of guidance that is regarded as a formal legal judgement in Islamic law. Joshua Paul for the BBC provided the image for this piece. Caption for the image Judge Nenney Shushaidah is one of Malaysia’s first female Sharia high court judges, and she holds the position of the country’s first female Sharia high court judge.

There are four Sunni schools, namely Hanbali, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanafi, as well as one Shia school, Jaafari, which are all recognized.

When it comes to how literally they interpret the writings from which Sharia law is formed, the five schools are divided. According to local culture and customs, Islamic law is extremely complex in its interpretation, which means that Sharia can seem quite different in various regions.

What are some of the tough punishments?

According to Islamic scholars, Sharia is primarily a rule of ethical behaviour that addresses issues such as worship and charity, but it also addresses issues such as crime. In Sharia law, crimes are divided into two main categories: “hadd” crimes, which are significant crimes with predetermined punishments, and “tazir” crimes, which are less serious crimes with the ability to be punished at the discretion of the judge. Criminal offenses such as theft, which can be penalized by amputating the offender’s hand under the strongest interpretations of Sharia, are included in the Hadd category.

An Indonesian lady gets publicly caned in Aceh province after being found with her lover, according to the image description.

However, according to experts, this is not always the case in practice.

Five Pillars of Islam – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia in simple English Navigate to the next page Jump to the search results The Five Pillars of Islam are five fundamental Islamic principles that all Muslims must adhere to. The Five Pillars are comprised of the following:

  1. Shahadah. This signifies that there is only one God, Allah, and that Prophet Muhammad is the messenger/prophet of Allah, as stated in the shahadah (proclamation). When a person decides to return to Islam, the shahadah can be performed since the phrases in the shahadah represent the most important core principles in Islam. Salat (prayer) – Five times a day, kneeling in the direction of Mecca, praying. During the ceremony, particular ceremonial dances and prayers are performed
  2. If you fast throughout the month of Ramadan (Sawm), you will not be allowed to eat or drink anything when the sun is out
  3. Only when the moon is out will you be allowed to eat or drink anything. Zakat (charity or alms-giving) – Every Muslim is required to donate money to charity on a yearly basis (Usually 2.5 percent of their savings). Someone with little financial resources might provide their services to others in exchange for their money. Hajj is a pilgrimage (travel) to the holy city of Mecca. Mecca is a desert city in Asia, and it considered the holiest place on earth.


The Five Pillars of Islam are the most significant Islamic practices, and they are listed here. The five pillars of Islam are as follows: shahada, salah, zakat,sawm, and hajj (religious pilgrimage).


The affirmation of belief in one God (Allah) and His messenger (Muhammad) (peace be upon him).


Every Muslim is obligated to perform the ritual prayer five times a day for the rest of their lives.


Giving a percentage of a Muslim’s wealth to people in need throughout the course of their lifetime is known as zakat.


Fasting is a religious practice that takes place during the holy month of Ramadan.


Every Muslim is obligated to make the sacred pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime, if it is within their financial means.

What do the 5 pillars of Islam mean?

In Islam, there are five fundamental practices that all Muslims are required to adhere to throughout their lives. These activities are referred to as “pillars” because they serve as the cornerstone of Muslim life and are therefore considered essential. Shahada, Salah, Zakat, Sawm, and Hajj are the five pillars of Islam, which are sometimes known as the Five Pillars of Islam.

Why are the five pillars of Islam important?

In order to convey the core of Islam as a religion of peace and obedience to Allah SWT into the everyday life of every Muslim, each of the five pillars must function in concert with the others: One of Islam’s most important tenets is the belief in Muhammad (peace be upon him) as God’s final messenger, and repeating the Shahada (shahadah) in prayer every day serves to remind Muslims of this fundamental conviction.

It is customary to do Salah (salat) five times a day, which provides five distinct chances for remembering of Allah SWT and our goal in this life: to glorify Him.

Throughout the year, theSawmprovides Muslims with a chance to gain control over their basic human requirements.

While offeringSadaqah (charity) on a regular basis is strongly recommended as part of ordinary Muslim living, it is mandatory to offerZakat (alms) once a year in order to ensure that money is regularly redistributed to those in need.

The Hajj (pilgrimage) requires Muslims to dress in the same plain attire and to conduct the same ceremonial acts of devotion to Allah, regardless of where they are in the world. People are reminded that they are all equal before God since they have been stripped of their worldly difference.

