What Is Caliph In Islam? (Solution found)

The term “caliph” (khalifah in Arabic) is generally regarded to mean “successor of the prophet Muhammad,” while “caliphate” (khilafah in Arabic) denotes the office of the political leader of the Muslim community (ummah) or state, particularly during the period from 632 to 1258.

  • The caliphs were the early leaders of the Islamic religion and people, appointed after the death of Muhammad in 632 CE. Caliph, sometimes spelled Kalif, means representative or successor, and the caliphate is the early Islamic form of government under the caliph. Sometimes the term caliph is also related to Imam, or religious leader.

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Who are the 4 caliphs in Islam?

Rashidun, (Arabic: “Rightly Guided,” or “Perfect”), the first four caliphs of the Islamic community, known in Muslim history as the orthodox or patriarchal caliphs: Abū Bakr (reigned 632–634), ʿUmar (reigned 634–644), ʿUthmān (reigned 644–656), and ʿAlī (reigned 656–661).

How do Muslims choose a caliph?

Choosing a caliph in the case of the first four personalities (Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and ‘Ali) established three different methods: public election, designation by a previous caliph, and assigning a caliph by a council.

What is the role of the caliph?

The Caliph was first and foremost a political leader, not a religious leader as we would understand it. The Caliph’s role was in other areas, such as providing military leadership to protect Islam. Another was to uphold the Pact of ‘Umar.

Who was the richest Khalifa in Islam?

In his early life, Uthman learnt how to write and is listed as one of the 22 Meccans “at the dawn of Islam” who knew how to write. He became wealthy merchant like his father. His business flourished, making him one of the richest men among the Quraysh.

What does Shia believe in?

Shiites believe that only Allah, the God of the Islam faith, can select religious leaders, and that therefore, all successors must be direct descendants of Muhammad’s family. They maintain that Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, was the rightful heir to the leadership of the Islam religion after Muhammad’s death.

What does Shia mean in Islam?

Definition of Shia 1: the Muslims of the branch of Islam comprising sects believing in Ali and the Imams as the only rightful successors of Muhammad and in the concealment and messianic return of the last recognized Imam — compare sunni. 2: shiite. 3: the branch of Islam formed by the Shia.

Do Sunnis believe in Imams?

For Sunni Muslims, Imam is most commonly used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque. In this context, imams may lead Islamic worship services, serve as community leaders, and provide religious guidance. For Shia Muslims, the Imams are leaders of the Islamic community or ummah after the Prophet.

What is the difference between caliph and sultan?

The word “caliph” comes from the Arabic “khalifa” which means “succession”. The caliph is regarded as a successor to the Prophet Mohammed. The Sultanate, on the other hand, is a more secular form of government led by a political and military leader, the Sultan, whose powers are basically only in those two spheres.

Why did Sunni and Shia split?

The origin of Shia–Sunni relations can be traced back to a dispute over the succession to the Islamic prophet Muhammad as a caliph of the Islamic community.

Who collect the Quran?

The Quran was collected under the auspices of committee of four senior ranking Companions headed by Zayd ibn Thabit. This compilation was kept by the Caliph Abu Bakr, after his death by his successor, Caliph Umar, who on his deathbed gave them to Hafsa bint Umar, his daughter and one of Muhammad’s widows.

Who is the 3rd Khalifa?

`Uthman ibn `Affan (c. 579 – 17 July 656) was one of the companions of Islamic prophet, Muhammad. He played a major role in early Islamic history as the third Caliph. `Uthman was born into the Umayyad clan of Mecca, a powerful family of the Quraish tribe.

How many khilafat are in Islam?

Although the reigns of the first four caliphs —Abū Bakr, ʿUmar I, ʿUthmān, and ʿAlī—were marred by political upheaval, civil war, and assassination, the era was remembered by later generations of Muslims as a golden age of Islam, and the four caliphs were collectively known as the “rightly guided caliphs” because of

Caliphate

The Caliphate was a political-religious entity that encompassed the Muslim community as well as the regions and peoples that fell under its rule in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death (632CE). The empire of the Caliphate, ruled by acaliph (Arabickhalfah, “successor”), who exercised temporal and, on occasion, spiritual power, developed fast via conquest over its first two centuries, eventually encompassing much of Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Spain. It was only afterwards that the Caliphate began to disintegrate, and it was no longer a functional political structure when the Mongoldestruction ofBaghdadin 1258 brought it to an end.

