ISIL’s ideology represents radical Jihadi-Salafi Islam, a strict, puritanical form of Sunni Islam.
- 1 What is the Sunni branch of Islam?
- 2 What are the branches of Islam?
- 3 What type of Islam is Syria?
- 4 What are the four branches of Sunni Islam?
- 5 What are the 3 main sects of Islam?
- 6 What is Hanafi law?
- 7 Who is the founder of Islam?
- 8 What’s difference between Shia and Sunni?
- 9 What religion is Lebanon?
- 10 Is Turkey Sunni or Shia?
- 11 Is Egypt Sunni or Shia?
- 12 What are the 2 main types of Islam?
- 13 What is Wahhabism in Islam?
- 14 Are Shias allowed in Mecca?
- 15 What Is ISIS? The Definitive Guide
- 15.1 What is ISIS?
- 15.2 When was ISIS formed?
- 15.3 Is ISIS Sunni or Shia?
- 15.4 What is ISIS fighting for?
- 15.5 What is a caliphate?
- 15.6 What happens to ISIS now?
- 15.7 What happens to the children and wives of ISIS fighters now?
- 15.8 Community or caliphate?
- 15.9 Help our brothers and sisters remake home—and prevent the next war from happening.
- 16 Sunnis and Shia: Islam’s ancient schism
- 17 Who are the Sunnis?
- 18 Who are the Shia?
- 19 What role has sectarianism played in recent crises?
- 20 More on this story
- 21 The conflict between Iraqi Sunnis and Shias sustains ISIS
- 22 Questions Rebels Use to Tell Sunni From Shiite (Published 2014)
- 23 The Islamic State (Terrorist Organization)
- 24 Featured
- 25 Explore The Islamic State (Terrorist Organization)
- 25.1 What Former Extremists and Their Families Say About Radicalization in America
- 25.2 Interviews with Former Extremists Reveal Multiple Paths to Developing Extreme Ideologies; Rejection of Extremism Often.
- 25.3 Violent Extremism in America: Firsthand Accounts
- 25.4 The Role of U.S. Airpower in Defeating ISIS
- 25.5 Interest in a U.S. Grand Strategy of Restraint May Be Growing, So Advocates Need to Provide More Details
- 25.6 A U.S. Grand Strategy of Restraint
- 25.7 Social Media and Influence Operations Technologies: Implications for Great Power Competition
- 25.8 The Islamic State in Afghanistan Is Down, but Not Out
- 25.9 Repression in Mozambique Is Stoking an Islamist Insurgency, Risking Wider Unrest
- 25.10 Weighing U.S. Troop Withdrawal from Iraq
- 25.11 It’s Time to Make a Full and Enduring Commitment to Iraq
- 25.12 Iraq’s Vote to Expel U.S. Troops Is Iran’s True Victory
- 25.13 Baghdadi’s Death Will Make Global Affiliates More Independent
- 25.14 How the U.S. Withdrawal from Syria Provides a Boost to ISIS
- 25.15 The Syrian Withdrawal: Where Things Stand
- 25.16 Winning the Peace in Iraq: Don’t Give Up on Baghdad’s Fragile Democracy
- 25.17 The Terrorist Threat Posed by Neglect and Indifference
- 26 ISIS-K, Islamic State, The Taliban and Al-Qaeda: How Are They Different?
- 27 ISIS Saudi branch: clear Arabian peninsula of Shi’ites
What is the Sunni branch of Islam?
Sunni, Arabic Sunnī, member of one of the two major branches of Islam, the branch that consists of the majority of that religion’s adherents. Sunni Muslims regard their denomination as the mainstream and traditionalist branch of Islam —as distinguished from the minority denomination, the Shiʿah.
What are the branches of Islam?
Though the two main sects within Islam, Sunni and Shia, agree on most of the fundamental beliefs and practices of Islam, a bitter split between the two goes back some 14 centuries. The divide originated with a dispute over who should succeed the Prophet Muhammad as leader of the Islamic faith he introduced.
What type of Islam is Syria?
Although Syria has no official religion, 85 percent of the population is Muslim, and of these, 85 percent are members of the Sunni sect (i.e. 72 percent of the total population). [George Kurian, Encyclopedia of the Third World, Third Edition, (New York: Facts on File Inc., 1987), p. 1882.]
What are the four branches of Sunni Islam?
In addition, there are several differences within Sunnī and Shiʿa Islam: Sunnī Islam is separated into four main schools of jurisprudence, namely Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, Hanbali; these schools are named after Abu Hanifa, Malik ibn Anas, al-Shafi’i, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, respectively.
What are the 3 main sects of Islam?
Muslims Adhere to Different Islamic Sects
- Sunni Muslims include 84%–90% of all Muslims.
- Shi`ite Muslims comprise 10%–16% of all Muslims.
- Sufis are Islamic mystics.
- Baha’is and Ahmadiyyas are 19th-century offshoots of Shi`ite and Sunni Islam, respectively.
What is Hanafi law?
The Hanafi School is one of the four major schools of Sunni Islamic legal reasoning and repositories of positive law. While the Hanafi madhab, along with other Sunni schools, utilizes qiyas (analogical reasoning) as a method of legal reasoning, Abu Hanifa himself relied extensively on ra’y (personal opinion).