Facts about the five pillars of Islam

  • When it comes to fulfilling the five pillars of Islam, there is no set sequence to follow because they are all of equal significance. It doesn’t matter if it’s daily, yearly, or once in a lifetime
  • Each of them has their own set of scheduled hours, places, and rules to follow. A Muslim is required to adhere to each pillar and everything that it implies for the rest of their lives. There are provisions in each pillar for persons who may be unable to fulfill one or more of them, for example, owing to bad health, menstrual irregularities or pregnancy, or a lack of financial resources, among other reasons

Understanding Sharia: The Intersection of Islam and the Law

Muslim-majority nations in the globe, numbering about fifty in total, have laws that make reference to sharia, the religious instruction Muslims believe God granted them on a variety of spiritual and earthly subjects. Certain laws in some of these countries mandate what opponents term severe criminal punishments, while others impose disproportionate limitations on the lives of women and minorities, according to the UN Human Rights Council. There is, however, a tremendous deal of variation in how governments interpret and apply sharia, and people frequently misinterpret the role that it plays in legal systems and in the lives of ordinary people.

What is sharia?

More From Our Subject Matter Experts In Arabic, the term sharia refers to “the proper road.” In Islam, it refers to the divine guidance that Muslims must follow in order to live moral lives and grow in their relationship with God. Sharia is taken from two primary sources: the Quran, which is regarded to be God’s direct word, and hadith, which are thousands of sayings and practices attributed to the Prophet Mohammed and which collectively comprise the Sunna (the teachings of Mohammed). Some of the stories and narratives included in these texts were derived from those found in Judaism and Christianity, the other two major Abrahamic religions, while others were developed independently.

  • Sharia, on the other hand, is mostly comprised on the interpretative tradition of Muslim academics.
  • In the centuries after his death in the seventh century, and as the Islamic empire extended outward from Mecca and Medina, where he lived and died, in modern-day Saudi Arabia, the process of interpreting sharia, known asfiqh, evolved over hundreds of years.
  • Muslims believe that sharia refers to the ideal, unchangeable principles that can only be comprehended by God, and that Islamic laws are those that are founded on interpretations of sharia (Islamic values).
  • While modern Islamic seminaries have standardized the degree of expertise and the period of study required to qualify as a jurist, Khaled Abou El Fadl, an Islamic jurist and law professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, asserts that neither of these standards has been achieved.
  • The perspective of Abou El Fadl is that “on each legal subject, there are 10 diverse opinions.” “There are 10 diverse points of view on each given legal matter.” Khaled Abou El Fadl, Muslim jurist and professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, is a scholar of Islamic law.
  • The Islamic law system also serves as the foundation for legal opinions known as fatwas, which are given by Muslim scholars in response to requests from individual Muslims or from governments seeking guidance on a particular topic.

When it comes to Sunni Islam, fatwas are merely advisory; when it comes to Shiite Islam, practitioners are compelled to abide by the fatwas of the religious leader of their choosing. More From Our Subject Matter Experts

Why is it so controversial?

Islamic law, or Sharia, is a source of disagreement among Muslims and non-Muslims. One of the many reasons why sharia is controversial is that it is frequently compared with current legal systems in mostly secular nations, which is one of the many reasons why it is controversial. Abou El Fadl claims that when sharia is contrasted to premodern legal systems, “there isn’t anything that is contentious about it.” Sharia can also be viewed as problematic, depending on who is doing the interpreting of the Islamic law.

  • Debates over sharia tend to revolve on a few specific issues: More information on the Middle East and North Africa IslamReligion Observance of the Rule of Law Corporal punishment is a type of punishment.
  • Thehududpunishments, which include stoning, whipping, and amputation, are among the most heinous.
  • However, because implementing such sanctions necessitates passing stringent evidential requirements, experts believe they are primarily intended to act as a deterrent rather than to have a punitive effect when they are implemented.
  • Local and international outrage frequently dissuades authorities from enforcing such penalties in their entirety.
  • Additionally, when the Taliban governed Afghanistan in the 1990s, they instituted public executions and amputations, and they have stated that same penalties will be reinstated under their new government in Afghanistan.
  • Many non-Muslims believe that this phrase, which literally means “to strive,” exclusively alludes to a military fight between Muslim fanatics and non-Muslims.
  • The endeavor to attain a moral goal, as defined by sharia, can take many forms.

