What Country Is Islam In? (Solved)

The most populous Muslim countries are Indonesia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India. The number of Muslims in Indonesia alone (175 million) exceeds the combined total in Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran, the traditional heartlands of Islam.

  • 26 predominantly Muslim countries have anchored Islam or a specific form of it in their constitution as a state religion. Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Brunei, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Maldives, Malaysia, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sahrawi Republic, Somalia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

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How many Islamic countries are there in the world?

Islam is the world’s second-largest religion A Muslim-majority country is one in which more than 50% of the people are Muslims. There are currently approximately 50 Muslim-majority countries in the world, though the precise number differs slightly depending upon the source.

Is Islam in Europe or Asia?

Islam is the second-largest religion in Europe after Christianity.

What will be the largest religion in 2050?

By 2050, Christianity is expected to remain the majority religion in the United States (66.4%, down from 78.3% in 2010), and the number of Christians in absolute numbers is expected to grow from 243 million to 262 million.

Is Turkey an Islamic country?

Turkey is a secular country with a majority Muslim population. There are no formal statistics on the population’s religious affiliation. The Turkish Constitution officially recognises Sunni Islam, Christianity (some Catholic and Orthodox sects) and Judaism.

Which religion came first in the world?

Hinduism is the world’s oldest religion, according to many scholars, with roots and customs dating back more than 4,000 years. Today, with about 900 million followers, Hinduism is the third-largest religion behind Christianity and Islam.

What is the main religion in France?

Catholicism as a state religion Catholicism is the largest religion in France.

Who is beautiful religion in the world?

Islam -The Most Beautiful Religion.

How long will Islam last?

In more than 15 ahadith found in the Sahih of Imam Bukhari, Sunnan of Imam Abu Dawwud, Jamii of Imam Tirmidhi and others, the prophet (saws) said Islam has a specific lifespan on earth, these Ahadith state Allah gave Islam 1500 years then relatively soon after this He would establish the Hour, we are now in the year

Which country has the most Muslims?

The largest Muslim population in a country is in Indonesia, a country home to 12.7% of the world’s Muslims, followed by Pakistan (11.1%), India (10.9%) and Bangladesh (9.2%). About 20% of Muslims live in the Arab world.

Which is the correct religion?

Originally Answered: Which religion is correct? Islam is the truth. It is the only correct religion. All other religions (except atheism) invite a person to worship a ‘creation’ which is not worthy of worship!

Who is the founder of Islam?

The rise of Islam is intrinsically linked with the Prophet Muhammad, believed by Muslims to be the last in a long line of prophets that includes Moses and Jesus.

Muslim Majority Countries 2021

Those who adhere to the Islamic faith are called Muslims. Islam is an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion that originated in the 7th century A.D., while its origins are thought to have been traced back far deeper in history. Muslims believe that Islam was founded at the city of Mecca, which is located in modern-day Saudi Arabia. North and Central Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia are home to the vast majority of Muslims.

Islam is the world’s second-largest religion

More than 1.9 billion Muslims live on the face of the planet. Islam is also the religion with the fastest growth rate in the world. In terms of religious affiliation, the Islamic population is mostly divided between 1.5 billion Sunni Muslims and 240-340 million Shia Muslims, with the remaining dispersed among a handful of minor denominations. Generally speaking, a Muslim-majority country is one where Muslims constitute more than half of the population. There are around 50 Muslim-majority nations in the globe at the present time, while the exact figure varies significantly depending on which source is used to calculate it.

The first factor to consider is the age of the estimate, which is important because the Muslim population in each country tends to expand with time, increasing the overall proportion of Muslims in the country over time.

According to the Pew Research Center, there were 50 Muslim-majority countries (including the territories of the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Mayotte, and Western Sahara) in the globe in 2010, however Nigeria has been added to the list for 2020, bringing the total to 51.

Also now absent from most lists of Muslim-majority nations, but potentially to be included in the near future is Eritrea, whose Muslim population has been reported to range between 36.6 percent and 51.6 percent, depending on the source.

Top 10 Countries with the Highest Percentage of Muslims – 2021:

  1. The Maldives scored a perfect 100 percent
  2. Mauritania scored 99.9 percent
  3. Somalia scored 99.8 percent (tie)
  4. Tunisia scored 99.99 percent (tie)
  5. Afghanistan scored 99.7 percent (tie)
  6. Algeria scored 99.7 percent (tie)
  7. Iran scored 99.4 percent
  8. Yemen scored 99.2 percent
  9. Morocco scored 99.3 percent
  10. Niger scored 98.3 percent
  11. And Nigeria scored 98.3 percent.

*Note: The disputed area of Western Sahara would have ranked eighth if it were not for the fact that it has not been recognized as a country by the United Nations. However, because it has not been recognized as a country, it was disqualified. Despite the fact that the nations listed above have the biggest concentrations of Muslim people, it is important to note that several larger countries have a greater total population of Muslims.