There is more information on the titular office that heads a caliphate atcaliph; see alsoFimid dynasty andCaliphate of Córdoba for more historical instances of caliphates.

Leadership after Muhammad

When a group of Muslim elders in Medina realized that they needed to name a successor to Muhammad as the political head of the Muslim community, they chose Ab Bakr, the Prophet’s father-in-law, to be the caliph (leader of the Muslims). While most Muslims believe that the Prophet himself gave no instructions regarding the selection of a successor after his death, a tiny minority—the ancestors of the party afterwards known as the Shiah—argued in favor of Al’s claims to the Caliphate. If we think that this early group backed Al because he was the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law, then we are living in an anachronistic time period.

Rather than being primarily based on religious knowledge, the caliph’s power was primarily epistemic, that is, based on his superior understanding of both religious and worldly concerns.

When confronted with this assertion, followers of Al and his descendents underlined their lineal heritage from the Prophet’s family as a sign of their legitimate leadership claim.

Even though political upheaval, civil war, and assassination marred the reigns of the first four caliphs—Abdurrahman, Umar I, Uthmun, and Ali—the period was remembered by later generations of Muslims as a golden age of Islam, and the four caliphs were collectively known as the “rightly guided caliphs” because of their personal associations with Muhammad.

Syria, Jordan, Palestine, and Iraq were acquired in the 630s, Egypt was liberated from Byzantine authority in 645, and attacks into North Africa, Armenia, and Persia were conducted on a regular basis.

The Umayyads

When a group of Muslim elders in Medina realized that they needed to name a successor to Muhammad as the political head of the Muslim community, they chose Abbakr, the Prophet’s father-in-law, to be the caliph (leader of the Muslims). In the opinion of the vast majority of Muslims, the Prophet himself had given no instructions regarding the selection of a successor, while a tiny minority—the ancestors of the party eventually known as the Shi’ah—advocated for Al-claim Qaeda’s to the Caliphate.

Instead, according to the early literature, the legitimatecaliph was expected to have been a recent convert to Islam (this was referred to assbiqahin Arabic) and to possess a constellation of moral excellences (failin Arabic), such as truthfulness, generosity, courage, and, above all, knowledge of the Islamic faith and of the Arabic languages.

As time went on, particularly during the Umayyad period (661–750), there was an increasing emphasis on kinship to the Prophet as a criterion of legitimate leadership, most likely because the Umayyads wished to compensate for their lack ofsbiqah, having accepted Islam relatively late in the Prophet’s lifetime.

To their credit, by the tenth century, the orthodox Sunnimajority had also come to recognize the importance of kinship, recognizing that legitimate leadership was inherited by ancestry from the Quraysh, Muhammad’s natal clan, to whom the first four caliphs belonged.

With their righteous guidance, the caliphs were able to construct a strong administrative and judicial structure for the Muslim community, as well as oversee the conquest of new areas.

What is a caliph? The Islamic State tries to boost its legitimacy by hijacking a historic institution

The Islamic State appointed Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi as its new “caliph” on October 27, just a few days after the death of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi on October 27. Following its conquest of large areas of Iraq and Syria in 2014, the Islamic State (IS) announced itself to be the “caliphate.” The essential notion of the caliphate, which has been defined and implemented in many ways throughout the centuries, is the right ordering of society according to the will of God, which has been defined and applied in various ways over the years.

The Islamic State, on the other hand, continues to utilize the history of the caliphate to support its claims. When I teach my “Introduction to Islam” class, as a scholar of global Islam, issues regarding the caliphate come up every time, in part because of the claims made by the Islamic State.

Caliph conundrums

The head of a caliphate is referred to as the caliph, which is Arabic for “deputy” or “representative.” All caliphs are thought to be the successor of Prophet Muhammad. Although Muhammad was not a caliph, he was considered to be the last and greatest of the prophets, according to the Quran. That indicates that no one else can take Muhammad’s place as God’s messenger. The caliph, for example, is not necessarily considered as bearing particular spiritual power. However, he is supposed to preside over the caliphate in the absence of Muhammad, which is why he was chosen.