Tolerance for different religious beliefs.

As explained by scholars, premodern prohibitions enforced to non-Muslim minorities in Muslim countries, which were reinforced by specific hadiths subsequently included in the Muslim canon and which demand the death sentence for Muslims who commit apostasy, are at the root of this intolerance.

Aside from that, religious minorities in some Muslim nations have less rights under modern legislation and are subjected to various forms of discrimination.

As well as totalitarian nations, several countries that profess to provide religious freedom under their constitutions do not do so in practice (and routinely deny their citizens rights regardless of their faith).

However, despite the fact that experts agree that sharia does not prescribe a certain type of governance, it is utilized by various organizations to argue both against and in support of democracy.

Another school of thought holds that democracy has its roots in the Quran, which encourages “mutual consultation” among the people (42:38 Quran).

Islamist parties that are moderate in their outlook, such as Tunisia’s Ennahda Movement party, advocate for democracy as the ideal form of administration.

Women’s rights are important.

There is special sharia instruction that pertains to women, and some governments employ Islamic law to drastically restrict women’s rights, controlling how they dress and excluding them from or separating them in certain locations, for example.

Some Afghans and Western observers are concerned that Afghan women may be subjected to similar restrictions under the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

Several other regulations hinder women from starting divorce or marriage on their own, which contributes to child marriages and gender-based violence in society.

The rights of LGBTQ+ people.

In the most severe case, same-sex activity is punishable by death under Islamic law in 10 nations, including the United Kingdom. In other places, it is frequently severely penalized, as is the case in some more conservative Christian-majority countries such as the United Kingdom.

How much room is there for reform?

According to certain Muslim scholars, the Islamic concept oftajdidallows for the modification or elimination of acts that are prohibited by sharia. The notion of renewal is one that suggests that Islamic communities should be reformatted on a regular basis in order to maintain their purity. Others, on the other hand, believe that the kind of Islam that was practiced in the seventh century was the purest form of Islam. Furthermore, there is great disagreement about what activities are sanctioned by the Quran vs those that are derived from local customs.

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Other researchers use this idea in a broader context: At Harvard University’s Intisar Rabb Center for Islamic Law, “the fact is that Islamic principles or Islamic laws may accommodate many things, therefore there is actually very little that Islamic law mandates or prescribes,” says Rabb, who is also a professor of Islamic law.

  • Dr.
  • Modern governments have been known to amend laws that were formerly deemed to be Islamic in nature.
  • “However, if it’s genuinely Islamic, why shouldn’t this change?
  • “It’s simply another example of how many of the laws that are referred to as Islamic are actually local, culturally inflected choices that have been given an Islamic gloss,” says the author.

How do governments in the Muslim world interpret and enforce sharia?

Most Muslim-majority nations have some form of sharia-based legislation, which often governs areas such as marriage and divorce, inheritance, and child custody and visitation arrangements. Only a few of Muslim nations, either in part or in full, apply sharia to their criminal laws. Governments tend to favor one of the major schools of Islamic law, known as madhhabs, over the others, despite the fact that individual Muslims do not normally adhere to a particular school in their daily life. Founded by different scholars, each school is named for the scholar who established it, and they differ in their approaches to interpreting Islamic law:

  • The Hanafischool is often considered as the most liberal and analytically oriented of the Islamic schools. It is favored by Sunnis in the Balkans, the Caucasus, Central Asia, China, Egypt, India, Pakistan, Turkey, and large parts of the Arab world
  • The Hanbalischool, Islam’s most conservative and focused on select texts, spawned the Wahhabi and Salafi branches of the movement, which are still popular today. This school is supported by Saudi Arabia and the Taliban
  • The Jafarischool, the largest Shiite madhhab, is chosen by Shia-majority Iran, Iraq, sections of Lebanon and South Asia, and eastern Saudi Arabia. In it, the fatwas of early jurists are given significant weight, and reason is given precedence over analogy
  • The Malikischool predominates in North and Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as areas of the Arab Gulf. As the sole school of thought that recognizes the consensus of the people of seventh-century Medina as a source of law, it is popular in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Yemen, and other parts of the Middle East. In this school, the sources of Islamic law were organized in descending order of authority, with the Quran ranked first, followed by the Sunna, the consensus of Muslim scholars, and analogy
  • It was the first school to organize sources of Islamic law in descending order of authority, with the Quran ranked first, followed by the consensus of Muslim scholars, and analogy

European-style law also had an impact on legal systems in Muslim nations, like Iran and Saudi Arabia, who both profess to solely follow Islamic law as their primary source of guidance. This is due in part to the consequences of colonialism, the necessity of economic modernity, and the fact that many of the elite who constructed the legal systems in Muslim-majority nations had their education in Western institutions of higher learning, among other factors. Political systems tend to include sharia-based rules in three ways, depending on who you ask.