Top 10 Countries with the Most Muslims – 2021:

  1. In terms of population, Indonesia has 231,000,000 people
  2. Pakistan has 212,300,000
  3. India has 200,000,000
  4. Bangladesh has 153,700,000
  5. Nigeria has 95,000,000–103,000,000 people
  6. Egypt has 85,000,000–90,000,000 people
  7. Iran has 82,500,000 people
  8. Algeria has 41,240,913 people
  9. And Sudan has 39,585,777 people.

The Quran and fundamentals of Islam:

Muslims, Christians, Jews, and adherents of the Bahá’ religion all worship the same God, who is referred to as Allah in Islamic tradition. While Muslims recognize that spiritual leaders such as Adam, Moses, and Jesus were prophets, they believe that the prophet Muhammad, the creator of their faith, was sent by Allah to impart the ultimate teachings of the religion. It is these teachings that are written in the Quran (also known by the spellings Qur’an and Koran), Islam’s sacred scripture, which Muslims believe to be God’s exact words, which were revealed to Muhammud.

Sharia Law is a faith-based code of behavior that provides standards for practically every area of Muslim life. Muslims adhere to five fundamental pillars that are vital to their religious beliefs. The five pillars of Islam are what are known as the five precepts of Islam.

The Five Pillars of Islam:

  • Shahadah: One must say the shahadah, which declares one’s trust in God and confidence in Muhammad, before entering the mosque. Salat: One must pray five times every day: at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening, all while facing the Ka’bah, a mosque in Mecca
  • Salat is a Muslim term that means “five times” in Arabic. Zakat: It is necessary to contribute to those who are in need. The month of Ramadan is marked by fasting from sunrise until dusk. As a Muslim, one is required to perform a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once throughout his or her lifetime, if at all feasible.

Islamic Countries Of The World

More information may be found here. States with a Muslim majority include Islamic states (dark green), states in which Islam is the official religion (light green), secular states (blue), and other (orange), all of which are classified as Islamic.

The Muslim World

When we talk about Muslims, we may refer to three major parts of their lives: their religious beliefs, their culture and where they live geographically. This concept is also referred to as the Islamic World in other instances. On a religious level, Muslims, or persons who practice Islam, are referred to as members of the Muslim World. The phrase is used to refer to Islamic civilisation in a cultural context. Geographically, it refers to nations and other political territories where Muslims constitute the majority of the population, which is likely the most widely used definition.

  1. Its adherents are the world’s second biggest religious group after Muslims.
  2. Shia Islam and Sunni Islam are the two major sects of Islam.
  3. Only over 170 million people adhere to Shia, which is a smaller denomination.
  4. Furthermore, Muslim people are found in considerable numbers in China, Russia, India, and the Balkans.

Islamic States

An Islamic state is a political territory, generally a nation, that bases its administration, laws, and social values on Sharia law, which is the Islamic interpretation of the law. It is frequently referred to as a theocracy. The concept derives from the historical Caliphate, which encompassed provinces administered by religious leaders who were considered to be Muhammad’s successors in authority. The current political traditions of an Islamic state, such as the existence of a parliament or a President, are possible today.

Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Mauritania, and Yemen are the most important Islamic countries in the world.

In order to guarantee that all rules are in accordance with Sharia law, religious tribunals are formed.

Countries With Islam As State Religion

Other nations are not quite called Islamic states, despite the fact that Islam is the officially recognized state religion in such countries. All of these nations have Muslim majorities in their populations. Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Algeria, Malaysia, Maldives, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, Somalia, and Brunei are among the countries involved.

Islam is also recognized as the official religion of Libya. Libya is the most religiously diverse country in the Muslim world since it is home to 18 different religions that are also recognized as official state religions.

Neutral Muslim Majority Countries

However, despite the fact that Islam is the state religion, some countries are not fully termed Islamic states. The bulk of the people in these nations are Muslims as well. Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Algeria, Malaysia, Maldives, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, Somalia, and Brunei are among the countries that have signed the agreement. Islam is also regarded as a state religion in the country of Libya. Libya is the most religiously diverse country in the Muslim world since it is home to 18 different religions that are also officially recognized as state religions.

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Secular Muslim Majority Countries

Most people in secular Muslim majority nations identify as adherents of Islam, despite the fact that the bulk of the population is secular. The government, on the other hand, has established a strict separation of church and state. According to this proclamation, religion should not be allowed to meddle with or affect civic and political issues. Albania, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Chad, The Gambia, Guinea, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Mali, Northern Cyprus, Nigeria, Senegal, Syria, Lebanon, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, and Uzbekistan are among the countries on this list, as are Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Chad, The Gambia, Guinea, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyz

Islamic Countries In The World

Islamic States/Countries With Islam As State Religion % Of Population That Is Muslim
Afghanistan 99.8
Iran 99.7
Mauritania 100
Pakistan 96.4
Saudi Arabia 97.1
Yemen 99
Algeria 98.2
Egypt 90
Iraq 98.9
Jordan 93.8
Kuwait 74.1
Libya 96.6
Malaysia 61.4
Maldives 100
Morocco 99
Somalia 98.9
Tunisia 99.8
United Arab Emirates 76
Brunei Darussalam 67
Lebanon 59.7