  1. The majority of Muslims backed Abu Bakr, one of the prophet’s closest associates, while the minority supported his young son-in-law and cousin, Ali, who was born in the same year.
  2. Those who thought Ali was designated by the prophet to be the political and spiritual leader of the emerging Muslim community were known as Shiite Muslims.
  3. Umar and Uthman were the second and third caliphs, respectively.
  4. Uthman is credited with compiling the Quran.
  5. Sunni Muslims collectively refer to Muhammad’s first four caliphs as the Rashidun, or the “Rightly Guided Caliphs,” since they were intimate colleagues or relatives of the Prophet Muhammad.
  6. This time period lasted around 30 years.
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The complex history of the caliphate

The caliph, which is Arabic for “deputy” or “representative,” is the head of a caliphate. All caliphs are considered to be the spiritual heirs of Prophet Muhammad and his family. Although Muhammad was not a caliph, he was considered to be the last and greatest of the prophets, according to the Quran. The message of God cannot be replaced, which implies no one can succeed Muhammad as God’s representative on earth. For example, the caliph is not necessarily seen as possessing distinct spiritual power in his or her own right.

  • The controversy regarding who was the prophet’s legitimate representative began almost immediately after his death, and it has continued until the current day.
  • Muslims who think that Muhammad did not leave instructions on his successor would come to be known as Sunni Muslims, after Abu Bakr’s followers.
  • Ali was the fourth caliph, after Abu Bakr, who was the first.
  • Under Umar’s leadership, the caliphate extended to encompass various portions of the world, including the former territories of the Byzantine and Sassanian empires in Asia Minor, Persia, and Central Asia.
  • It is no accident that al-Baghdadi chose the name of the first caliph for himself.

Because they were close associates or relatives of Muhammad, Sunni Muslims collectively refer to the first four caliphs as the Rashidun, or the “Rightly Guided Caliphs.” Their piety is also often regarded as exceptional among their people. For around 30 years, this was the case.

Resurrecting the caliphate?

While the Islamic State has aggressively marketed the concept of caliphate, the concept evokes a time and place when Islamic governments were prosperous in terms of politics, economics, and social well-being. It also conjures up a spiritual idea of a Muslim community that was apparently more devout and dedicated than the one that exists now. The re-establishment of the caliphate, or at least its ideas, has been advocated by several contemporary Islamists as a means of re-establishing the vitality of the past.

The death of al-Baghdadi has not brought the Islamic State’s notion of the caliphate to an end.

It is worth noting that the name of their new caliph is derived from an honorary title given to a member of Prophet Muhammad’s family – “al-Qurashi” – which means “son of the Prophet.” IS is attempting to resuscitate the history of the caliphate in order to further its destructive objectives through the use of this prophetic lineage.

9 questions about the caliphate in Iraq and Syria

It was on July 4 that an Iraqi jihadist leader who goes by the name of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, 42, made his first public appearance at a mosque in the city of Mosul, which his group ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) had seized weeks earlier as part of its campaign to seize large areas of Iraq and Syria from the government-backed government. Al-Baghdadi, clothed in long black robes and a noticeable luxury watch, delivered a sermon in which he announced that he would be known from now on as Caliph Ibrahim, emir of the faithful in the Islamic state, and that he would be recognized as Caliph Ibrahim for the rest of his life.

Now, according to the self-proclaimed Caliph Ibrahim, it is far more than that: that stretch of terrorist-run territory in Syria and Iraq represents the revival of the long-extinct Caliphate, according to Ibrahim.

They have targeted Christians in particular, as well as the Yazidi, an ethno-religious minority who have been encircled on a mountain in northern Iraq by ISIS forces, tens of thousands of whom have been killed.

In the event that you find yourself asking, “What exactly is a caliphate?” What is it about the old one that is such a big deal?

And what, exactly, does this new caliphate have to do with the previous one? And what exactly is it attempting to achieve? Here, therefore, are the most fundamental responses to your most fundamental questions.

1) What is a caliphate?