  • In certain Muslim-majority nations, such as Malaysia and Nigeria, the government maintains a secular legal system, but Muslims have the option of bringing some disputes before Islamic tribunals.
  • God is the head of state.
  • Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia are examples of the latter.
  • Muslims are not required to follow sharia law, and non-Muslims are subject to the authority of special government committees and auxiliary courts in the majority of nations.
  • Muslims living in secular governments include Azerbaijan, Chad, Senegal, Somalia, Tajikistan, and Turkey, all of which are Muslim-majority countries.

Despite this, Islamist political parties continue to vie for government and occasionally gain control in these nations. One such example is Turkey’s ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP), which is currently in power.

How do extremist groups interpret sharia?

Laws of the European type have considerable impact on the legal systems of Muslim nations as well, especially in countries such as Iran and Saudi Arabia, who profess to follow solely Islamic law. This is due in part to the consequences of colonialism, the necessity of economic modernity, and the fact that many of the elite who constructed the legal systems in Muslim-majority nations had their education in Western institutions of higher learning, among other things. Political systems tend to incorporate sharia-based rules in three ways, depending on who you ask.

  1. System of law with two branches.
  2. Marriage, divorce, inheritance, and guardianship are among the issues that these courts deal with.
  3. God is in charge of the government.” Countries where Islam is the official religion recognize sharia as “a source” of law, and in some cases as “the source,” according to their constitutions.
  4. Legislation that is contradictory to Islam is prohibited in several countries, including Pakistan, Iran, and Iraq.
  5. Secularism.
  6. Nonetheless, Islamist political parties seek for government in many nations and occasionally gain control.

How do Muslim-minority countries approach sharia?

In some cases, some governments delegate authority to independent religious authorities to implement and adjudicate the laws of their respective faiths. According to the Islamic law of marriage, divorce, and inheritance, the United Kingdom (UK) authorizes Islamic tribunals to issue legally binding judgements provided both parties agree. Similar processes are in place for the Jewish and Anglican communities, respectively. In Israel, Christians, Jews, and Muslims, as well as adherents of a few other religions, can arbitrate family law cases in religious courts, which are separate from the civil courts.

As an alternative, policymakers in several Muslim-majority nations aim to prevent sharia from having an impact on national law or practice.

The wearing of veils or headscarves is prohibited in certain countries, such as France, where secularism is seen as an important component of the national identity and visible religious symbols are prohibited in specific public places.

Proponents of such legislation argue that they advance women’s empowerment and societal peace, while detractors argue that they violate individual liberties and unfairly target Muslims.

What do Muslims believe and do? Understanding the 5 pillars of Islam

A series of articles by Senior Religion and Ethics Editor Kalpana Jain, available on our website or as six emails delivered every other day, is available for those who want to learn more about Islam. The articles are written by Kalpana Jain, who is also the Senior Religion and Ethics Editor at The Conversation. Over the last few years, she has commissioned scores of papers about Islam authored by academics, which have appeared in scholarly journals. All of the pieces in this collection are drawn from that repository and have been reviewed for correctness by religious academics.

It was a kind gesture, and I appreciated it.

Even though I learned about a variety of cultural rituals through these interactions, as someone who is not religiously affiliated with the Islamic faith, I did not have a thorough understanding of the Islamic faith until I began reading the writings of our scholars in my role as ethics and religion editor.

Prophet Muhammad is the most venerated of all persons in the eyes of Muslims.

He is believed to have received direct revelations from God through the archangel Gabriel.

God is referred to as Allah in the Quran, which is the Arabic term for the word “God.” Muslims are divided into many distinct sects – some of which you may be familiar with, such as Sunni and Shiite – but they all adhere to the same set of core principles.