Who is the founder of Islam?
The rise of Islam is intrinsically linked with the Prophet Muhammad, believed by Muslims to be the last in a long line of prophets that includes Moses and Jesus.
What’s difference between Shia and Sunni?
Those who followed the Prophet’s closest companion (Abu Bakr) became known as Sunni (the followers of the Prophet’s example – Sunnah). Those who followed the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law (‘Ali) became known as Shi’a (the followers of the Party of ‘Ali – Shi’atu Ali).
What religion is Lebanon?
Statistics Lebanon, an independent firm, estimates 67.6 percent of the citizen population is Muslim (31.9 percent Sunni, 31 percent Shia, and small percentages of Alawites and Ismailis). Statistics Lebanon estimates 32.4 percent of the population is Christian.
Is Turkey Sunni or Shia?
Religious statistics Most Muslims in Turkey are Sunnis forming about 80.5%, and Shia-Aleviler (Alevis, Ja’faris, Alawites) denominations in total form about 16.5% of the Muslim population. Among Shia Muslim presence in Turkey there is a small but considerable minority of Muslims with Ismaili heritage and affiliation.
Is Egypt Sunni or Shia?
The Middle Eastern countries with the greatest proportion of Sunnis are Egypt, Jordan and Saudi Arabia, with Sunnis making up 90% or more of the population. Shia make up roughly 10% of all Muslims, and globally their population is estimated between 154 to 200 million, according to a 2009 report from the Pew Forum.
What are the 2 main types of Islam?
A disagreement over succession after Mohammed’s death in 632 split Muslims into Islam’s two main sects, Sunni and Shia.
What is Wahhabism in Islam?
Wahhabism (Arabic: الوهابية, romanized: al-Wahhābiyyah, lit. ‘Wahhabism’) is a term used to refer to the Islamic revivalist and fundamentalist movement within Sunni Islam which is associated with the Hanbali reformist doctrines of the Arabian scholar Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab (1703-1792).
Are Shias allowed in Mecca?
Both Sunni and Shia Muslims share the same five pillars of Islam, the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, Ramadan, the prayer, Chahada, and Zakat. However, Saudia Arabia has forbidden Shia Muslims to perform the sacred Hajj pilgrimage. If individuals refused to identify, they were not allowed in Mecca.
What Is ISIS? The Definitive Guide
You’ve probably heard of ISIS in the news. You’ve probably heard of their heinous crimes against humanity. But who exactly is ISIS, and how did they come to be? What exactly was it that they were fighting for, and what is currently occurring with ISIS, are both important questions to consider. What you need to know is as follows:
What is ISIS?
ISIS, also known as the Islamic State in Iraq and Greater Syria, is a radical branch of Al-Qaeda, the terrorist group that launched attacks on New York and Washington D.C. in 2001, igniting a worldwide battle against terrorism. This ultra-conservative branch of Islam believes that restoring Muslim society to the time of the Prophet Mohammed in all aspects of life—from religion to social values to governance—is the purest form of Islam. ISIS adheres to this branch of Islam, which adheres to a strict interpretation of the Quran and adheres to strict interpretations of social values.
When was ISIS formed?
Iraqi insurgents formed the foundation of ISIS in 1999 as a tiny group. But it’s unlikely that you were aware of them until 2014, when they declared themselves a caliphate and launched a campaign of conquest through Iraq and Syria. From 2014 to 2017, ISIS flourished and expanded, both in terms of land claimed and in terms of the terror they incited both in the Middle East and throughout the rest of the globe during that time period. Image used in ISIS propaganda
Is ISIS Sunni or Shia?
ISIS adheres to an extreme interpretation of Sunni Islam, yet the majority of Muslims from all backgrounds, including Sunnis, have condemned the organization. The terrorist organization primarily targeted Shia Muslims for persecution, as well as other religious minorities, in its campaign. Many Sunni people were uprooted or killed as a result of the development of ISIS and the subsequent fight against them. ISIS is adamant about adhering to its ideology at the expense of what most Muslims consider to be the real manifestation of their faith.
What is ISIS fighting for?
A desire to wage holy war, or jihad, against the “enemy of Islam” is behind the cruelty we associate with ISIS, including beheadings, enslavement, amputations, stone peltings, torture, and other atrocities. Anyone who does not adhere to ISIS’s extremist version of Islam is considered an enemy of the organization. It may come as a surprise to many non-Muslims that Shia Muslims are ISIS’s principal targets, but this is not the case. In the Middle East, Sunnis and Shias have been battling for years, and the development of ISIS is regarded as the latest indication of this tragic sectarian rift, among other things.
- Preemptive Love Coalition photo courtesy of Jeremy Courtney.
- Shabaks, Alawites, Jews, and Christians have all suffered immensely as a result of ISIS’s reign of terror.
- ISIS, which refers to itself as “devil worshipers,” carried out a genocide against the Yazidi people, torturing and killing hundreds of males while seizing and subjecting women and children to continuous rape, beatings, and enslavement in their detention centers.
- Sinjar, the Yazidi homeland, and the surrounding area are still inhabited by a number of armed organizations contending for control of the territory.