PBS – Islam: Empire of Faith – Faith

Islam, followedby more than a billion people today, is the world’s fastest growing religionand will soon be the world’s largest. The 1.2 billion Muslims make upapproximately one quarter of the world’s population, and the Muslim populationof the United States now outnumbers that of Episcopalians. The most populousMuslim countries are Indonesia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India. The numberof Muslims in Indonesia alone (175 million) exceeds the combined totalin Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran, the traditional heartlandsof Islam. There are also substantial Muslim populations in Europe andNorth America, whether converts or immigrants who began arriving in largenumbers in the 1950s and 1960s. In keeping with tradition, the two mainbranches of Islam today are Sunniand Shiite.Beginning in the1970s and 1980s Islam remerged as a potent political force, associatedwith both reform and revolution. Given the large number of adherents,it is no surprise that Muslims incorporate a broad and diverse spectrumof positions in regard to liberalism and democracy. Some are secularistswho want to disengage religion from politics. Others are reformers, whoreinterpret Islamic traditions in support of elective forms of government.Still there are others who reject democracy entirely.

Islamic world

It is also known as Islamdom, the complex of communities and cultures in which Muslims and their faith have long been widespread and socially powerful, also known as the Islamic world. The practice of Islam is a worldwide phenomenon: Muslims predominate in approximately 30 to 40 countries, spanning the Atlantic Ocean east to the Pacific Ocean and along a belt that stretches from northern Africa into Central Asia and south to the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent. Muslims are the majority religion in the United States and Canada.

  • Although there are no large-scale Islamic governmental structures, the Islamic faith continues to grow, according to some estimations at a higher rate than any other major religion on the planet.
  • This quiz delves into the world of religions and civilizations, covering everything from temples to festivals.
  • The prophet Muhammad is discussed in detail in the article Islam.
  • Islam is also mentioned in entries about certain nations or areas in which the religion is a factor, such as Egypt, Iran, Arabia, and North Africa, among others.
  • To understand the history of today’s Islamic world, it is necessary to have a very broad viewpoint.

In general, the events discussed in this article are dated according to theGregorian calendar, and eras are designated asbce (before the Common Era or Christian Era) andce (Common Era or Christian Era), terms that are equivalent tobc (before Christ) andad (after Christ) in the Gregorian calendar respectively (Latin:anno Domini).

It is generally agreed that the Islamic period began with Muhammad’s journey (Hijrah) to Medina in 622CE, which corresponds to July 16, 622CE in the Gregorian calendar.

Muslim as an adjective defines elements of Islam as a religion, whereas Islamic as a noun discusses aspects of Islam’s believers.

The term “Islamicate” refers to the social and cultural complex that has historically been associated with Islam and Muslims, as well as the role and participation of non-Islamic and non-Muslim individuals and groups within that complex.

The term “Islamicate” is used to refer to the complex as a whole.

Prehistory (c.3000bce –500ce)

It is also known as Islamdom, the complex of communities and cultures in which Muslims and their faith have long been widespread and socially powerful, as well as the Islamic world. It is a worldwide phenomenon that people adhere to Islam: Moslems prevail in around 30 to 40 nations, spanning the Atlantic Ocean eastward to the Pacific Ocean and along an ethnically diverse belt that runs from northern Africa into Central Asia and south to northern areas of the Indian subcontinent, according to the United Nations.

  • Islamic faith continues to grow, according to some estimations at a quicker rate than any other major religion in the absence of large-scale Islamic political structures.
  • Considering yourself an expert on religion throughout the world, do you feel you know everything there is to know about it?
  • The Islamic faith and the life of the Prophet are both covered in this chapter.
  • The article Islamic arts discusses the literature, music, dance, and visual arts produced by Muslim peoples.
  • Visit particular branches or sects and concepts—for example, Islam, the Nation of; Sunni; Shiite; and Hadith—in the articles listed below.

A comprehensive picture of the stages by which successive Muslimcommunities, throughout Islam’s 14 centuries, encountered and incorporated new peoples in order to produce an international religion and civilization must be drawn using this approach, which must go beyond conventional political or dynastic divisions.

There are several instances where the Muslim reckoning of the Islamic period is utilized, as represented by the Arabic letter “ah” (Latin:anno Hegirae).

The phrases Islamic world and Islamdom will be used interchangeably in the following sections of this document.

Non-Islamic and non-Muslim persons and groups have had a role in the development of the word Islamicate, which refers to the social and cultural complex that has traditionally been associated with Islam and Muslims, as well as their function and involvement in that complex.

The rise of agrarian-based citied societies

The Arab coalition of the 7th century, which included sedentary and migratory groups from both inside and outside the Arabian Peninsula, seized political and fiscal control of western Asia, specifically the lands between the Nile and the Oxus (Amu Darya) rivers, territory that had previously been controlled by the Byzantines in the west and the Ssanianians in the east. In the 4th millennium BC, the rise of agrarian-based citied communities in western Asia signaled the beginning of a protracted period of consolidation of the variables that surrounded and controlled their accomplishment.