It was on July 4 that an Iraqi jihadist leader who goes by the name of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, 42, made his first public appearance at a mosque in the city of Mosul, which his group ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) had seized weeks earlier as part of its campaign to seize large areas of Iraq and Syria. Al-Baghdadi, clothed in long black robes and a conspicuousluxury watch, delivered a sermon in which he announced that he would be recognized from now on as Caliph Ibrahim, emir of the faithful in the Islamic state, and that he would be known as Caliph Ibrahim for the first time.

  1. As of now, according to the self-proclaimed Caliph Ibrahim, it is much more than this: that stretch of terrorist-controlled territory in Syria and Iraq represents the revival of the long-extinct Islamic Caliphate.
  2. They have targeted Christians in particular, as well as the Yazidi, an ethno-religious minority who have been besieged on a mountain in northern Iraq by ISIS warriors for tens of thousands of years.
  3. You could find yourself thinking, what exactly is a caliphate?
  4. And what, exactly, does this new caliphate have to do with the first one?
  5. Consequently, I’ve compiled the most fundamental responses to your most fundamental inquiries.

2) So how did that first caliphate become a big important empire?

In the course of one of the most effective and quick military expansions in the history of the world The initial caliphate lasted from 632 AD, when Mohammed died and the first caliph Abu Bakr took command, until 661 AD, when it was torn apart by civil conflict and eventually collapsed (that civil war also led to the permanentdividebetween Sunni and Shia Islam). During its brief existence, it was governed by four successive caliphs and developed to become one of the world’s greatest empires in a relatively short period of time.

While this was going on, the two great empires nearby, the Byzantine Empire (which was what was left of the eastern Roman Empire) and the Persian Empire, were both deteriorating and becoming militarily tired as a result of their constant battles with one another.

Under the leadership of the caliphs, it attacked and conquered large tracts of land from the Byzantines and Persians.

Mohammad Adil was born in the city of Mohammad Adil in the city of Mohammad Adil in the city of Mohammad Adil in the city of Mohammad Adil in the city of Mohammad Adil in the city of Mohammad Adil in the city of Mohammad Adil in the city of Mohammad Adil Those early caliphate states were more than simply a large military empire; they represented a society that included all Muslims and was almost synonymous with the Islamic faith.

Due to the fact that the caliphate propagated Islam wherever it went, you can witness the expansion of Islam from a small corner of the Arabian peninsula to embrace almost all of what we today consider the Middle East, as well as sections of Central Asia and even the southern point of Spain.

As a result of these conquests, Arabic is now spoken nearly exclusively throughout the Middle East and North Africa, and the region is sometimes referred to as “ethnically Arab.”

3) But there were more caliphates, right? Even bigger ones?

Yes, you are correct. Over the course of several centuries, that first caliphate, which was founded on Mohammed’s initial community, grew into second and third caliphates. In 661 AD, following the end of the first Muslim civil war, the second caliphate was established and lasted until 750 AD. It was the most populous and prosperous caliphate in history, and it was considered the pinnacle of Islamic civilization. As a result, the caliphate’s capital was in Damascus, which is today’s capital of Syria, which is one of the reasons why caliphate-nostalgists today are so enthusiastic about the concept of a revived caliphate centered in Syria.

That was the last true caliphate, in the sense that it could legitimately claim to be comprised of a cohesive community of Muslim believers.

Furthermore, he is sort of implying that he wants to continue ISIS’s expansion until he has completely captured all Muslim-majority countries, which is an aim that has been indicated at several times in jihadist maps depicting a united Islamic empire: ISIS

4) Why did the caliphates end?

The Ottoman Empire claimed to be the final caliphate, and it lasted until 1914, when it was defeated by the Russian Empire. So, technically, there was a caliphate in existence until about a century or so ago. While some refer to “the caliphates,” most people refer to the large imperial powers that carried on Mohammed’s original concept of an united political community for all Muslims, based upon the ethnic Arabs who first built it, as the caliphates. There were two main causes for this to come to an end, roughly about the year 1000.

  • In modern-day Spain and Portugal, the area of the Caliphate of Cordoba was divided, and it is impossible to have many caliphates at the same time.
  • Nathan Wong is an American actor and director who was born in Hong Kong and raised in the United States.
  • Up until World War One, the Ottoman Empire claimed to be a caliphate and did govern sacred sites in Mecca and Jerusalem, but in reality it was only an empire that happened to be Islamic in nature.
  • However, Islam has spread far too widely and rapidly for that dream to be sustainable today.