- Consider the following examples of the impact of ISIS’s focused efforts against them: pic.twitter.com/87z3WVE8Vj On April 5, 2019, Nadia’s Initiative (@nadiainitiative) tweeted: ISIS is also well-known for being adept at disseminating its message using modern media.
- According to a July 2018 study, more than 40,000 foreigners from 110 countries have joined ISIS in Iraq and Syria, with 80 percent of them being males and the remaining 20 percent being women and children in proportion to their numbers.
These include a desire to help their religious brethren or a desire to exact vengeance against oppressive regimes. ISIS recruits misfits and disenfranchised people by giving them a sense of belonging, identities, and prestige.
RELATED: Three Reasons People Joined ISIS
ISIS has also been able to recruit young women in the privacy of their own homes, such as Shamima Begum from the United Kingdom and Hoda Muthana from the United States, by drawing them in with the promise of a bigger mission and significance. People from all over the world traveled to Syria to join ISIS in its quest to build a caliphate, which is the group’s ultimate objective.
What is a caliphate?
In 2017, Mosul, Iraq, was the scene of a terrorist attack. The image is courtesy of Ihsan Ibraheem/Preemptive Love Coalition A caliphate is a political-religious state composed of members of the Muslim community, as well as the people and areas that fall under its jurisdiction. Following the death of the Prophet Mohammed in 632 AD, the first caliphate was established. The caliph, who is both the religious and civil ruler of the caliphate, has absolute power over all of the caliphate’s subjects.
ISIS’s caliphate, which spanned Syria and Iraq, possessed many characteristics of a contemporary nation-state, including the ability to wage war.
- Administration and services
- Administrative government and services
- A majority of a certain culture or religion Borders that are distinct
At the very least, ISIS proven to be effective in providing state-run services, just as the government had done before it took control. A caliphate, on the other hand, cannot exist without territory, because the caliph need physical limits within which to administer Islamic law. On a more practical level, territory enabled ISIS to amass vast fortune via the exploitation of a varied range of natural resources. The seven or eight million people who lived in the caliphate that ISIS established gave it with a significant amount of tax revenue and labor, allowing it to expand.
- From agriculture to oil, ISIS had complete control over its resources.
- In Syria, ISIS continued to lose land and strength until March 2019, when it was forced to abandon Baghouz, which was its final important bastion.
- Governments are declaring triumph in the war on terror.
- However, putting an end to the caliphate does not always entail putting an end to ISIS.
No, not at all. Losing the caliphate means losing this area and all of the wealth that its resources have created, therefore regaining territory that has been claimed is a real triumph for the Islamic State. Taking back land, on the other hand, is simply one win.
What happens to ISIS now?
ISIS’s strength has been eroded by five years of continuous combat, but the group has encountered similar challenges in the past. In 2010, when the United States withdrew from Iraq and left ISIS in shambles, with just a few hundred fighters remaining, Nonetheless, it reorganized and returned. In late 2017, as ISIS’s de-facto capital in Syria, Raqqa, fell to American-backed, Kurdish-led troops, there were echoes of the events of 2010. Then, in early 2018, there were echoes of the events of 2010.
However, it was hardly a humiliating defeat.
It’s still here, and it still has a lot of money in its bank account.
Conditions are still favorable for extremism and violence to flourish in the absence of enough resources to rebuild.
Even if this iteration of ISIS fails, it will adapt and reform under a different disguise, all with the same goal in mind: to establish a caliphate, revive what its adherents believe to be the golden age of Islam, and begin the countdown to the apocalypse, as described by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
According to ISIS, the responsibility of a good Muslim is to give his or her life in service to the caliphate, to prepare the earth for its last days, and to reap benefits in the hereafter for one’s dedication.
What happens to the children and wives of ISIS fighters now?
When the wives and children of ISIS militants began to flee the final vestige of the caliphate in early 2019, they were told they were not to interfere with the battle. But some stayed obstinate, refusing to go. Many people have stated their confidence that the caliphate would rise once again. They were able to make their way to a refugee camp in northern Syria, where the situation is dire. As the last assault on al-Hawl began, more than 40,000 people descended upon the city. With little preparation for the massive migration of women and children, there has been a catastrophic shortage of medical treatment and food, while supplies from humanitarian organizations have been delayed by a lack of security on the route.
Due to tribal law’s stigmatization of extremist connections, families of ISIS combatants have been rejected by their communities, even if the family members themselves did not support the group.
Work, feeding, and childcare responsibilities are severely curtailed for these women.
The children are the ones who suffer the most as resources are pushed to their breaking point, as much of the world moves on from Iraq and Syria, and as community tensions continue to make already terrible situations much more difficult to deal with.
This generation of children, traumatized by war and the subsequent treatment they received from authorities, urgently requires programs to assist them in processing what they have been through, removing them from the ideologies that they were brainwashed with, and reintegrating them into the communities in which they must now live.
For every youngster, having access to education is critical to transforming their lives and providing them with more possibilities than poverty or conflict provide them. The education and care of children of ISIS combatants is critical to averting the outbreak of another war.
Community or caliphate?