  • This sort of social structure opened the door to a whole new world of possibilities.
  • Some individuals were able to gain enough riches to patronize a wide range of arts and crafts by taking advantage of the physical labor of others; a few of these persons were able to build territorial monarchies and support religious organizations that had a broader appeal.
  • The new governing groups developed expertise in managing and integrating non-kin-related groups into their societies.
  • Several new institutions, like as money, territorial deities, royal priesthoods, and permanent armies, aided in the consolidation of their authority.
  • The religious beliefs of these new social entities mirrored and supported the new social circumstances in which they existed.
  • As indicated by the intricate funeral ceremonies of pharaonic Egypt, the link between worldly existence and the afterlife became increasingly complicated.
  • But large-scale organization had resulted in social and economic inequities that rulers and religions were able to confront but were unable to eliminate.

Many people believed that an absolute monarch who could unite a diverse range of ethnic, religious, and interest groups was their greatest hope for justice.

World Muslim population more widespread than you might think

“>The latest executive order issued by President Donald Trump According to estimates from a 2015 Pew Research Center report on the current and projected sizes of religious groups, temporarily freezing immigration from seven predominantly Islamic countries would have a minimal impact on the world’s Muslims, accounting for only about 12 percent of the world’s Muslims. In reality, no one of the seven nations included in the new immigration ban — Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen – is among the top ten countries with the greatest Muslim populations.

  • 1.6 billion Muslims lived in the globe in 2010, according to estimates, making Islam the world’s second-largest religious tradition behind Christianity in terms of population.
  • In reality, India and Pakistan have a combined Muslim population of 344 million people, which is higher than the whole Middle East-North Africa area (317 million).
  • Muslims constitute a majority of the population in 49 nations throughout the world, according to the United Nations.
  • India boasts the world’s second-largest Muslim population in terms of raw numbers (about 176 million people), despite the fact that Muslims account for just 14.4 percent of the country’s overall population.

Try our email course on Muslims and Islam

Every other day, four brief courses will be given to your mailbox to help you learn more about Muslims and Islam. Sign up right away! Counting Muslims and other religious groups around the world is accomplished through a variety of surveys, census reports, population registers, and other data sources. The goal is to count all groups and individuals who self-identify with a particular religion, which is accomplished through a variety of data sources. The information supplied here is current as of 2010.

  • The proportion of Muslims living in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to rise from 15.5 percent in 2010 to 24.3 percent by 2050.
  • Asia will continue to host the vast majority of Muslims, but with a reduced percentage of the total (52.8 percent ).
  • North America is home to about 0.2 percent of the world’s Muslim population.
  • This is an updated version of a post that was first published on June 7, 2013.

According to new projections, the Muslim population in the United States is continuing to expand. David Masci was a former senior writer/editor at the Pew Research Center who specialized on religion.

Islam

Islam, after Christianity, is the second most popular religion in the world, with around 1.8 billion Muslims practicing their faith globally. Despite the fact that Islam’s origins trace back far older, experts generally agree that it was founded in the 7th century, making it the most recent of the major global faiths. Islamic teachings were first taught at Mecca, which is now part of modern-day Saudi Arabia, during the prophet Muhammad’s lifetime. Today, the faith is expanding at an alarming rate around the world.

Islam Facts

  • The term “Islam” literally translates as “submission to God’s will.”
  • Muslims are those who adhere to Islam
  • Muslims are monotheistic and worship a single, all-knowing God, known in Arabic as Allah
  • Muslims are those who adhere to other religions. Islamic adherents strive to live lives of total surrender to Allah and His will. Despite their belief that nothing can happen without Allah’s approval, they acknowledge that humans possess free choice. Islamic teachings hold that Allah’s word was given to the prophet Muhammad by the angel Gabriel, and Muslims believe that other prophets were sent to teach Allah’s law throughout history. They hold several of the same prophets in high regard as Jews and Christians, including Abraham, Moses, Noah, and Jesus, among others. According to Muslims, Muhammad was the final prophet. Moschees are sites of religious prayer for Muslims. In addition to the Kaaba shrine in Mecca and the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem, some notable Islamic holy sites are the Prophet Muhammad’s mosque in Medina and the Kaaba in Mecca. The Quran (also known as the Koran) is the most important religious document in Islam. Another significant literature is the Hadith (also known as the Sunnah). Muslims also hold some passages from the Judeo-Christian Bible in high regard
  • Followers of Islam worship Allah via prayer and recitation of the Quran. It is their belief that there will be a day of judgment and that there is life after death. “Jihad,” which literally translates as “battle,” is a major concept in Islam. Despite the fact that the phrase has been used negatively in popular society, Muslims feel it refers to internal and outward attempts to protect their religious beliefs. Although uncommon, military jihad may be used in the event of a “just war” being declared.
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Muhammad

Muhammad, also known as Mohammed or Mohammad, was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, around 570 A.D., and is considered to be the founder of Islam. According to Muslims, he was the final prophet sent by God to proclaim their beliefs to the rest of the world. Islam’s sacred writings and traditions claim that an angel called Gabriel came to visit Muhammad during his meditation session in a cave in the year 610 AAD. Muhammad was instructed by the angel to repeat the words of Allah. Muslims believe that Muhammad continued to receive revelations from Allah for the rest of his life, despite his physical limitations.