The Islamic faith

The Islamic religion is founded on five pillars, which are also known as fundamental tenets. Undertaking a public profession of faith, praying five times a day, contributing to charity (zakat), fasting during Ramadan, and making a trip to Mecca in Saudi Arabia are all examples of Islam’s requirements for believers. Each of these pillars is a critical component of being a Muslim in today’s world. According to scholarRose Aslan, “Many Muslims plan their days around the call to prayer, and others halt what they are doing at the call to prayer and make supplications to Allah.” Minarets in nations such as Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and India are equipped with speakers that broadcast the call to prayer to the whole population.

  • Muslims worship in the direction of Mecca, which is located in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Many Muslims, according to scholars, benefit from the practice of prayer because it allows them to have a personal relationship with God.
  • UmmSqueaky/Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works The five-day pilgrimage to the Great Mosque of Mecca and the surrounding area is a requirement for all Muslims who have the “physical and financial ability” to make the journey.
  • The Holy Kaaba, a cube-shaped building made of black marble, is located within the Great Mosque of Mecca.
  • Islam narrates the narrative of Ibrahim, who decided to sacrifice his son Ismail when God told him to do so in the Quran.

KEN CHITWOOD, a scholar at the University of Cambridge, says that Muslims believe the Kaaba contains the black stone upon which Ibrahim was to sacrifice Ismail. The journey comes to a close with Eid al-Adha, often known as the “feast of the sacrifice.”

Fasts and feasts

If you have heard or seen your Muslim neighbors fasting, it is most likely because they are participating in Ramadan celebrations. In the month of Ramadan, Muslims believe that the Quran was revealed to Prophet Muhammad for the very first time. It is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and lasts either 29 or 30 days, depending on when it falls. During Ramadan, Muslims keep a fast from dawn to sunset each day, which means they awaken early in the morning to share meals with one another before the sun appears and conclude the fast in the late afternoon or evening.

  • The dates are determined by the visibility of the new crescent moon.
  • It is also intended to assist kids in comprehending what it is like to be impoverished.
  • The term “Iftaar” (meaning “breakfast”) refers to big feasts held by Muslim communities to commemorate the breaking of the fast.
  • In India, I’ve been to a number of Iftaar celebrations.
  • In many South Asian nations, sewain is given out to friends and neighbors as a form of socialization.
  • For the sake of accuracy, Ken Chitwood, a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Berlin Graduate School of Muslim Cultures and Societies at Freie Universität Berlin, has examined and approved this article.
  • Fact: Bilal Ibn Rabah, the son of an enslaved Abyssinian lady, was the first Muslim to ever utter the call to prayer, which took place in the city of Medina during the seventh century.
  • The following is an excerpt from an essay published by Rose Aslan, Assistant Professor of Religion at California Lutheran University.
  • In the following issue: What exactly is an American Muslim?

Articles from The Conversation in this edition:

  • Providing an explanation of the Muslim pilgrimage of Hajj
  • When it comes to Islam, what exactly does Friday prayer mean? Answers to six frequently asked questions on why Ramadan is observed. On the occasion of Eid 2017, we take a look inside the life of Puerto Rican Muslims.

Further Reading and Resources:

  • In the Institute of Social Policy and Understanding (ISPU), research is conducted to assist journalists and others in better understanding the lives of American Muslims. “Islam: An Introduction,” written by Annemarie Schimmel, is a good read. A thorough introduction to Islam written by a renowned Islamic scholar who taught at Harvard University from 1967 to 1992

The Five Pillars Of Islam

The five pillars of faith of Islam are the basic requirements that every Muslim is required to accomplish over his or her lifetime. The names of them are as follows: The Shahadah, or statement of faith, is the first of Islam’s seven pillars. Christians and Muslims testify to the unity of God by reciting the credo, which states, “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God.” An Islamist’s entire embrace of and utter allegiance to Islam may be expressed in this simple yet powerful statement: “Allahu Akbar.” Salah, or prayer, is the second pillar of the Islamic faith.