In early 2019, as the wives and children of ISIS combatants were told to leave the final remaining stronghold of the caliphate, some remained obstinate in their refusal to comply with orders to leave. Some believe that the caliphate will rise once more, while others are not so sure. A refugee camp in northern Syria, where circumstances are at an all-time low, was their final destination. As the last assault on al-Hawl began, more than 40,000 people poured into the city. With little preparation for the massive migration of women and children, there has been a catastrophic shortage of medical treatment and food, while supplies from humanitarian organizations have been delayed by a lack of security on the roads.
Due to tribal law’s stigmatization of extremist connections, families of ISIS combatants have been rejected by their communities, even if the family members themselves did not support the terrorist organization.
Work, feeding, and childcare responsibilities are severely curtailed for these women.
Children bear the brunt of the burden as resources are pushed to their breaking point, as most of the world moves on from Iraq and Syria, and as community tensions continue to exacerbate already terrible situations.
This generation of children, traumatized by war and the subsequent treatment they received from authorities, urgently requires programs to assist them in processing what they have been through, removing them from the ideologies that they were brainwashed with, and reintegrating them into the communities in which they now must live.
The education and care of children of ISIS combatants is critical to averting the outbreak of a new conflict.
Help our brothers and sisters remake home—and prevent the next war from happening.
It is the specter of sectarianism that looms over the Middle East. It is held responsible for the instability, strife, and fanaticism that has engulfed the world. It delineates what is often regarded as the primary fault line in the region: Sunni vs Shiite. It possesses the force and beauty of a big theory that appears to explain everything. Sunnis who are disenchanted and enraged by Shiite ambitions radicalize in significant numbers, joining Al Qaeda or enlisting in the Islamic State. Because of their fear of being a minority, Shiites go beyond and desire influence that is much in excess of their numbers.
- However, the great bulk of the recent violence that has wreaked havoc on broad areas of the Middle East and caused misery and ruin has nothing to do with those tensions.
- Sectarianism is a politically expedient tale that has been used to conceal old-fashioned power conflicts, mistreatment of minorities, and brutal dictatorial tactics for many years.
- Fighting for the Iraqi city of Mosul and the Syrian city of Raqqa pitted Sunni against Sunni in the brutal fights for the two cities.
- There are just a handful documented instances of the gang executing Shiites on a large scale.
- The protests in Tunisia and Egypt eventually died out and the uprisings in Libya are still going on.
- Violence and shifting alliances characterized each phase of upheaval, which included the Muslim Brotherhood, neo-Ottomans, Salafis, Wahhabis (in both their Saudi and Qatari forms), and jihadis.
- As a component of a greater Sunni-Shiite struggle, the Sunni-Alawite difference is frequently described in the Syrian tragedy as being essential to understanding the bloodshed.
- It is difficult to envision the dictatorship surviving without at least some support from mainstream Sunnis: for all of its existence, it has relied on financial and political assistance from Sunni Gulf monarchs, with Saudi Arabia serving as the most important source of support.
- Iran’s and Hezbollah’s hasty rush to Assad’s rescue is motivated by political and strategic considerations rather than a shared sectarian identity.
- To a considerable degree, the Syrian conflict has devolved into a battle between Sunni Islamist organizations of varying persuasions and financial backing, who have spent far more time, energy, and resources fighting one another than they have spent fighting the state.
- Sunni rebel factions attacked more Sunnis than Alawites, according to the United Nations.
Despite the fact that Russia rescued the regime in Damascus while also killing a large number of Sunnis in the process, Sunni Arab leaders did not reject Putin, but rather began making regular pilgrimages to Moscow, bringing offers of arms and trade deals as well as strategic alliances with the Russian government.
- Not a Shiite or Alawite danger from the regime, but an Islamist threat from the opposition, according to the Egyptian capital.
- It should come as no surprise that, as the conflict draws to a close, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain have opted to resume diplomatic relations with the Syrian regime.
- Saudi Arabia may not be far behind in terms of economic development.
- The Houthi insurgents are motivated in great part by their belief that their national identity is being endangered.
- However, social reasons lie at the heart of the Houthis’ dissatisfaction: they are dissatisfied with their loss of social standing as well as with the rising neglect of the northern half of the nation, which is their stronghold.
- After gaining some limited Iranian help, the Houthis—who were facing a Saudi-led offensive—began to look more and more for support from Tehran.
- This is more about geopolitics than it is about sectarianism, and it is more about strategic rivalry than it is about religious competitiveness.
Even once that conflict is over, tensions surrounding southern secessionists, Al Qaeda and ISIS, as well as Salafists, all of whom are Sunnis, will very certainly flare up.
The murder of Jamal Khashoggi, the most recent, most well reported, and most vivid act of violence, is also an internal Sunni matter.
The offenders belonged to the Sunni faith.
The assassination takes place against the backdrop of a tug-of-war among Sunni Islam’s several variants: the austere Wahhabis, the active Muslim Brotherhood, and the statist neo-Ottomans, all of whom are vying for power.
The list could go on and on.
Because of its engagement in the Syrian civil war against Sunni rebels, Hezbollah actually boosted the number of Sunni sympathizers it had in both Parliament and the Lebanese government in the aftermath of its intervention.
