What Impact Did The Caliphs Have On The Spread Of Islam? (Solution found)

What impact did the caliphs have on the spread of Islam? The caliphs’ rule kept Islam limited to the Arabian Peninsula. The clans’ conflict over the caliphs’ control restricted the growth of Islam. Caliphs came and went too quickly to have any significant impact on Islam.

How did the caliphs spread the religion of Islam?

The expansion of the Arab Empire in the years following the Prophet Muhammad’s death led to the creation of caliphates occupying a vast geographical area. Conversion to Islam was boosted by missionary activities, particularly those of Imams, who easily intermingled with local populace to propagate religious teachings.

Did caliphs help spread Islam?

The Caliphate was governed by The Righteous Caliphs, or spiritual leaders. By 644, these four leaders helped Islam spread and grow far and beyond the Middle East through conquests of major cities like Baghdad, Jerusalem, and Alexandria.

What was the importance of the caliphs?

At the beginning, the caliphate was an important religious office as Muslims tried to continue to follow the “straight path,” or sharia, after the death of Muhammad. The caliph had religious credibility because he was elected by the faithful, and his precedents would prove critical to the future of Islam.

What did the caliphs spread?

These early caliphates, coupled with Muslim economics and trading, the Islamic Golden Age, and the age of the Islamic gunpowder empires, resulted in Islam’s spread outwards from Mecca towards the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans and the creation of the Muslim world.

How did Islam spread so quickly essay?

Islam spread quickly because of the military. During this time, on numerous accounts there were military raids. Trade and conflict were also apparent between different empires, all of which resulted in the spreading of Islam. According to document C, Mecca had been taken under Muslim rule between 622-632.

How did the spread of Islam help spread the Arabic language?

The primary way in which Islam helped to spread Arabic culture was to make Arabic the everyday language of the people in the lands to which it spread.

How did trade help Islam spread?

The expanse of Islamic trade had a direct result on the spread of the Islam religion. Traders brought their religion to West Africa where Islam quickly spread throughout the region. Areas in the far east such as Malaysia and Indonesia also became Muslim through traders and Islamic Sufis.

How did Sufism help spread Islam?

By educating the masses and deepening the spiritual concerns of the Muslims, Sufism has played an important role in the formation of Muslim society. Through the poetry of these literatures, mystical ideas spread widely among the Muslims. In some countries Sufi leaders were also active politically.

Why did Islam spread so quickly quizlet?

Islam spread quickly because its leaders conquered surrounding territories. As Muhammad and the Muslim leaders that came after him conquered lands in the Middle East and beyond they spread the teachings of Islam. Islam spread quickly because its leaders treated newly conquered people well.

What happened to the Caliphate?

The Ottoman Caliphate, the world’s last widely recognized caliphate, was abolished on 3 March 1924 (27 Rajab 1342 AH) by decree of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The process was one of Atatürk’s Reforms following the replacement of the Ottoman Empire with the Republic of Turkey.

Where did Islam spread to during the reign of the first four caliphs?

During the Rashidun caliphates, Arab Muslim forces expanded outward beyond the Arabian peninsula and into the territories of the neighboring Byzantine and Sasanian Empires.

What was one effect of the expansion of Islam?

What was one effect of the expansion of Islam between 632 and 750? Cultural and commercial connections were established over a sizable region.

How did Muhammad influence the world?

The religious, social, and political tenets that Muhammad established with the Quran became the foundation of Islam and the Muslim world. In his later years in Medina, Muhammad unified the different tribes of Arabia under Islam and carried out social and religious reforms.

How did Islam spread in Central Asia?

Arrival of Islam and Medieval period The Battle of Talas in 751 between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang dynasty for control of Central Asia was the turning point, initiating mass conversion into Islam in the region. Most of the Turkic khanates converted to Islam in the 10th century.

Spread of Islam

  • Describe how Islam expanded throughout the world and how caliphs maintained control over conquered countries.