It was the Abbasids, the last “true” caliphate, who ultimately crumbled under the weight of their own empire, with various regions of the empire falling apart, before succumbing to increasing Persian and Turkish forces.

5) What does a caliph do, exactly?

The Ottoman Empire claimed to be the final caliphate, and it lasted until 1914, when it was defeated by the German army. So, technically, there was a caliphate in existence until about a century or so before the present. However, when people refer to “the caliphates,” what they are usually referring to are the large imperial powers that carried on Mohammed’s original ideal of a unified political community of all Muslims, based around the ethnic Arabs who formed the state. There were two main causes for this to come to an end around the year 1000, to be precise.

  • Its territory in present-day Spain and Portugal split apart into the Cordoba Caliphate, for example, and it is impossible to have more than one caliphates at the same time.
  • Nathan Wong is an American actor and director who was born in Hong Kong and raised in the United Kingdom.
  • Up until World War One, the Ottoman Empire claimed to be a caliphate and did govern sacred sites in Mecca and Jerusalem, but in reality it was only an empire that happened to be Islamic in origin.
  • But Islam has grown much too broadly and rapidly for that ambition to be realized in the modern day.
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6) Can we take a caliphate-themed music break?

The Ottoman Empire claimed to be the final caliphate, and it lasted until 1914, when it was overthrown. According to the historical record, there existed a caliphate up until around a century ago. While some refer to “the caliphates,” most people refer to the large imperial powers that carried on Mohammed’s original idea of an united political community for all Muslims, based around the ethnic Arabs who built it. For two reasons, this came to an end about the year 1000, to give you a ballpark estimate.

In modern-day Spain and Portugal, the area of the Caliphate of Cordoba split off, and it is impossible to have numerous caliphates at the same time.

Nathan Wong is an American actor and director who was born in Hong Kong and raised in Taiwan.

Up until World War One, the Ottoman Empire claimed to be a caliphate and did govern sacred sites in Mecca and Jerusalem, but in reality it was merely an empire that happened to be Islamic.

However, Islam has spread far too widely and rapidly for that dream to be realized today. As a result, the Abbasids, the last “true” caliphate, gradually crumbled under its own weight, with various regions of the empire splitting apart, before succumbing to increasing Persian and Turkish forces.

7) Why are jihadists so obsessed with this stuff?

Islamists regard the caliphates as the pinnacle of Islamic splendor, serving as a form of Islamic nationalism under their flag. Many modern-day jihadists and Islamists, on the other hand, consider the caliphates as a solution to the two centuries of enslavement and humiliation they have endured at the hands of Western forces. It is possible to assert the ideas that all Muslims should be united in one state, that they should be ruled by Islam rather than by a secular system, and perhaps most importantly, that the Islamic world by religious right should be much stronger than the Western powers that have long invaded it by framing your jihadist movement as the rebirth or continuation of the caliphates.

8) The caliphate was in fact a place of ultra-conservative Islam and anti-modern intolerance, right?

Wrong! Because jihadists, such as today’s ISIS leaders, themselves aspire to rule an authoritarian, bigoted, anti-modern, ultra-conservative state, this is what they want the world to be like for them. However, this is a myth that they have concocted in order to explain their much more current notions about ultra-conservatism and their romanticization of an age that was far different from the one they envision. According to Khaled Diab, a writer with the New York Times, who recently refuted this myth, the following is true: The Abbasid caliphate was millennia ahead of Mr.

  1. ISIS’ ruthless puritanism stands in stark contrast to Abbasid society’s flourishing on pluralism, science, creativity, learning, and culture, which flourished during its heyday.
  2. The Abbasid caliphate, which was centered on the Bayt al-Hikma, Baghdad’s “House of Wisdom,” was responsible for significant advancements in the sciences and mathematics.
  3. And so forth.
  4. However, this is not what jihadists want to hear at all.

9) Why are jihadists basing their ‘new’ caliphate on this fictional conception of the original?