Neither the Algerian nor Moroccan conflicts over Western Sahara nor the ongoing tensions between Saudi Arabia and Jordan, nor the tensions between Saudi Arabia and Morocco, nor the Saudi-Qatari feud, nor the struggle for influence between Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates in the Horn of Africa are involving Shiites.
The ongoing chaos in Libya, where there is no discernible sectarian fault line, is the result of ethnic, tribal, or regional rivalries among Sunnis, as are clashes in western Iraq and geographic tensions between the Tunisian coast and hinterland, according to the United Nations Development Programme.
Sunnis and Shia: Islam’s ancient schism
AP is the source of the image. Caption for the image The pilgrimage to Mecca is one of many rites that both religions practice, and it is one of the most important. The schism that exists between Sunnis and Shias is the greatest and most ancient in Islamic history. Historically, members of the two religions have lived side by side for centuries and have a number of core beliefs and practices in common. However, there are significant differences in philosophy, ritual, law, theology, and religious organization.
Many recent conflicts, ranging from Lebanon and Syria to Iraq and Pakistan, have emphasized the sectarian difference, driving families and communities apart.
Who are the Sunnis?
It is estimated that Sunnis constitute between 85 percent and 90 percent of the world’s more than 1.5 billion Muslims. Sunnis constitute 90 percent or more of the populations of Egypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia, respectively, in the Middle East. Getty Images is the source of this image. Caption: Egypt is home to a number of Sunni Muslims. The earliest centers of study in Islam Sunnis consider themselves to be the religiously orthodox branch of Islam. The term “Sunni” comes from the Arabic word “Ahl al-Sunnah,” which translates as “People of the Tradition.” Specifically, the term “tradition” refers to actions that are founded on what the Prophet Muhammad said or did or agreed to or condemned.
Shia are also directed by the wisdom of Muhammad’s descendants, who are represented by Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law and cousin.
Who are the Shia?
Shia Muslims account for around 10% of the world’s Muslim population, with a global population estimated to be between 154 and 200 million people. AP is the source of the image. Caption for the image The deaths of Ali, Hassan, and Hussein paved the way for the development of the Shia notion of martyrdom. Shia Muslims constitute the majority of the population in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Azerbaijan, and, according to some estimates, Yemen. Shia Muslims are also the majority in Syria. Afghanistan, India, Kuwait, Lebanon, Pakistan, Qatar, Syria, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are also home to significant Shia populations.
Ali was killed in 661 at the end of a five-year caliphate that had been beset by internal conflict.
While Hassan is supposed to have died from poisoning in 680 at the hands of Muawiyah, the first caliph of the Sunni Umayyad dynasty, Hussein is believed to have been murdered by the Umayyads on the battlefield in 681.
There are three major sects of Shia Islam practiced today: the Zaidis, the Ismailis, and the Ithna Asharis (or Ithna Asharis) (Twelvers or Imamis).
In 878, the 12th Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, is reported to have vanished from a cave beneath a mosque, according to legend. It is believed by Ithna Asharis that the so-called “expected imam” did not die, and that he will return to earth at the end of time to restore justice.
What role has sectarianism played in recent crises?
Shia Muslims are disproportionately represented among the weakest elements of society in nations where Sunnis have ruled. They frequently believe that they are the victims of prejudice and injustice. Sunni radicals routinely decry Shia as heretics who should be put to death, and they have a point. AFP is the source of this image. Caption for the image The killing by Saudi Arabia of a famous Shia cleric sparked a diplomatic crisis with Iran, which has since been resolved. A hardline Shia Islamist agenda was initiated by the Iranian revolution of 1979, which was viewed as posing a threat to traditional Sunni countries, notably those in the Persian Gulf.
Many of the battles taking place in the region today have significant sectarian undertones.
While this is happening, Sunni jihadist organizations, especially the Islamic State (IS), have been targeting Shia and their sites of worship in Syria and its neighboring country of Iraq.
The murder sparked a diplomatic crisis with Iran as well as protests across the region.
As the ongoing and worsening violence in Iraq has become increasingly sectarian, the Sunni Muslim terrorist organization ISIS (the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria) has advanced against the Shia Muslim-led Iraqi government and Shia militias, at least in part. For hundreds of years, sectarian identification has played a role in the politics of the Middle East and North Africa. Iran and Iraq are two of just a handful of nations in which the Shia population outnumbers the Sunni population. While it is widely assumed that Iraq has a Shia majority, there is little reliable data on the exact Sunni-Shia breakdown of the population there.
- According to the few published poll indicators of religious identity in Iraq, almost half of the country is Shia Muslim.
- Iran, a neighboring country, is home to the world’s biggest Shia population: there are about 100 million people.
- Iranian support for Iraq’s Shia-dominated government led by Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki may be explained by the fact that they share a demographic composition.
- The Syrian leadership, on the other hand, is dominated by Alawites (an offshoot of Shia Islam).
- A conflict over the succession of leadership in the Muslim community following the death of the Prophet Muhammad in 632 is the origin of the Sunni-Shia division, which is approximately 1,400 years old and has existed since then.