Key Points

  • Because of the rise of the Arab Empire in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphates were established, who ruled over enormous areas of territory while seeking converts to Islam. A large number of complex centers of culture and science were established by the inhabitants of the Islamic world, who developed extensive commercial networks, traveled, became scientists and hunters, became physicians and philosophers, and developed advanced mathematical and medical theories. Historians distinguish between two distinct groups of converts who lived at the same period. The first group consists of animists and polytheists from tribal communities in the Arabian Peninsula and the Fertile Crescent, while the second group consists of monotheistic inhabitants from agrarian and urbanized societies in the Middle East. The Arab conquerors generally adhered to the traditional middle-Eastern pattern of religious pluralism in their dealings with the conquered populations, allowing other faiths to practice freely in Arab territory, despite the fact that widespread conversions to Islam occurred as a result of the breakdown of historically religiously organized societies.

Terms

A position of Islamic leadership, most typically found in the context of a mosque’s worship leader and the Sunni Muslim community as a whole.

Zoroastrianism

Zoroaster condensed the pantheon of early Iranian gods into two opposing forces, which led to the emergence of an ancient Iranian religion and religious philosophy in the eastern ancient Persian Empire when the religious philosopher Zoroaster wrote his religious philosophy. Because of the development of the Arab Empire in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphates were established over a broad geographic region. A major factor in the rise of Islam was the missionary operations of missionaries, notably those of Imams, who were able to readily intermingle with the local population in order to spread Islamic teachings.

Islam spread outwards from Mecca towards both the Atlantic and Pacific seas.

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The establishment of Muslim dynasties was swift, and subsequent empires such as those of the Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids, Seljukids, and Ajurans, Adal and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in India, Safavids in Persia, and Ottomans in Anatolia were among the largest and most powerful empires in history.

  • In the wake of Islamic expansion in South and East Asia, Muslim cultures in the Indian subcontinent, Malaysia, Indonesia, and China developed into cosmopolitan and eclectic melting pots.
  • In actuality, little has changed for the people of this new kingdom, who were originally subjects of the drastically diminished Byzantine and annihilated Sassanid empires, save in name.
  • As a result, it was only in the following centuries that there was a true Islamization.
  • The first group consists of animists and polytheists from tribal communities in the Arabian Peninsula and the Fertile Crescent, while the second group consists of monotheistic inhabitants from agrarian and urbanized societies in the Middle East.
  • In contrast, “Islam was replaced for a Byzantine or Sassanian political identity as well as for a Christian, Jewish, or Zoroastrian religious allegiance” in sedentary and frequently already monotheistic communities, according to the authors.
  • When the religious and political leadership came to a new understanding, it resulted in the weakening or complete collapse of the social and religious institutions of rival religious communities such as Christians and Jews.
  • Expansion halted under the reign of the Abbasid Caliphate, and the major disciplines of Islamic philosophy, theology, law, and mysticism gained in popularity, as did the gradual conversion of the inhabitants inside the empire.
  • There were three routes across Africa: over the Sahara via trading centres such as Timbuktu, up the Nile Valley through Sudan and Uganda, and down East Africa via colonies such as Mombasa and Zanzibar.

Following a general pattern of nomadic conquests of settled regions, the Arab-Muslim conquests of Europe followed a similar pattern in which conquering peoples became the new military elite and reached a compromise with the old elites by allowing them to retain their local political, religious, and financial authority.

  • With its foundation in 670 CE by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba Ibn Nafi, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the oldest mosque in western Islamic countries and serves as an architectural icon of the expansion of Islam in North Africa.
  • The Arab conquerors did not make the same error as the Byzantine and Sasanian empires, who had attempted and failed to impose an official religion on subject populations, resulting in hostility that made the Muslim conquests more palatable to the conquered peoples.
  • Religious tolerance typified the early caliphate after military operations, which included the looting of several monasteries and the confiscation of Zoroastrian fire temples in Syria and Iraq, and people of all nationalities and religions were able to mingle in public life.
  • In Iraq and Egypt, Muslim rulers worked in partnership with Christian religious leaders to achieve their goals.
  • Some non-Muslim communities, on the other hand, were subjected to persecution.
  • Zoroastrians were forced to pay an additional tax known as Jizya, and if they failed to do so, they were slaughtered, enslaved, or imprisoned as a result.

Jizya payers were exposed to insults and humiliation by the tax collectors, who demanded they pay the levy. In exchange for converting to Islam, Zoroastrians who had been kidnapped as slaves in battles were granted their freedom.