There is a type of ideological dilemma that Arab Middle Eastern politics has been grappling with for almost a century: how to reconcile their region’s lengthy history of grandeur, notably during the period of the caliphates, with their region’s more recent history of oppression by Western forces. What is the best way to respond to this oppression, and how can we restore our prior greatness? A variety of ideological strains and reactions have sprung up in response to this, but one of the most significant has been Arab secular nationalism, which holds that ethnic Arabs should band together, either politically or metaphorically, and challenge Western imperialists by drawing inspiration from their secularism and technological progress.

Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad and Egyptian leader Hosni Mubarak are both secular Arab nationalists.

This is one of the reasons why Islamists and jihadists despise and fight against Arab secular nationalists as much as they despise and fight against the West.

They’re battling for the preservation of a mythological memory that they’ve created. Unfortunately for the Iraqis and Syrians who live under ISIS’s leadership, there are enough individuals who believe in that concept to fight and die in support of the organization.

What a caliphate really is—and how the Islamic State is not one

Despite the fact that the caliphate—or at least a caliphate—has not only been a palpable reality for the first time in over a century, it has also become cruel and scary. Islamic State has successfully appropriated an ideology that has been animating the Muslim world for almost 14 centuries and made it its own. This is a superb example of ideological appropriation. Additionally, it succeeded to tarnish an ideology that hundreds of millions of Muslims continue to hold in high regard despite the current political climate.

  1. For the second time, the Muslims were on their way.
  2. He succeeds admirably, infusing his work with a welcome dose of knowledge, precision, and, when necessary, humanity.
  3. As we get to know the “righteously directed” caliphs, we develop a sense of familiarity that belies their long reigns as rulers.
  4. The Prophet’s closest friends, Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman, and Ali, came together and established an empire.

Meanwhile, as Kennedy explains on the book’s quite appealing opening page, the notion of the caliphate “offers a conception of leadership that is about the right ordering of Muslim society according to the will of God.” The caliphate, like the equally misunderstood sharia—which contains but goes beyond Islamic law—was a varied and multifaceted entity that evolved in response to the demands of the times and places in which it existed.

  1. Although it was far from being a cruel and intimidating Islamic dystopia, the caliphate, at least during the Abbasid period (around the year 750 to 945), was the location of scientific breakthroughs and a vibrant intellectual culture.
  2. Caliphal courts were awash in it, and poets extolled its virtues.
  3. A caliphate in which even the caliphs drank and in which young boys were revered for their attractiveness is likely to be difficult to comprehend for today’s spectators, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, given the current state of affairs.
  4. Islamic law, at least from the perspective of monarchs and clerics (if not God), was not only or even primarily concerned with the punishment of individual sin.
  5. An Islam that was already dominant had less of a drive to become even more powerful.
  6. Most significantly, this was a period of Muslim self-assurance, which Kennedy vividly depicts in page after page of vivid detail.
  7. In addition, human agency was probably a more realistic concept 1,000 years ago, according to historians.
  8. This may come as a surprise to anybody who has spent time in the Middle East, where God is frequently invoked in a casual manner to elicit feelings of despondency, pessimism, and the inability to make appointments on time.
  9. The unimposing historian that he is, Kennedy takes care not to exaggerate the importance of his argument.

Kennedy argues in his introduction that “history possesses an authority over this tradition that we do not find anywhere else.” The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.is not consulted by anyone in the United Kingdom today in order to validate contemporary political action.” Additionally, the evolution of the Sunni-Shiite schism is shown with great clarity and understanding.

  • Of course it is, to a certain extent.
  • What ultimately contributes to the strength of the sectarian split is the fact that the religious becomes political and the political becomes religious.
  • The caliphate, in its Abbasid, Andalusian, and Shiite Fatamid manifestations, was, without a doubt, a wonderful institution.
  • Islam’s first civil war began even during the reign of the righteous caliphs, when the prophet’s associates turned against one another in what amounted to a civil war inside Islam.

Islamists, at least in their historical memory, have wished the caliphate to be something it was never and may never be—and possibly cannot ever be—and this speaks something about their religious beliefs.

Caliph and Caliphate

For the purposes of this article, the term “caliph” (khalifahin Arabic) is generally understood to mean “successor of the prophet Muhammad,” whereas the term “caliphate” (khilafahin Arabic) refers to the office of political leader of the Muslim community (ummah) or state, particularly during the period from 632 to 1258. Despite the fact that the caliph was not thought to have spiritual authority in the same way that Muhammad was, the caliph ruled over a kingdom controlled by Islamic law (Sharia), the lands of which were known as the “abode of Islam” (dar al-Islam).