  • Muslims all over the globe flock to Makkah, Islam’s holiest city, to say five daily prayers at the hours of dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, and nighttime.
  • In addition, attendance at the Friday congregational service is mandatory.
  • Salat is acceptable at any time of day or night, including at work or in the open air; nonetheless, it is preferable that Muslims say their prayers in a mosque.
  • Social responsibility is regarded as an integral aspect of one’s devotion to God, and the mandatory act of zakat serves to codify this obligation.
  • In terms of an individual’s overall net worth, excluding liabilities and family costs, it is equivalent to 2.5 percent of their total net worth.
  • The fast, which is prescribed in the Holy Qur’an, is a very personal act of devotion in which Muslims seek a more complete understanding of God.
  • From the sighting of the new moon to the sunset of Ramadan, Muslims must abstain from eating, drinking, and other sensual pleasures from dawn to sunset.
  • Ramadan is also a month of celebration.
  • They also throng the streets in celebratory and communal moods.
  • The Hajj, or pilgrimage to Makkah, is the fifth pillar of Islam and the most visible display of the faith and solidarity of Muslims around the globe.
  • The Hajj is a spiritual gathering of approximately two million Muslims from all over the world who go to Mecca to perform the rituals of Islam.

A worldwide community of believers is bound together by similar values and concerns because of the five pillars of Islam, which define the fundamental identity of Muslims, including their religion, beliefs, and practices.

What is Sharia? Islamic law shows Muslims how to live, and can be a force for progress as well as a tool of fundamentalists > News > USC Dornsife

Jessica Marglin, professor of religion and history at the University of Southern California Dornsife, shares insight into a sometimes misunderstood facet of Muslim culture in this article from The Conversation. In nations such as Brunei and Saudi Arabia, Sharia has been used to restrict women’s freedom, but it has also endowed women with rights that were unheard of in the premodern world. (Image courtesy of iStock/JuanMonino.) ( A series of articles by Senior Religion and Ethics Editor Kalpana Jain, available on our website or as six emails delivered every other day, is available for those who want to learn more about Islam.

  • Over the last few years, she has commissioned scores of papers about Islam authored by academics, which have appeared in scholarly journals.
  • After reading the last chapter of this series, you should be familiar with feminist movements in Islam.
  • Muslims are guided on how to live an ethical life by the principles of Sharia, which is a comprehensive collection of regulations.
  • Many people in the United States connect Sharia with bigotry.
  • Between 2010 and 2018, 43 states in the United States introduced legislation with the goal of preventing the use of Islamic law in American courts.
  • According to whom and for what purpose Sharia is applied, the interpretation varies.
  • The University of California, Santa Cruz’s Mark Fathi Massoud points out that Sharia gave women privileges that were unheard of in the pre-modern world, and that this was a significant achievement.
  • It also provides for the possibility of a woman initiating a divorce under specific circumstances.
  • Some nations, such as Saudi Arabia and Brunei, have, on the other hand, taken a strict interpretation of Sharia.
  • Later, international pressure compelled the country to reconsider its position.
  • It is true that the Quran mandates whipping as a form of punishment.
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The author states, “Even in this day and age of voyeurism, it would be very hard to achieve this requirement.” She goes on to say that such a penalty was “few ever carried out in the premodern era.” Despite the fact that “non-Islamic tribal traditions” such as honor murders and female genital mutilation are commonly attributed to Sharia, according to Afsaruddin, they are “in fact non-Islamic tribal practices that have no validity in Sharia.” To put it another way, they are cultural activities rather than religious behaviors.

Female genital mutilation is also performed by non-Muslims, according to certain reports.

He claims that it was Islamic extremists who won power in nations such as Iran and Saudi Arabia, among others, who “stunted the democratic potential of Sharia.” Britain, France, and other European nations had considerable control over their colonies in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia during this time period of colonial expansionism.

  1. He claims that today, the usage of Sharia is frequently exploited to depict “the Muslim world as uncivilized” and Islam as “incompatible with modern civilization,” according to him.
  2. Fact: In previous ages, celebrations of same-sex love were not considered a violation of Islamic law.
  3. A scholar and poet, Abdallah al-Shabrawi was the rector of al-Azhar in Cairo in the 18th century – then and today one of the Islamic world’s most famous schools of religious instruction – who was well-known for his work at both the time of his appointment and after his death.
  4. – This is an excerpt from an article published by Marglin.

Take our quiz, which is based on the material covered in this series, to see how well you know the material. On TheConversation.com, you can read all six pieces in thisUnderstanding Islam series, or you can have them delivered to your inbox if you sign up for our email newsletter course.

Articles from The Conversation in this edition:

  • Answers to the five questions about Sharia law
  • Harsh penalties under Sharia are modern interpretations of an ancient institution
  • They are not intended to be degrading. Instead of blaming Sharia for Islamic radicalism, we should look to colonialism.