Caliphate

It is an ancient Iranian religion and religious philosophy that developed in the eastern old Persian Empire when the religious scholar Zoroaster reduced the pantheon of early Iranian gods into two opposing forces. It is also known as the Iranian religion and religious philosophy. Because of the development of the Arab Empire in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphates were established throughout a wide geographic region. A major factor in the rise of Islam was the missionary operations of missionaries, notably those of Imams, who were able to readily intermingle with the local community in order to spread Islamic doctrine.

International trade had a crucial role in the development of Islam around the world, particularly in Southeast Asia.

In the Islamic world, numerous sophisticated centers of culture and science emerged, supported by extensive mercantile networks, travelers, scientists, hunters, mathematicians, doctors, and philosophers, all of whom contributed to the Golden Age of Islam by advancing their respective fields of expertise.

One of the most significant empires in global history was established within the first century after the introduction of Islam on the Arabian Peninsula, and the subsequent fast expansion of the Arab Empire during the Muslim conquests.

Because fertile land and water were in short supply on the Arabian Peninsula, the conquests had a purely utilitarian purpose rather than a political one.

Scholars have distinguished between two distinct groups of converts who lived during the historical period under consideration.

Aside from the religious and spiritual reasons that each individual may have had for converting to Islam, “conversion to Islam represented the response of a tribal, pastoral population to the need for a larger framework for political and economic integration, a more stable state, and a more imaginative and encompassing moral vision to cope with the problems of a tumultuous society,” according to the historian.

In contrast, “Islam was replaced for a Byzantine or Sassanian political identity as well as for a Christian, Jewish, or Zoroastrian religious allegiance” in sedentary and frequently already monotheistic communities, according to the author.

Large-scale conversions occurred only in later centuries, as a result of the growth of Islamic theological philosophy and, with it, the comprehension of the Muslim Ummah.

For example, with the weakening of many churches and the favoring of Islam, as well as with the migration of significant Muslim Turkish populations into countries such as Anatolia and the Balkans, the “social and cultural importance of Islam” was increased, and a great number of peoples were converted.

It is also important to note that significant conversions happened outside the boundaries of the empire, such as among the Turkic tribes of Central Asia and peoples who lived in regions south of the Sahara in Africa, as a result of interaction with Muslim traders working in the region and Sufi groups.

  1. The first adaptations were designed to be as adaptable as possible to changing circumstances.
  2. Members of the old and new elites collected taxes from peasants, laborers, and merchants, who paid them.
  3. It is located in Kairouan, Tunisia, and serves as an architectural icon of Islam’s conquest over North Africa.
  4. As a result, the rulers of the new empire often adhered to the existing middle-Eastern pattern of religious plurality, which was not one of equality but rather one of domination by one group over the others, rather than introducing new religious pluralism.
  5. For a long time before Muslims in Syria were ready to build mosques, they regarded Christian churches as sacred places and shared them with the local Christian population.
  6. During the Umayyad period, a large number of churches were renovated and new ones were erected.
  7. The Zoroastrian community was accorded dhimmi (non-Muslim) status after the Muslim conquest of Persia and subjected to persecution; discrimination and harassment began in the form of sporadic violence.

The tax collectors insulted and humiliated those who paid Jizya, and they were reprimanded. Converting to Islam earned the freedom of Zoroastrians who had been kidnapped as slaves during wartime.

Leadership after Muhammad

When a group of Muslim elders in Medina realized that they needed to name a successor to Muhammad as the political head of the Muslim community, they chose Ab Bakr, the Prophet’s father-in-law, to be the caliph (leader of the Muslims). While most Muslims believe that the Prophet himself gave no instructions regarding the selection of a successor after his death, a tiny minority—the ancestors of the party afterwards known as the Shiah—argued in favor of Al’s claims to the Caliphate. If we think that this early group backed Al because he was the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law, then we are living in an anachronistic time period.

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Rather than being primarily based on religious knowledge, the caliph’s power was primarily epistemic, that is, based on his superior understanding of both religious and worldly concerns.

When confronted with this assertion, followers of Al and his descendents underlined their lineal heritage from the Prophet’s family as a sign of their legitimate leadership claim.

Even though political upheaval, civil war, and assassination marred the reigns of the first four caliphs—Abdurrahman, Umar I, Uthmun, and Ali—the period was remembered by later generations of Muslims as a golden age of Islam, and the four caliphs were collectively known as the “rightly guided caliphs” because of their personal associations with Muhammad.