  1. Islam’s Sunni branch believes that Muhammad did not leave any instructions about his successor, who was to be chosen by the people and whose decision was to be deemed infallible.
  2. Those who follow the Shia Islamic tradition, on the other hand, think that the society made a grave mistake by electing Abu Bakr as king rather than Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib, who they believe was selected by the Prophet.
  3. As a result, Shiite Islam rejected the Sunni concept of correctly guided (Rashidun) caliphs, a phrase used to refer to the first four caliphs, and recognized instead the legitimate succession of Ali and his progeny.
  4. Until a rival clan of the Qurash tribe, the Abbasids, successfully resisted Muawiya’s establishment of a hereditary succession, the Qurash tribe continued to exist.
  5. Ultimately, the Ottoman conquest of the Mamluk empire led to the foundation of the Ottoman Caliphate (which lasted from 1517 until 1924) in Turkey.
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General Overviews

The caliphate has a long and distinguished history of scholarship, which is particularly outstanding when it comes to addressing concerns of Islamic historiography, philosophy, and histories of this institution. The majority of the literary material (mostly biographies and chronicles) dates to the Abbasid period rather than to the time of Muhammad, the Rashidun, or even the Umayyads, despite the fact that a vast body of evidence exists. This has resulted in a great deal of debate over the credibility of historical sources as well as the right interpretation of the early years of the Islamic state and its conquests, among other things.

A important tool for evaluating this early historiography is Humphreys 1991, while Gibb 1982and Arnold 1965provide excellent overviews of the theory of the caliphate, respectively.

Kennedy 2004provides thorough histories of the caliphate throughout the medieval period, whereas Bearman et al. 1960–2005provide detailed histories of the caliphate throughout the medieval era. andHodgson 1974examine this history all the way up to the present day.

  • “The Caliphate,” by Thomas W. Arnold. Routledge and Kegan Paul published this book in 1965. Sylvia Haim contributes a final chapter to the new version. The caliphate’s doctrine and history are the primary focus of this book. Originally published in 1924
  • Bearman, P. J., Th. Bianquis, Clifford E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, and W. P. Heinrichs, editors. Bearman, P. J., Th. Bianquis, Clifford E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, and W. P. Heinrichs, eds. encyclopedia of Islam (twelve volumes, second edition). E. J. Brill Publishing Company, Leiden, the Netherlands, 1960–2005. With thorough essays written by leading academics from throughout the Islamic world, this massive volume is the most complete reference work on Islam available today
  • Gibb, Hamilton A. R.Studies on the Civilization of Islam (Studies on the Civilization of Islam). Stanford J. Shaw and William R. Polk collaborated on the editing of this volume. The Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, published this book in 1982. Many of the pieces in this book on Islamic culture, which was initially published in 1962, deal with the evolution of Islamic historiography as well as political thought in relation to the caliphate. The development of Sunni political theory is examined in one chapter, which argues that it was never properly reflected by the political institutions of the caliphate, while another provides an insightful analysis of al-views Mawardi’s on the caliphate at a critical juncture when its temporal power was seized by the Buyids
  • Hodgson, Marshall G. The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization. The University of Chicago Press published this book in 1974. Humphreys, R. Stephen. A classic review of Islamic history in three volumes, which includes discussion of all elements of the caliphate
  • R. Stephen Humphreys. Inquiry into Islamic History: A Framework for Investigation. The Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, published this book in 1991. In this book, Hugh Kennedy presents a critical examination of sources, techniques, and research pertaining to the political and social history of medieval Europe and North Africa
  • Kennedy, Hugh. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State is a book on the armies of the caliphs in the early Islamic state. Routledge Publishing Company, London, 2001. Hugh Kennedy’s book is a well-balanced analysis of the sociological and political concerns linked with the compositions of the caliphs’ armies and their corresponding influence on the caliphate throughout its first three hundred years. The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates are two of the most important figures in Islamic history. 2nd ed., with a new preface. Pearson Education, Harlow, United Kingdom, 2004. Provides a good introduction to Islamic history up to and including the 11th century, as well as a superb bibliographical study and a list of general and more specialized books in Western languages, including accessible translations of original sources
  • Al-Tabari The Life and Times of al-Tabari. There are 40 volumes. The State University of New York Press published a book in 2007 titled This is a major translation series of the most generally regarded Arabic chronicle of the Rightly Guided Caliphs and the Umayyad Caliphate as well as the Abbassid Caliphate, which spans the period from 915 to 915. It was published in thirty-nine volumes, each published independently between 1985 and 1999, with the whole forty-volume collection (with index) being published in 2007.