He preached that there was only one God, Allah, and that Muslims should devote their lives to worshipping this one and only God.

Hijra

Muhammad and his supporters embarked on a journey from Mecca to Medina in 622. The Hijra (sometimes written Hegira or Hijrah) is a voyage that marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar and is commemorated on the Islamic calendar. A little more than seven years later, Muhammad and his throngs of followers returned to Mecca and completely subjugated the surrounding area. He preached until his death in 632, at the age of 84.

Abu Bakr

Following Muhammad’s death, Islam began to spread at an alarming rate. Following Muhammad’s death, a succession of leaders known as caliphs ascended to the throne. A caliphate was a system of leadership in which a Muslim monarch was in charge and was administered by a Muslim king. The first caliph was Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law and close friend, who reigned as the Prophet Muhammad’s successor. Caliph Umar, another father-in-law of Muhammad, ascended to the throne in 634 when Abu Bakr died around two years after he was chosen.

Caliphate System

The job of caliph was taken up by Uthman, Muhammad’s son-in-law, when Umar was slain six years after being proclaimed caliph. Uthman was assassinated as well, and Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, was chosen to be the caliph in his place. During the tenure of the first four caliphs, Arab Muslims conquered vast swaths of the Middle East, including Syria, Palestine, Iran, and Iraq, among other places. Islam also expanded throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia, as well as throughout the Middle East.

The caliphate system endured for decades and eventually gave rise to the Ottoman Empire, which ruled over significant areas of the Middle East from around 1517 until World War I brought the Ottoman Empire to an end on November 11, 1917.

Sunnis and Shiites

When Muhammad died, there was a heated controversy over who should take over as leader of the Muslim community. Due to this division among the Islamic community, two major sects emerged: the Sunnis and the Shiites. Sunnis constitute roughly 90 percent of all Muslims in the globe. They acknowledge that Muhammad’s first four caliphs were the legitimate successors to him. Muslims who follow the Shiite school of thought believe that only the caliph Ali and his descendants are legitimate heirs to Muhammad.

Shiite Muslims now have a significant presence in Iran, Iraq, and Syria, among other places.

Other Types of Islam

Other, minor Muslim denominations exist within the Sunni and Shiite communities, in addition to the larger ones. Some of these are as follows:

  • Wahhabi: This Sunni sect, which was created in Saudi Arabia in the 18th century by members of the Tameem clan, is a branch of Islam. Followers adhere to Muhammad ibn Abd al-exceedingly Wahhab’s stringent interpretation of Islam, which he taught them. Alawite: This Shiite branch of Islam is widely practiced in Syria. Followers of the caliph Ali retain similar views about him, but they also mark various Christian and Zoroastrian feasts, as well. Nation of Islam (also known as the Muslim Brotherhood): This Sunni sect with a majority of African-American members was created in Detroit, Michigan, in the 1930s. A disagreement over the method of selecting a new leader caused this group to split from the Shiites. They are well-known for their hardline fundamentalism, and they are now referred to as Ibadis.

Quran

The Holy Quran. Nazaruddin Abdul Hamed/EyeEm/Getty Images Nazaruddin Abdul Hamed For Muslims, the Quran (also known as the Koran or the Qur’an) is regarded to be the most significant sacred book in existence. In addition to certain essential material that can be found in the Hebrew Bible, it also contains revelations that were delivered to Muhammad. The text is regarded to be God’s sacred word, and it supersedes all prior works in this regard. The majority of Muslims believe that Muhammad’s scribes recorded his utterances, which were later compiled into the Quran.

It is divided into 114 chapters, which are referred to as surahs.

Why the Quran Was a Bestseller Among Christians in Eighteenth Century America.

Islamic Calendar

The Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijra calendar, is a lunar calendar used in Islamic religious devotion that is based on the lunar month of Ramadan. The calendar began in the year 622 A.D., commemorating Muhammad’s trip from Mecca to Medina, and has been in use ever since. According to the Islamic calendar, religious festivals and festivities are held on the appropriate days, including the month-long period of fasting and prayer known as Ramadan, which takes place during the ninth month of the calendar.

Islam Symbols

Just as there is no internationally acceptable image or symbol of Islam, there is no single image or symbol of Islam that is universally approved by all Muslims worldwide. Despite the fact that the crescent moon and star picture is considered to have predated Islam and was first used as a sign of the Ottoman Empire, the crescent moon and star image has been embraced as a symbol of Islam in several mostly Muslim nations. In various other contexts, like as the International Red Cross and Red Crescenthumanitarian help movement, a red crescent signifies that Muslims are accepted and treated as such by their fellow citizens.

As a result, the color green is sometimes connected with Islam, as it was supposedly a favorite hue of Muhammad’s, and it is frequently depicted prominently on the flags of nations with a largely Muslim population.