Syria, Jordan, Palestine, and Iraq were acquired in the 630s, Egypt was liberated from Byzantine authority in 645, and attacks into North Africa, Armenia, and Persia were conducted on a regular basis.

The Umayyads

The killing of Uthmun and the subsequent caliphate of Al, which was plagued by internal strife, triggered the first sectarian division in the Muslim world. A competitor of Al, Muwiyah I, a fellow member of Uthmn’sUmayyadclan, had wrested the caliphate from him by 661, and his rule founded theUmayyad dynasty, which lasted until 750. However, despite the fact that Muwiyah had a relatively prosperous reign, tribal and sectarian tensions emerged upon his death. Because of their worldly and affluent lifestyles, the Umayyads were seen by the majority of Muslims as just nominally Muslim at best.

  1. Following their reign, the term “kingship” (mulk) is used disparagingly to refer to it, in contrast to the caliphate, which was intended to be created on the basis of the ruler’s superior personal attributes and established via a process of consultation with the people.
  2. This is in contrast to the first two caliphs, in particular, who are claimed to have consciously avoided such a self-aggrandizing title.
  3. Abd al-Malik is well recognized for his work on the construction of theDome of the Rockin’Jerusalem.
  4. With the establishment of settlements in the Indus River basin, there was also progress in the east.

The Caliphate fell apart quickly after his death. In 747, a strong uprising against the Umayyads erupted, and at 750, the final Umayyad caliph, Marwen II, was defeated by the adherents of the Abbasid line in the Battle of the Great Zab, which took place in Iraq.

What impact did the caliphs have on the spread of Islam?

Was there a significant influence on the expansion of Islam due to the caliphs?

Caliphate Kingdoms:

Immediately following the prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphs had considerable influence across the ancient Islamic world. They are referred to as “successors” in Arabic, and their status and authority can be comparable to that of medieval European monarchs in terms of importance and authority.

Answer and Explanation:

Caliphs were in control of the ancient Islamic world in the immediate wake of the prophet Muhammad’s death. They are referred to as “successors” in Arabic, and their status and power might be comparable to that of medieval European kings.

Learn more about this topic:

In Chapter 6/Lesson 8, we learn about the spread of Islam and the progress of the Caliphates. The title of caliphate is given to the individuals who have been designated as Mohammed’s successors, and it carries with it a great deal of duty and power. Recognize the historical significance of the caliphate in the expansion of Islam throughout the Arab world, northern Africa, and the Asian subcontinent, among other places.

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“Coptic-Arabic inscriptions on the walls of Old Cairo, Egypt, captured in April 2005. “The passages in question are John 4:13 and 14” Photograph by Disdero, C.C.0, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons Similarly to what we discussed above in the section on Arabic’s effect, the growth of Islam necessitated the incorporation of Arabic into local cultural milieus. Soon after, learning Arabic became a means of gaining power in government, society, and economy. Essentially, this is a linguistic phenomena that occurs gradually over time and is influenced in part by the prestige of a particular language.

It has had a significant influence on culture and language as well.

In society, it gained prominence as a result of its role in education, government, commerce, and other fields, and it eventually gained acceptance as a mother tongue in people’s homes.

Key Concept: Prestige Language

A language’s popularity in a society may increase as a result of its prominence in areas such as education, administration, and commerce. As more and more individuals adopt it as their mother language, it is possible that this may gradually take root in people’s homes. This occurred in a large number of countries that converted to Islam (but not all). In the subject of sociolinguistics, this is a notion known as a neologism. Egypt, for example, was neither compelled to accept Arabic and Arab cultural customs, nor was Islam imposed on Egyptians by the first Arab inhabitants and rulers.

Speaking Arabic and engaging in Arab culture provided advantages; employment in government were feasible, more favorable laws were enacted, and overall access to better possibilities became available as a result of both speaking Arabic and/or converting to Islam, among other things.

The language is written in a style that is derived from Ancient Greek.

During the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, which spanned more than a thousand years before the arrival of Islamic control, Greek was considered the language of prestige.

Egypt’s colloquial Arabic reflects the cultural influences of the ancient Egyptian, Greek, Arab, Turkish, and Persian (Persian empires also reigned briefly in the region and were extremely important in the region as a whole) civilizations.

