What Is Fiqh In Islam? (Correct answer)

What is fiqh and why do Muslims study it?

  • Fiqh is the study of the most common misconceptions and rulings in relation to one’s everyday life as a Muslim to ensure your acts of worship, social interac


What does fiqh mean?

fiqh, (Arabic: “understanding” ) Muslim jurisprudence—i.e., the science of ascertaining the precise terms of the Sharīʿah, or Islamic law. The collective sources of Muslim jurisprudence are known as uṣūl al-fiqh.

How many fiqh are there in Islam?

Sunni Islam is divided into four schools of law or fiqh (religious jurisprudence): Hanafi, Shafi, Maliki and Hanbali.

What is difference between Sharia and fiqh?

Shariah is the whole divine law and values as given by Allah. fiqh is the laws extracted by Muslim jurists from the sources of Islamic law.

What is the importance of fiqh in Islam?

So, basically, Fiqh refers to the knowledge of Islamic jurisprudence. It relates to understanding and explaining the Islamic rules in the light of the Quran and Sunnah, in order to guide the whole Ummah toward the straight path.

What is my Aqeedah?

Aqidah (Arabic: عقيدة, romanized: ʿaqīdah (Arabic pronunciation: [ʕɑˈqiːdæ, ʕɑˈqɑːʔɪd]), plural عقائد ʿaqāʾid, also rendered ʿaqīda, aqeeda, etc.) is an Islamic term of Arabic origin that literally means “creed “. It is a branch of Islamic studies describing the beliefs of Islam.

What does the Quran say about fiqh?

Fiqh (/fiːk/; Arabic: فقه‎ [fɪqh]) is Islamic jurisprudence. Fiqh is often described as the human understanding and practices of the sharia, that is human understanding of the divine Islamic law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah (the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions).

Who is the founder of Usul al-Fiqh?

The analysis of probability forms a large part of the Shiite science of usul al-fiqh, and was developed by Muhammad Baqir Behbahani (1706-1792) and Shaykh Murtada al-Ansari (died 1864).

Is barelvi Sunni?

Barelvi (Urdu: بَریلوِی, Barēlwī, Urdu pronunciation: [bəreːlʋi]) is a Sunni revivalist movement following the Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with over 200 million followers in South Asia.

What is fiqh al Muamalat?

Muamalat (also muʿāmalāt, Arabic: معاملات, literally “transactions” or “dealings”) is a part of Islamic jurisprudence, or fiqh. Sources agree that muamalat includes Islamic “rulings governing commercial transactions” and Majallah al-Ahkam al-Adliyyah).

What is the difference between Fiqh and Hadith?

The hadith were used in forming the basis of Sharia (the religious law system forming part of the Islamic tradition), and fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). The hadith are at the root of why there is no single fiqh system, but rather a collection of parallel systems within Islam.

Who are 4 imams?

THE GREAT EDIFICE of Islamic Law is held up by four towering figures of the early middle ages: Abu Hanifa, Malik, al-Shafi i, and Ibn Hanbal. Because of their immense dedication and intellectual acuity, these men enjoy recognition to this day as Islam s most influential scholars.

What is the difference between Fiqh and Usul al Fiqh?

Fiqh is the law itself whereas Uṣūl al-Fiqh is the methodology utilized to extract the law. The relationship between the two disciplines resembles that of the rules of grammar to a language, or of logic to philosophy.

What is Hanafi law?

The Hanafi School is one of the four major schools of Sunni Islamic legal reasoning and repositories of positive law. While the Hanafi madhab, along with other Sunni schools, utilizes qiyas (analogical reasoning) as a method of legal reasoning, Abu Hanifa himself relied extensively on ra’y (personal opinion).

What does Sharia literally mean?

The word Sharia literally translates to ” the way,” and is often also spelled as Shariah or Shari’a.

What are the 4 sources of Islamic law?

The primary sources of Islamic law are the Holy Book (The Quran), The Sunnah (the traditions or known practices of the Prophet Muhammad ), Ijma’ (Consensus), and Qiyas (Analogy).

What Is Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)?