Further Reading and Resources:

  • ShaRIAsource is a Harvard University research program that serves as a fantastic resource for teachers and researchers seeking knowledge on Islamic law. The Islamic Networks Group responds to a series of frequently asked concerns concerning Sharia law in the United States

The Conversation’s Senior Religion and Ethics Editor, Kalpana Jain, says: This article has been republished from The Conversation under the terms of a Creative Commons license. See the source article for more information.

Understanding Sharia Law

This issue brief can be downloaded (pdf) An increasing number of conservative journalists and experts have highlighted Sharia law, also known as Islamic religious law, as a growing threat to the United States during the past year. Extremists, according to these commentators and experts, are attempting to turn the United States into an Islamic state through the gradual acceptance of Sharia principles. This view has been supported by a number of state and national legislators, and legislation prohibiting the practice of Sharia is now being considered in thirteen states.

  1. “A federal statute that states Sharia law cannot be recognized by any court in the United States,” Newt Gingrich, the former Speaker of the House of Representatives and probable presidential contender, has advocated for.
  2. A large amount of disagreement may be found throughout the study and the wider argument.
  3. Aside from Muslim reformers and actual moderates.
  4. On this side of the split, Sharia is regarded as a guideline for a Muslim’s personal conduct rather than as a corpus to be imposed on the lives of people living in a multicultural community.
  5. That Muslims interpret Sharia in diverse ways is a true acknowledgment, and it directly undermines the subsequent argument that Sharia is a totalitarian system of government.
  6. They also throw mistrust on any Muslims who follow the rules of Islam.
  7. It would also target and perhaps alienate our most important partners in the fight against radicalization: our Muslim brothers and sisters in the United States.

This brief will clarify what Sharia is truly about and illustrate how a distortion and misunderstanding of Sharia—as espoused in the CSP report and subsequently adopted by others—would both hurt America’s national security interests and jeopardize our constitutionally protected liberties.

What is Sharia?

The CSP describes Sharia as a “legal-political-military philosophy,” according to the article. Yet a Muslim, much alone a scholar of Islam and Muslim tradition, would dismiss this notion as illogical and absurd. Muslim communities continue to fight internally about how to follow Islam in the modern world, despite the fact that they look to Islam’s broad principles as a guide to right living and religious practice in general. The majority of scholars who research Islam and Muslim communities use a wide definition of Shariah to describe their findings.

However, the following is something that all of these experts agree on:

  • Sharia is not a static concept. Its interpretations and implementations have varied over time and will continue to change in the future
  • There is no such thing as Sharia as a single entity. There are many different Muslim communities, and each has its own interpretation of Sharia law. There is no formal document, such as the Ten Commandments, that fully encompasses Sharia law. It is the ideal law of God as interpreted by Muslim scholars over centuries, with an emphasis on justice, fairness, and mercy
  • Sharia is primarily concerned with personal religious observances such as prayer and fasting, rather than with national laws
  • And Sharia is primarily concerned with the treatment of women.

Any faithful Muslim would consider himself or herself to be a follower of Sharia law. Finding a Muslim who does not feel that he or she is complying with Sharia and who conducts any rituals is nearly difficult. As a result, defining Sharia as a threat is the same as claiming that all Muslims who follow the law are a danger to society. This is something that the writers of the CSP report, none of whom have any qualifications in the field of Islamic studies, acknowledge in a number of places. The authors state at the beginning of the book that “Shariah is a point of reference for a Muslim’s personal conduct, not a corpus to be imposed on the lives of people living in a pluralistic society.” The rest of the report, on the other hand, is in direct opposition to this premise.

  • Based on an extreme sort of scripturalism, the “Sharia threat” argument asserts that believers will conduct in accordance with the teachings of the sacred book in which the passages are drawn.
  • Saying that Jews stone wayward sons to death (Deuteronomy 21:18-21) or that Christians slaughter all non-Christians would be equal (Luke 19:27).
  • Actually, Sharia is personal religious law and moral direction for the great majority of Muslims, who adhere to it as their own religious law.
  • Furthermore, these essential beliefs are consistent with the ideals that are at the heart of the United States of America.
  • The Muslim tradition, in contrast to these essential beliefs, primarily welcomes differences of opinion; this is why Sharia has lasted for centuries as a continuous series of debates.
  • This includes many Americans who have resided in our nation since before our independence and who continue to do so now.
  • Amman Message However, the Amman Message is a Sharia-based rejection of all forms of violent behavior.
  • In this case, however, the fact that it is a Sharia-based text demonstrates the flaw in the “Sharia danger” argument: When they outlaw Sharia, they are also criminalizing the Sharia-based teaching of nonviolence that is included in the Amman statement.