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Caliph – Definition, Meaning & Synonyms

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  1. A civil and religious head of a Muslim state who is thought to be a representation of Allah on earth. synonyms: caliph, kalif, kalifah, khalifah read on for more information consider the following lessexamples: Following Muhammad’s death, Islam was divided into two sects: Shiites and Sunnites.Moslem,Muslima person who believes in or follows Islamtype of:Moslem,Muslima person who believes in or follows Islama believer in or follower of Islama person who believes in or follows Islama believer in or follower of Islam a ruler, a swayera, or a person who commands or rules

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a civil and religious head of a Muslim state who is thought to be a representation of Allah on earth. synonyms: caliph, kalif, kalifah, khalifa further information about this lessexamples include: Following Muhammad’s death, Islam was divided into two sects: Shiites and Sunnites.Moslem,Muslima person who believes in or follows Islamtype of:Moslem,Muslima person who believes in or follows Islama person who believes in or follows Islama person who believes in or follows Islama person who believes in or follows Islam The one who reigns or commands is referred to as a ruler or swayera.

Explainer: What Is The Islamic Caliphate?

According to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (commonly known as ISIS), a new “caliphate,” or Islamic state, has been established in territory it has conquered throughout Iraq and Syria. As a result, ISIL has eliminated Iraq and the Levant from its name, referring to itself simply as “Islamic State,” and has declared its leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi to be the “caliph” of the organization. The Islamic State has called on the entire Muslim population of the globe, referred to as the “Ummah,” to pledge allegiance to him, including competing violent organizations.

What Is the Meaning of a Caliphate?

The caliphate was the Islamic state that was created in the seventh century following the death of the Prophet Muhammad, the founder of Islam.

A caliph was the Islamic state’s top religious and political authority who presided over all religious and political affairs.

The caliph was frequently referred to as the Amir al-Mu’minin, or “Commander of the Believers,” which means “Commander of the Believers.” Is There a Beginning and an End?

“Rashidun,” under Sunni Islam, refers to the first four caliphs of the Rashidun caliphate – Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali.

Following the Mongol Invasion, the caliphate sank into obscurity until it was reclaimed by the Ottomans (1453-1924).

In recent years, attempts have been attempted to resurrect the caliphate, but these efforts have failed due to political infighting among Muslim leaders.

Sunnis wished for a caliphate as their political organization model, according to Dr.

It was Shi’a’s belief that the Prophet Muhammad’s successor should be a member of his own family.

Ali was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, according to Shi’a Muslims.

“They didn’t refer to Ali as a caliph; rather, they referred to him as an Imam.

For most of the caliphate’s existence, even under Sunni rule, there were conflicting claims to the caliphate.

What Is the Importance of ISIL’s Proclamation of Independence?

ISIL, according to Kersten, will challenge the present frontiers of the Middle East by giving a “real, true, and alternative Islamic political” option.

“They also want to emphasize that they wish to exercise political control over that territory,” he adds.

During that time of the year, Muslims display a greater feeling of religiosity than at any other time of the year, which makes it a really powerful moment.” Few people in the Middle East, on the other hand, are anticipated to recognize ISIL’s caliphate.

In the international jihadist movement, Al-Qaeda has long held the mantle of leadership.

As Kersten points out, ISIL’s announcement also represents a direct challenge to the Arab Gulf governments, notably Saudi Arabia, who are particularly vulnerable.

Although Saudi Arabia has funded terrorist organizations such as ISIL, the kingdom’s monarch has granted himself the title ‘Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques,’ which is practically equivalent to that of a caliph. “This will not go down well with the Saudi royal family.”

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