Early Islamic Expansion Under the First Four Caliphs

DieBuche, C.C.0’s “Expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate” is a work of fiction. 622-632, the dark/brown region represents the period of expansion under the Prophet Muhammad. The medium-orange region represents the period of expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate (the First Four Caliphs), which lasted from 632 to 661. The light/yellow region represents expansion under the Umayyad Caliphate, which lasted from 661 to 750.

Timeline

DieBuche, C.C.0’s “Expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate” is a work of fiction set in the Islamic world. 622-632, the dark/brown region represents the period of expansion under Prophet Muhammad. During the Rashidun, or “Rightly Guided” Caliphate (the First Four Caliphs), 632-661, the medium-orange region represents the extent of expansion. From 661 to 750, the Umayyad Caliphate (light/yellow region) saw rapid expansion.

What is a caliph? The Islamic State tries to boost its legitimacy by hijacking a historic institution

The Islamic State appointed Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi as its new “caliph” on October 27, just a few days after the death of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi on October 27. Following its conquest of large areas of Iraq and Syria in 2014, the Islamic State (IS) announced itself to be the “caliphate.” The essential notion of the caliphate, which has been defined and implemented in many ways throughout the centuries, is the right ordering of society according to the will of God, which has been defined and applied in various ways over the years.

The Islamic State, on the other hand, continues to utilize the history of the caliphate to support its claims.

Caliph conundrums

The head of a caliphate is referred to as the caliph, which is Arabic for “deputy” or “representative.” All caliphs are considered to be the spiritual heirs of Prophet Muhammad and his family. Although Muhammad was not a caliph, he was considered to be the last and greatest of the prophets, according to the Quran. That indicates that no one else can take Muhammad’s place as God’s messenger. For example, the caliph is not necessarily seen as possessing distinct spiritual power in his or her own right.

  1. The controversy regarding who was the prophet’s legitimate representative began almost immediately after his death, and has continued to this day.
  2. Muslims who think that Muhammad did not give specific instructions on his successor would come to be known as Sunni Muslims after Abu Bakr’s followers.
  3. Ali was the fourth caliph, after Abu Bakr, who was the first.
  4. Under Umar’s leadership, the caliphate extended to encompass various portions of the world, including the former territories of the Byzantine and Sassanian empires in Asia Minor, Persia, and Central Asia.
  5. It was no coincidence that al-Baghdadi chose the name of the first caliph for himself.

They are also thought to be exceedingly religious, according to popular belief. This time period lasted around 30 years.

The complex history of the caliphate

Ali was elected caliph in A.D. 656 following the assassination of Uthman by rebels. However, a civil war soon erupted between Ali and Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, who was Ali’s rival. The civil war culminated with Sufyan’s triumph and the establishment of the Umayyad caliphate in A.D. 661, marking the end of the Islamic period. The Umayyad dynasty reigned for a total of 89 years. The Abbasid dynasty was derived from Muhammad’s uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, and replaced the Umayyads as the ruling family of Islam throughout the world.

  • Architecture, the arts, and science all prospered throughout their reign.
  • The Abbasids provided financing for the construction of the Grand Library of Baghdad, commonly known as the “House of Wisdom.” The “House of Wisdom” is noted as being a center for translation, scientific research, and intellectual interaction, as well as a repository of knowledge.
  • In Jerusalem, there is a structure known as the Dome of the Rock.
  • These included the Mamluks of Cairo and the Umayyads of Cordoba, Spain, to name a few of examples.
  • The Ottoman sultans, on the other hand, were not widely acknowledged as caliphs.
  • Nonetheless, the Ottomans effectively hung on to that title until 1924, when the Turkish nationalist and secularist Kemal Ataturk overthrew the caliphate and established the modern state of Turkey.
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Resurrecting the caliphate?

While the Islamic State has aggressively marketed the concept of caliphate, the concept evokes a time and place when Islamic governments were prosperous in terms of politics, economics, and social well-being. It also conjures up a spiritual idea of a Muslim community that was apparently more devout and dedicated than the one that exists now. The re-establishment of the caliphate, or at least its ideas, has been advocated by several contemporary Islamists as a means of re-establishing the vitality of the past.