- When it comes to religion in Iraq, for example, both groups express practically universal belief in God and the Prophet Muhammad, with identical numbers (82 percent of Shias and 83 percent of Sunnis) stating that religion is extremely important in their daily lives.
- In certain nations, a considerable proportion of Muslims do not consider the divide between Sunni and Shia Islam to be fundamental in their lives.
- In Iraq, on the other hand, only 5% of respondents identified as “simply a Muslim.” There are other theological problems where the differences between the sects are more obvious, such as whether it is appropriate to visit the sites of Muslim saints.
- In late 2011, 14 percent of Iraqi Sunnis indicated they did not consider Shias to be Muslims, according to a poll conducted by the Pew Research Center.
Other nations, like as the Sunni-dominated Egypt (53 percent), have even larger numbers of Sunnis who believe that Shias are not Muslims. Michael Lipka works as an editorial manager for religion research at the Pew Research Center in Washington, DC.
The conflict between Iraqi Sunnis and Shias sustains ISIS
An key cause in the resurrection of ISIS has been the war between Iraq’s two biggest Arab religious groups, the Shias and the Sunnis, which has played a role in the rise of ISIS. ISIS militants are predominantly Sunni, and the animosity that exists between the two communities serves as a major recruiting tool for ISIS. In the most fundamental doctrinal terms, the Sunni-Shia division in Islam began with a disagreement about who would be in charge following the Prophet Mohammed’s passing. Of fact, today’s sectarian conflicts in Iraq are not about resolving disagreements from the seventh century; rather, they are about contemporary political power and grievances.
- Although Shias constitute the majority of Iraqi Arabs, Sunnis dominated the country under Saddam Hussein, who was himself a Sunni.
- As a result, Sunnis believed, and continue to believe, that they were entitled to greater shares of political authority than their numerical size might suggest.
- Because they don’t trust one another, the two factions are competing against one another in what they perceive to be a zero-sum competition for control of Iraqi governmental institutions.
- While Shias maintain control of the government and Sunnis believe they are being unfairly represented, ISIS will continue to find an audience for its extremist Sunni message.
Questions Rebels Use to Tell Sunni From Shiite (Published 2014)
BAGHDAD (AP) — Whether a person in Iraq belongs to a Shiite or a Sunni Muslim sect might now literally mean the difference between life and death. There have been several reports of militants seizing groups of individuals and freeing the Sunnis while targeting the Shiites for death as the terrorist group the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, often known as ISIS, has expanded its territory in western and northern Iraq. ISIS considers Shiites to be apostates who must be killed in order to establish a pure form of Islam, according to the group.
- Islamic tradition, according to the Shiites, was passed down through the Prophet Muhammad’s home.
- But how can ISIS discern if a person is a Sunni or a Shiite without knowing their religion?
- Here are only a few examples: What’s your name, by the way?
- Among other people, Shiites believe that the leadership of Islam was passed down through the Prophet Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali to his son Hussain (also known as Hussein), Hassan, and Abbas, who are all descended from Ali.
- What city do you reside in?
- People who claimed to have been from one of those areas would very certainly be slaughtered if they were caught.
- Shiites and Sunnis perform prayers in somewhat different ways, with Sunnis often folding their hands or crossing their arms in front of their tummies, whilst Shiites normally leave their hands outstretched, palms resting on their thighs, during their prayers.
All three of them claimed to be Sunni Muslims.
They were asked how they did each of the prayers in the morning, the middle of the day, and at the end of the day.
I’m curious what sort of music you like to listen to.
Similarly, even the ringtone on a person’s telephone might be a signal because it could be a religious music from either the Sunni or the Shiite faith.
For example, a substantial number of Shiites wear big rings, which are frequently set with semiprecious stones.
In general, Iraqi Shiites and Sunnis are nearly indistinguishable from one another in terms of looks.
Given the well-documented rigidity of ISIS’s political ideas, it is understandable to question why hostages do not just lie about their whereabouts and nationalities.
Although it appears that many do, people can quickly become tripped up in high-stress, life-threatening situations. It is possible for another individual in a group to unwittingly give someone away by mistake. Others are adamant about not lying about their religious beliefs.
The Islamic State (Terrorist Organization)
- The Islamic State (Terrorist Organization) is one of the topics covered by RAND.
Islamist militant group ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria), also known as ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant), is a Sunni jihadist organization with a particularly violent ideology that proclaims itself a caliphate and claims religious authority over all Muslims. ISIS is a Sunni jihadist group that claims religious authority over all Muslims. It was founded with the support of al Qaida, but was openly dismissed from the organization. terrorist specialists from RAND Corporation have examined the group’s finance, administration, and organization; its shrewd use of social media for recruiting and fundraising; and the instability that produced the group as a regional concern in the Middle East, according to the report.
Stabilizing Eastern Syria After ISIS
- Despite the fact that eastern Syrian villages are no longer under the control of ISIS, they remain in a volatile political climate in which the Syrian Democratic Forces and the Syrian government have both increased their presence, while some ISIS members remain in the area. What are the most pressing requirements in the region, and is there a realistic approach for achieving short-term stability?