Five Pillars of Islam

Muslims adhere to five fundamental pillars that are fundamental to their faith. These are some examples:

  • Declaring one’s trust in God and confidence in Muhammad is known as a Shahada. Salat: a five-times-a-day prayer (at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening) that includes the following: Zakat is a religious obligation to contribute to people in need. Sawm: to refrain from eating or drinking during Ramadan
  • It is obligatory for all Muslims to do the Hajj at least once throughout their lifetime (if they are physically able to do so).

Sharia Law

The legal system of Islam is referred to as Sharia Law. This faith-based code of behavior advises Muslims on how they should live their lives in practically every aspect of their lives, including marriage and family life. Men and women are required to dress modestly under Sharia law. It also includes recommendations for Muslim marriages as well as other moral concepts for Muslims. Those who break the rule are subjected to draconian penalties under Sharia law, which is well-known. In certain countries, for example, the punishment for stealing is amputating the offender’s hand.

Many Muslims, on the other hand, are opposed to such harsh measures.

Muslim Prayer

Building the first mosque in Medina is attributed to the prophet Muhammad, who did it in the courtyard of his residence in Medina. Some of the precepts he established in 622 A.D. continue to be followed by mosques today. A mosque’s big open area or outdoor courtyard is frequently used for Muslim prayer. When praying in a mosque, a mihrab is a decorative feature or niche that symbolizes the direction to Mecca and, consequently, the direction to face when praying. Separate prayers are offered for men and women, and Muslims are permitted to attend a mosque five times a day for each of the five prayer periods.

Muslim Holidays

The two most important Muslim festivals are as follows: The festival of Eid al-Adha commemorates the Prophet Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son in the service of Allah. Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting, comes to a conclusion on Eid al-Fitr, the feast of the harvest. Muslims also observe other religious festivals, such as the Islamic New Year and the birth of Muhammad, among others.

Islam Today

Recently, Islam’s alleged relationship with terrorism and mass murder has provoked heated political controversy in a number of nations, particularly in the Middle East. Radical Islam” has become a well-known moniker to define the religion’s association with acts of violence, despite its use being contentious at the time. Surveys recently conducted have revealed that in nations with large Muslim populations, the vast majority of Muslims hold highly unfavorable attitudes about terrorist organizations such as ISIS.

Islam is currently the fastest-growing religion in the world.

Sources

Islam,BBC. Islam is the second most popular religion in the world. Religious Tolerance is increasing in number. Islam in a Nutshell, CNN. The Fundamentals of Islam, and PBS. What is Sharia Law, and how does it work in practice? BBC. ISIS is reviled in countries with large Muslim populations, and this is especially true in Europe.

Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan research organization. The Religion Library’s Islam Rituals and Worship: Symbolism section has further information. The Islamic Calendar is available at TimeandDate.com.

Understanding Sharia: The Intersection of Islam and the Law

Muslim-majority nations in the globe, numbering about fifty in total, have laws that make reference to sharia, the religious instruction Muslims believe God granted them on a variety of spiritual and earthly subjects. Certain laws in some of these countries mandate what opponents term severe criminal punishments, while others impose disproportionate limitations on the lives of women and minorities, according to the UN Human Rights Council. There is, however, a tremendous deal of variation in how governments interpret and apply sharia, and people frequently misinterpret the role that it plays in legal systems and in the lives of ordinary people.

What is sharia?

More From Our Subject Matter Experts In Arabic, the term sharia refers to “the proper road.” In Islam, it refers to the divine guidance that Muslims must follow in order to live moral lives and grow in their relationship with God. Sharia is taken from two primary sources: the Quran, which is regarded to be God’s direct word, and hadith, which are thousands of sayings and practices attributed to the Prophet Mohammed and which collectively comprise the Sunna (the teachings of Mohammed). Some of the stories and narratives included in these texts were derived from those found in Judaism and Christianity, the other two major Abrahamic religions, while others were developed independently.

  • Sharia, on the other hand, is mostly comprised on the interpretative tradition of Muslim academics.
  • In the centuries after his death in the seventh century, and as the Islamic empire extended outward from Mecca and Medina, where he lived and died, in modern-day Saudi Arabia, the process of interpreting sharia, known asfiqh, evolved over hundreds of years.
  • Muslims believe that sharia refers to the ideal, unchangeable principles that can only be comprehended by God, and that Islamic laws are those that are founded on interpretations of sharia (Islamic values).
  • While modern Islamic seminaries have standardized the degree of expertise and the period of study required to qualify as a jurist, Khaled Abou El Fadl, an Islamic jurist and law professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, asserts that neither of these standards has been achieved.
  • The perspective of Abou El Fadl is that “on each legal subject, there are 10 diverse opinions.” “There are 10 diverse points of view on each given legal matter.” Khaled Abou El Fadl, Muslim jurist and professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, is a scholar of Islamic law.
  • The Islamic law system also serves as the foundation for legal opinions known as fatwas, which are given by Muslim scholars in response to requests from individual Muslims or from governments seeking guidance on a particular topic.

When it comes to Sunni Islam, fatwas are merely advisory; when it comes to Shiite Islam, practitioners are compelled to abide by the fatwas of the religious leader of their choosing. More From Our Subject Matter Experts

Why is it so controversial?