The death of al-Baghdadi has not brought the Islamic State’s notion of the caliphate to an end.

It is worth noting that the name of their new caliph is derived from an honorary title given to a member of Prophet Muhammad’s family – “al-Qurashi” – which means “son of the Prophet.” IS is attempting to resuscitate the history of the caliphate in order to further its destructive objectives through the use of this prophetic lineage.

History of the Early Islamic World for Kids: Caliphate

History Lessons for Children The Islamic World in the Early Period What is the Caliphate, and why is it important? It was known as the Caliphate in medieval times, and it was a Muslim authority that controlled the Islamic Empire during that time period. In ancient times, the Caliphate ruled over areas of Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe for a lengthy period of time. Much of the civilized world was impacted by its culture and trade, which contributed to the expansion of Islam as well as the introduction of advancements in science, education, and technology.

  1. The Caliphate was ruled by a monarch known as the “caliph,” which literally translates as “successor.” The caliph was widely regarded as Muhammad’s spiritual successor, and he served as both the religious and political leader of the Muslims throughout the world.
  2. The Caliphate was established upon Muhammad’s death in 632 CE.
  3. The Rashidun Caliphate is the name given today by historians to the first Caliphate.
  4. Rashidun is Arabic for “properly directed.” They were referred to be “rightly guided” since they were all companions of the Prophet Muhammad and received their instruction in Islamic law straight from Muhammad.
  5. Abu Bakr, Umar Ibn al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali ibn Abi Talib were the first four caliphs of Islam, and they were succeeded by Umar Ibn al-Khattab.
  • A period of fast expansion occurred under the administration of the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750 CE), during which time the Islamic Empire grew to cover most of northern Africa, western India, and Spain. At its height, it was one of the most powerful empires in the history of the world
  • Abbasid (750-1258 CE, 1261-1517 CE) – Abbasid Empire (750-1258 CE, 1261-1517 CE) – Abbasid Empire (750-1258 CE, 1261-1517 CE) – Abbasid Empire During the year 750 CE, the Umayyads were defeated and the Abbasid Caliphate was created by the Abbasids. The period of the Abbasids’ early rule was a period of great scientific and cultural success. It has been referred to as the Islamic Golden Age on several occasions. Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, was captured and ravaged by the Mongols in 1258, and the caliph was assassinated. Following this, the Abbasids relocated to Cairo, Egypt, and re-established the Caliphate under their rule. However, from this point on, the Caliphate had little political influence
  • The Ottoman Empire was in control (1517-1924) According to historical records, the Ottoman Caliphate began in 1517 CE when the Ottoman Empire seized control of Cairo, Egypt. The Ottomans maintained their claim to be the Islamic Caliphate until the Caliphate was dissolved by Mustafa Ataturk, the first President of Turkey, in 1924.

A period of fast expansion occurred under the administration of the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750 CE), during which time the Islamic Empire grew to encompass most of northern Africa, western India, and Spain. During the height of its power, it was one of the most powerful empires in the history of the globe; Abbasid (750-1258 CE, 1261-1517 CE) – Abbasid Empire (750-1258 CE, 1261-1517 CE) – Abbasid Empire (750-1258 CE, 1261-1517 CE) – During the year 750 CE, the Umayyads were defeated and the Abbasid Caliphate was created as a result of their victory.

Sometimes referred to as the Islamic Golden Age, it was a period of prosperity and prosperity for the Islamic world.

Following this, the Abbasids relocated to Cairo, Egypt, and re-established the Caliphate under their leadership.

The Ottomans continued to assert their claim to be the Islamic Caliphate until 1924, when the Caliphate was dissolved by Mustafa Ataturk, the first President of the Republic of Turkey.

  • During the Abbasid Caliphate, there were other Caliphs who claimed the Caliphate as well, including the Fatimid Caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba, and the Almohad Caliphate
  • Nonetheless, the Fatimid Caliphate was the most powerful. During the Umayyad Caliphate, the post of caliph became hereditary, establishing it as the first Islamic dynasty in history. The title “caliph” comes from the Arabic word “khalifah,” which means “ruler of the people.” One of the Caliph’s obligations was to safeguard the Islamic holy towns of Mecca and Medina, which he did admirably.

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More information about the early Islamic world may be found at: Works CitedHistory for Kids. The Islamic World in the Early Period

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