Airpower Was Indispensable to Defeating ISIS
- Some believe that airpower might have been used more aggressively during Operation Inherent Resolve, allowing for a more rapid defeat of the Islamic State. The use of airpower was critical, but ground troops commanded by Iraqi and Syrian allies were also required to completely eliminate the Islamic State as a geographical entity.
Explore The Islamic State (Terrorist Organization)
- The findings of their interviews with former members of radical organizations are discussed by the co-authors of the RAND report, Violent Extremism in America. Briefing about the research
What Former Extremists and Their Families Say About Radicalization in America
- In the United States, violent extremism is a developing and persistent problem that must be addressed. Former extremists, as well as their relatives and friends, provide insight on how people get radicalized, how they leave extremist groups, and what communities may do to slow the spread of extremism in their area. a press release
Interviews with Former Extremists Reveal Multiple Paths to Developing Extreme Ideologies; Rejection of Extremism Often.
- Across the United States, violent extremism is a developing and persistent concern. interviews with former extremists—and with their relatives and friends—provide valuable insights on how people get radicalized, how they leave extremist groups, and what communities may do to slow the spread of extremism in their area. Publication of information
Violent Extremism in America: Firsthand Accounts
- The attack on the United States Capitol on January 6 underscored the need for greater research to improve violent extremism prevention and deradicalization methods in the United States. Interviews with former extremists and their families give light on the factors that motivate people to join – and subsequently quit – extremist organizations. Briefing about the research
The Role of U.S. Airpower in Defeating ISIS
- According to the National Institutes of Health, additional study is needed to educate violent extremism prevention and deradicalization techniques following the attack on the United States Capitol on January 6. Interviews with former extremists and their families give insight on the factors that cause people to join – and subsequently abandon – extremist organizations
- In-depth Report on Research
Interest in a U.S. Grand Strategy of Restraint May Be Growing, So Advocates Need to Provide More Details
- As the Biden Administration takes over, some policymakers in the United States have expressed interest in a new approach to America’s role in the world: a realist grand strategy of restraint, under which the United States would cooperate more with other powers, reduce its forward military presence, and terminate or renegotiate some security commitments
A U.S. Grand Strategy of Restraint
- Some policymakers in the United States have shown an interest in pursuing a realist grand strategy of restraint. According to this strategy, the United States would collaborate more with other nations, reduce its forward military presence, and terminate or renegotiate some security obligations in exchange for greater economic benefits. Exactly what are the policy ramifications of proceeding down this road
- Article in a journal
Social Media and Influence Operations Technologies: Implications for Great Power Competition
- Russia, China, and the so-called Islamic State are three major U.S. rivals that have taken use of online technology to spread propaganda against the United States. Each of these entities’ online propaganda has certain goals, capabilities, and limits, which are discussed in this chapter. Commentary
The Islamic State in Afghanistan Is Down, but Not Out
- The Afghan Taliban is on the approach of signing a power-sharing agreement with the Afghan government as part of a peace arrangement mediated by the United States, according to reports. Washington appears to be holding out hope that the agreement would get the country back to its feet. The Islamic State’s Khorasan Province, on the other hand, continues to be a source of concern. The Islamic State in Afghanistan may be defeated, but it is far from defeated. Commentary
Repression in Mozambique Is Stoking an Islamist Insurgency, Risking Wider Unrest
- While Southern Africa has generally been spared the ravages of violent extremism, the situation in northern Mozambique threatens to destabilize the country and may even extend to other areas of the continent if the situation does not improve. It is possible that the government may develop a less heavy-handed strategy to successfully fight the mounting danger
- According to the report
Weighing U.S. Troop Withdrawal from Iraq
- In the long run, it is in the best interests of the United States to support a stable and friendly Iraq. Even while this would not need the continuation of the combat aid mission, it would require the retention of a small number of military advisors to assist in training and developing Iraqi capabilities so that the country could defend itself
It’s Time to Make a Full and Enduring Commitment to Iraq
- If the United States abandons its strategic competition in Iraq, it will face consequences. Policymakers in the United States should work to maintain a commitment to Iraq before chances are gone. A substantial, long-term, and small-footprint aid program for the Iraqi Army is the most effective approach to demonstrate that commitment.
Iraq’s Vote to Expel U.S. Troops Is Iran’s True Victory
- If American forces are forced to leave Iraq, the ramifications might be far-reaching and detrimental to the United States’ strategic interests. In order to restore the relationship between Washington and Baghdad, what choices are left? Commentary
Baghdadi’s Death Will Make Global Affiliates More Independent
- The death of Islamic State leader and self-proclaimed caliph Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, who was just found dead, is a big setback for the group. Baghdadi has a type of enigmatic charm that the organization coveted. Although he will be replaced, this does not suggest that the Islamic State will just resume operations as usual. Commentary
How the U.S. Withdrawal from Syria Provides a Boost to ISIS
- President Trump’s decision to remove U.S. forces from Syria may provide the ISIS terrorist group with the time and space it needs to rebuild its organization and expand its networks throughout the Middle East, according to some analysts. The decision’s long-term strategic ramifications might have a ripple effect throughout the area for years to come
The Syrian Withdrawal: Where Things Stand
- Because the Trump administration lacks an ordered procedure for making national security decisions, the administration has defaulted to the worst possible option in regards to Syria. The abrupt withdrawal of United States soldiers has created an opening for Russia to take advantage of. It also left the Kurds, who are a close ally of the United States, to face against a Turkish onslaught
- Journal Article
Winning the Peace in Iraq: Don’t Give Up on Baghdad’s Fragile Democracy
- In the aftermath of years of conflict, Iraq’s parliamentary government has remained stable and is more concerned with administration than with sectarianism. However, the task is not yet completed, and the author emphasizes the importance of dedication and patience in order to build a sustainable peace.