Islamic law, or Sharia, is a source of disagreement among Muslims and non-Muslims. One of the many reasons why sharia is controversial is that it is frequently compared with current legal systems in mostly secular nations, which is one of the many reasons why it is controversial. Abou El Fadl claims that when sharia is contrasted to premodern legal systems, “there isn’t anything that is contentious about it.” Sharia can also be viewed as problematic, depending on who is doing the interpreting of the Islamic law.

  1. Debates over sharia tend to revolve on a few specific issues: More information on the Middle East and North Africa IslamReligion Observance of the Rule of Law Corporal punishment is a type of punishment.
  2. Thehududpunishments, which include stoning, whipping, and amputation, are among the most heinous.
  3. However, because implementing such sanctions necessitates passing stringent evidential requirements, experts believe they are primarily intended to act as a deterrent rather than to have a punitive effect when they are implemented.
  4. Local and international outrage frequently dissuades authorities from enforcing such penalties in their entirety.
  5. Additionally, when the Taliban governed Afghanistan in the 1990s, they instituted public executions and amputations, and they have stated that same penalties will be reinstated under their new government in Afghanistan.
  6. Many non-Muslims believe that this phrase, which literally means “to strive,” exclusively alludes to a military fight between Muslim fanatics and non-Muslims.
  7. The endeavor to attain a moral goal, as defined by sharia, can take many forms.
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Tolerance for different religious beliefs.

As explained by scholars, premodern prohibitions enforced to non-Muslim minorities in Muslim countries, which were reinforced by specific hadiths subsequently included in the Muslim canon and which demand the death sentence for Muslims who commit apostasy, are at the root of this intolerance.

Aside from that, religious minorities in some Muslim nations have less rights under modern legislation and are subjected to various forms of discrimination.

As well as totalitarian nations, several countries that profess to provide religious freedom under their constitutions do not do so in practice (and routinely deny their citizens rights regardless of their faith).

However, despite the fact that experts agree that sharia does not prescribe a certain type of governance, it is utilized by various organizations to argue both against and in support of democracy.

Another school of thought holds that democracy has its roots in the Quran, which encourages “mutual consultation” among the people (42:38 Quran).

Islamist parties that are moderate in their outlook, such as Tunisia’s Ennahda Movement party, advocate for democracy as the ideal form of administration.

Women’s rights are important.

There is special sharia instruction that pertains to women, and some governments employ Islamic law to drastically restrict women’s rights, controlling how they dress and excluding them from or separating them in certain locations, for example.

Some Afghans and Western observers are concerned that Afghan women may be subjected to similar restrictions under the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

Several other regulations hinder women from starting divorce or marriage on their own, which contributes to child marriages and gender-based violence in society.

The rights of LGBTQ+ people.

In the most severe case, same-sex activity is punishable by death under Islamic law in 10 nations, including the United Kingdom. In other places, it is frequently severely penalized, as is the case in some more conservative Christian-majority countries such as the United Kingdom.

How much room is there for reform?

According to certain Muslim scholars, the Islamic concept oftajdidallows for the modification or elimination of acts that are prohibited by sharia. The notion of renewal is one that suggests that Islamic communities should be reformatted on a regular basis in order to maintain their purity. Others, on the other hand, believe that the kind of Islam that was practiced in the seventh century was the purest form of Islam. Furthermore, there is great disagreement about what activities are sanctioned by the Quran vs those that are derived from local customs.

Other researchers use this idea in a broader context: At Harvard University’s Intisar Rabb Center for Islamic Law, “the fact is that Islamic principles or Islamic laws may accommodate many things, therefore there is actually very little that Islamic law mandates or prescribes,” says Rabb, who is also a professor of Islamic law.

  • Dr.
  • Modern governments have been known to amend laws that were formerly deemed to be Islamic in nature.
  • “However, if it’s genuinely Islamic, why shouldn’t this change?
  • “It’s simply another example of how many of the laws that are referred to as Islamic are actually local, culturally inflected choices that have been given an Islamic gloss,” says the author.

How do governments in the Muslim world interpret and enforce sharia?

Most Muslim-majority nations have some form of sharia-based legislation, which often governs areas such as marriage and divorce, inheritance, and child custody and visitation arrangements. Only a few of Muslim nations, either in part or in full, apply sharia to their criminal laws. Governments tend to favor one of the major schools of Islamic law, known as madhhabs, over the others, despite the fact that individual Muslims do not normally adhere to a particular school in their daily life. Founded by different scholars, each school is named for the scholar who established it, and they differ in their approaches to interpreting Islamic law:

  • The Hanafischool is often considered as the most liberal and analytically oriented of the Islamic schools. It is favored by Sunnis in the Balkans, the Caucasus, Central Asia, China, Egypt, India, Pakistan, Turkey, and large parts of the Arab world
  • The Hanbalischool, Islam’s most conservative and focused on select texts, spawned the Wahhabi and Salafi branches of the movement, which are still popular today. This school is supported by Saudi Arabia and the Taliban
  • The Jafarischool, the largest Shiite madhhab, is chosen by Shia-majority Iran, Iraq, sections of Lebanon and South Asia, and eastern Saudi Arabia. In it, the fatwas of early jurists are given significant weight, and reason is given precedence over analogy
  • The Malikischool predominates in North and Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as areas of the Arab Gulf. As the sole school of thought that recognizes the consensus of the people of seventh-century Medina as a source of law, it is popular in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Yemen, and other parts of the Middle East. In this school, the sources of Islamic law were organized in descending order of authority, with the Quran ranked first, followed by the Sunna, the consensus of Muslim scholars, and analogy
  • It was the first school to organize sources of Islamic law in descending order of authority, with the Quran ranked first, followed by the consensus of Muslim scholars, and analogy

European-style law also had an impact on legal systems in Muslim nations, like Iran and Saudi Arabia, who both profess to solely follow Islamic law as their primary source of guidance. This is due in part to the consequences of colonialism, the necessity of economic modernity, and the fact that many of the elite who constructed the legal systems in Muslim-majority nations had their education in Western institutions of higher learning, among other factors. Political systems tend to include sharia-based rules in three ways, depending on who you ask.

  • In certain Muslim-majority nations, such as Malaysia and Nigeria, the government maintains a secular legal system, but Muslims have the option of bringing some disputes before Islamic tribunals.
  • God is the head of state.
  • Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia are examples of the latter.
  • Muslims are not required to follow sharia law, and non-Muslims are subject to the authority of special government committees and auxiliary courts in the majority of nations.
  • Muslims living in secular governments include Azerbaijan, Chad, Senegal, Somalia, Tajikistan, and Turkey, all of which are Muslim-majority countries.

Despite this, Islamist political parties continue to vie for government and occasionally gain control in these nations. One such example is Turkey’s ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP), which is currently in power.

How do extremist groups interpret sharia?

a curated collection of unique analysis, data visualizations, and opinions that look at the debates and initiatives to improve health around the world Weekly. With the submission of your email address and the pressing of the subscribe button, you consent to receive information from CFR about our goods and services, as well as invites to CFR events. By using this website, you are also consenting to our Privacy Policyand Terms of Service. Islamist terrorist organizations are well-known for adopting puritanical interpretations of the Islamic law.

Such groups rely on violence and terrorism to advance their radical interpretations of Islamic law, to create and grow their authority, and to punish anyone who disagree with their viewpoint.

Leaders of such organizations frequently lack formal expertise in the interpretation of Islamic law.

“They are more concerned with power than they are with interpretation or with law as a sophisticated subject or area of knowledge,” Rabb explains further.

How do Muslim-minority countries approach sharia?

In some cases, some governments delegate authority to independent religious authorities to implement and adjudicate the laws of their respective faiths. According to the Islamic law of marriage, divorce, and inheritance, the United Kingdom (UK) authorizes Islamic tribunals to issue legally binding judgements provided both parties agree. Similar processes are in place for the Jewish and Anglican communities, respectively. In Israel, Christians, Jews, and Muslims, as well as adherents of a few other religions, can arbitrate family law cases in religious courts, which are separate from the civil courts.

As an alternative, policymakers in several Muslim-majority nations aim to prevent sharia from having an impact on national law or practice.

The wearing of veils or headscarves is prohibited in certain countries, such as France, where secularism is seen as an important component of the national identity and visible religious symbols are prohibited in specific public places.

Proponents of such legislation argue that they advance women’s empowerment and societal peace, while detractors argue that they violate individual liberties and unfairly target Muslims.

Countries With The Largest Muslim Populations

Muslims account for 1.8 billion people globally in 2015, accounting for 24 percent of the world’s total population. Sunnis constitute an overwhelming majority (87-90 percent) of Muslims, with Shi’a Muslims accounting for around 10-13 percent of the population. The nations with the greatest Muslim populations are all in South and Southeast Asia or sub-Saharan Africa, rather than in the Middle East, according to the World Population Prospects. Indian Islam is a minority religion (representing 15 percent of the country’s population), whereas Hinduism is the majority faith in the country, which boasts the world’s second-largest Muslim community.

2015 Muslim Population % of Country that is Muslim % of World’s Muslim Population
1 Indonesia 219,960,000 87% 13%
2 India 194,810,000 15% 11%
3 Pakistan 184,000,000 96% 11%
4 Bangladesh 144,020,000 91% 8%
5 Nigeria 90,020,000 50% 5%
6 Egypt 83,870,000 95% 5%
7 Iran 77,650,000 100% 4%
8 Turkey 75,460,000 98% 4%
9 Algeria 37,210,000 98% 2%
10 Iraq 36,200,000 99% 2%
Subtotal 1,143,200,000 65%
Subtotal Rest of the World 609,420,000 35%
World Total 1,752,620,000 100%

It is well known that Muslim population estimates are frequently incorrect. Muslims come from a diverse spectrum of ancestries, including Asian, African, and Middle Eastern, and they all adhere to a variety of religious and political beliefs and practices. Pew Research Center is the source of this information.

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