A organization professing to be concerned about American national security would propose that we criminalize nonviolent involvement in the name of national security.

Suspicion based on religious misinterpretation

The discrepancies in the CSP report can only be reconciled by resorting to unconstitutional tactics. And the writers offer to do so without a hint of sarcasm in their approach. They say that believing Muslims’ freedom of expression and freedom of religion rights should be curtailed: Extend the bans currently in effect that prohibit members of hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan from serving in positions of trust in federal, state, or local governments or the United States armed forces to those who advocate or support Shariah law, in accordance with Article VI of the Constitution.

The authors have previously admitted that Sharia is practiced by even mainstream Muslims, according to their research.

As a result, the authors cite Koran verses that “under Shariah are interpreted to mean that anyone who does not accept Islam is unacceptable in Allah’s eyes and that he will send them to Hell,” concluding, “When it is said that Shariah is a supremacist program, this is one of the foundations for it.” The fact that many Christians interpret their own faith to indicate that non-Christians are doomed to eternal damnation is not a hidden fact.

  1. Is this, too, a manifestation of supremacism?
  2. Not all Muslims, however, adhere to the religious idea of taqiyya, as stated above.
  3. “Taqqiya” is a term frequently used by proponents of the “Sharia threat” when they are presented with information that contradicts their point of view.
  4. A Muslim who teaches and implements nonviolence would be considered either a false Muslim or a practitioner of taqiyya, according to the writers of the CSP document.

CSP’s Frank Gaffney wrote in The Washington Times in response to Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf’s claim that the proposed Park 51 Islamic Center in New York would serve as a forum for interfaith dialogue: “To be sure, Imam Rauf is a skilled practitioner of the Shariah tradition of taqkiya, deception for the faith.” While adopting such an interpretation of taqiyya would provide a method for opponents to dismiss any disconfirming evidence, it would almost surely result in every devout Muslim being labelled a liar if it were to become widespread.

They are well aware of this, and they attempt to moderate their findings by writing, “This is not an argument for trusting or mistrusting someone in any specific case.” The fact that experts should be aware of these realities, and that they are dealing with an opponent whose philosophy allows—and at times even requires—them not to divulge completely everything that they know, and to deliberately misstate that which they know to be true, is an argument in their favor.

To put it another way, all Muslims are suspicious just by virtue of their religious affiliation.

Biased premises lead to bad policy

The basic premise of the CSP study is that Sharia law is the problem, and that adhering to Sharia law leads to extremism. The writers make no mention of Sharia, which is something that radicals are striving to claim as their own. This deliberate misinterpretation of the security challenges that the United States confronts overlooks several data points and portrays all Muslims as traitors. According to a research published by the Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, Muslims account for 85 percent of all terrorist victims worldwide.

People who advocate the most extreme version of Sharia agree with extremists’ conceptions of Islam and contribute to the creation of an environment of alienation and distrust, which serves the goals of extremists rather than the interests of the United States.

No longer can the fight against extremism be referred to as a “war against Islam.” Taking such a civilizational, catastrophic perspective may easily turn out to be a self-fulfilling prophesy in the end.

It is critical to acknowledge that Muslims are engaged in an ongoing discussion about how their faith will manifest itself in the future.

However, Muslims are not the only ones who face the issue of balancing faith with modernity, and we should not single them out for their religious views.

To put this in context, the radical Christian right in the United States has been attempting for decades to get its concept of America as a “Christian nation” incorporated into our legal system.

The chances of a radical section of American Muslims, a religion community that accounts for around one percent of the country’s population, achieving greater success are minimal to nonexistent.

Because the “Sharia threat” argument is so reckless, it would almost be comical if it weren’t for the potentially terrible repercussions of embracing it in its entirety.

This issue brief can be downloaded (pdf) Wajahat Ali is a Researcher at ThinkProgress, and Matthew Duss is the National Security Editor at American Progress.

Additional comments from Hussein Rashid, assistant editor of Religion Dispatches, and Haroon Moghul, executive director of The Maydan Institute, as well as others are included.

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