The Terrorist Threat Posed by Neglect and Indifference
- When it comes to the aftermath of ISIS, Western countries have appeared to wash their hands of the situation. European people detained in Iraqi and Syrian detention camps are being helped to survive by Western governments’ failure to recognize the threat and instead relying on Iraqi and Syrian Kurds to deal with the situation.
ISIS-K, Islamic State, The Taliban and Al-Qaeda: How Are They Different?
The so-called Islamic State, al-Qaeda, and now the Taliban are violent jihadist organizations dedicated to ridding the globe of the threat that Western civilization poses to Islam, as they understand it. However, despite the fact that they have roughly similar ideologies, their viewpoints are vastly different — to the point that the three groups have frequently found themselves at odds with one another. And, despite the fact that the Islamic State has dominated the news coverage in recent months, both al-Qaeda and the Taliban are still very much active in the region.
Al-Qaeda adheres to Wahhabism, a radical version of Sunni Islam that relies on a literal reading of the Koran as the source of all authority. Al-Qaeda was formed in 1988 in Pakistan by Osama Bin Laden and Mohammad Atif, only a few months before Soviet soldiers departed from the country’s neighbor, Afghanistan. Al-Qaeda is an Arabic word that meaning “foundation,” and they think that they must utilize Jihad to mobilize their particular interpretation of Islam. According to them, the idea of ‘defensive jihad,’ which means that it is every Muslim’s responsibility to combat those who are perceived as being hostile to Islam, holds true.
The group considered the West and its culture to be a danger to Islam, and its primary purpose was to establish an Islamic state based on Sharia law in the Middle East.
Afghanistan — The entire world is watching as the Taliban makes its way into Kabul.
The Taliban are distinct from al-Qaeda in that much of its ideals are derived from the traditional Pashtun tribal way of life in Afghanistan, despite the fact that both adhere to Sunni Islam and practice branches of it. The organization rose to prominence in Afghanistan in the fall of 1994, and it ruled the nation for five years, from 1996 to 2001, until being defeated by the Soviet Union. Although Taliban is an Arabic word that literally translates as “student,” it is usually assumed that the group originated in religious institutions that advocated a stringent variant of Sunni Islam.
The organization, on the other hand, imposes highly harsh restrictions on its inhabitants, which they must abide by.
Contrary to common assumption, there is no one ‘Taliban,’ but rather a number of separate organizations.
It was this organization that attempted to assassinate Malala Yousafzai because she was attending school under the gang’s control.
Watch: ‘We will destroy your house,’ the Taliban threatens former UK military personnel who were unable to flee Afghanistan.
So-Called Islamic State
Several Taliban officers resigned and swore allegiance to IS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi in 2014, only weeks after the city of Mosul was conquered, allowing the so-called Islamic State to become firmly entrenched. They were largely Taliban commanders who had grown disgruntled with the leadership of Mullah Mohammed Omar, who was in charge of the organization at the time. Despite the fact that the Islamic State has been dominating the news for the past couple of years, the Taliban organizations have a far greater following.
Watch: The Islamic State is ‘driving’ the terror danger in the United Kingdom.
IS has also been able to harness the power of social media in a way that no other terrorist organization has been able to do before.
This has provided them with a significant edge when it comes to attracting potential recruits from other countries.
In addition to ISIS-K, a self-proclaimed branch of the so-called Islamic State (IS), with the ‘K’ in the name meaning for Khorasan – aiming to represent IS affiliates in Afghanistan and Pakistan – is a less well-known organisation named Boko Haram. Watch: Who is ISIS-K, and what do they do? Initially created in 2015 by Pakistani militants and disgruntled Taliban members, ISIS-K is a terrorist organization that operates in Afghanistan’s northern and eastern regions, particularly in and around Kabul, the country’s capital.
As the Taliban’s march across Afghanistan has resulted in the release of thousands of prisoners around the nation, the numbers of ISIS-K have grown.
ISIS Saudi branch: clear Arabian peninsula of Shi’ites
In addition to ISIS-K, a self-proclaimed branch of the so-called Islamic State (IS), with the ‘K’ in the name meaning for Khorasan – aiming to represent IS affiliates in Afghanistan and Pakistan – is a less well-known organisation named ISIS-K. Watch: Who is ISIS-K, and what is their mission? Initially created in 2015 by Pakistani militants and disgruntled Taliban members, ISIS-K is a terrorist organization that operates in Afghanistan’s northern and eastern regions, particularly in areas near to Kabul, the country’s capital.
The Taliban’s march across Afghanistan has resulted in the release of thousands of detainees, increasing the size of ISIS-ranks. K’s Image used as the cover: Taliban training camp as shown in an archival photograph (Picture: PA).