Fiqh is an Arabic term that literally translates as “understanding” or “deep comprehension” in English. The term “faqih” refers to a person who possesses knowledge and insight. The Qur’an employs the phrase to denote a thorough comprehension of a subject, particularly when it comes to religious topics. It is most commonly used to refer to the comprehension of the words of another person, and in religious affairs, to refer to the comprehension of the words of Allah and His Messenger. “Whoever Allah wishes well for, He will grant him fiqh (deep comprehension) of the faith,” the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) remarked.

Terminology of Scholars

There is a difference in vocabulary for fiqh, which is analogous to the variation in language for the Shari’ah that was described earlier. The term fiqh was coined by the early Islamic scholars to refer to the knowledge and comprehension of the guidance, the regulations, and the manner of life that Allah has provided for us, respectively. For better or worse, fiqh refers to our comprehension and knowledge of Allah’s Shari’ah (Islamic Law). “Al – Fiqh Al-Akbar,” for example, was the title of an Aqidah (belief) book written by Imam Abu Hanifa, which was published in the early twentieth century (The Great Fiqh).

It is illustrated by the well-known definition of fiqh, which states: “the understanding of theShari’ahrulings which are connected to deeds from their specific sources.” Mohammed Abu Zahrah and Usul Al-Fiqh are two examples of Islamic jurists who have contributed to the development of Islamic law.

  • Ijtihad is a scientific procedure that scholars use to get at the judgments of fiqh from the sources of Shari’ah.
  • It basically means putting in the greatest amount of effort.
  • It is advantageous for students to get the correct conclusion since they receive two rewards.
  • Anyone who makesijtihadand comes to the proper conclusion will be paid twice.

Fiqh: An honorable piece of knowledge

Fiqh is a very prestigious piece of knowledge. It is the knowledge and comprehension of Shari’ah, which is the direction that Allah has given to mankind via the Prophet Muhammad. This information is critical to our prosperity in this life as well as in the afterlife. Those who work to further this knowledge are just as deserving of praise as the knowledge itself, and we owe them a debt of gratitude for their dedication to learning and passing on Allah’s direction to His creation. It is a demanding profession, but it is also one of the most rewarding.

He referred to them as “the signatories on behalf of the Lord of the Worlds,” and he defined them as such.

The scholars of fiqh were mentioned in the introduction to Ibn Al-book, Qayyim’s which was previously mentioned, and Ibn Al-Qayyim said, “.and if signing on behalf of kings is something that cannot be undermined and is a very honorable role, how about signing on behalf of the Lord of the heavens and the earth?” As he went on to explain, “The person who occupies such a position must prepare for it and must understand the magnitude of responsibility he bears; he must speak the truth in the knowledge that Allah will lead him and assist him.

and he must be aware that he will be held accountable before Allah.”

Why Is Fiqh Important For A Muslim

Before understanding the significance of Fiqh, it is necessary to understand what Fiqh is, what it signifies, and what it is genuinely. Essentially, Fiqh refers to the study of Islamic law and is a branch of knowledge. Understanding and explaining Islamic principles in the light of the Quran and Sunnah is essential in order to guide the whole Ummah down the correct path. Takes the teachings of the Quran and Hadith and applies them to circumstances that are not directly addressed by the Quran or Hadith, using ijma and qiyas to make decisions.

In the words of Sufiyahs, “Fiqh is the merging of knowledge with action” (AlMukhtasir al-Qudoori).

Importance of Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh)

Fiqah is significant for every Muslim because of its relevance and quality in comprehending the Islamic faith, which is clearly described in the Quran and Sunnah. Fiqah is a branch of Islamic law that is taught in Islamic schools. As a Muslim, nothing is more essential than receiving Allah’s blessings, and the one who learns Islamic law (Fiqh) will be blessed by Allah Almighty. ‘If Allah wills to shower someone with unique virtue, He makes him a Faqih of the faith,’ stated the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, in reference to the practice of making people into Faqihs of the religion (BukhariMuslim).

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After all, what more could a Muslim possibly desire?

“Unquestionably, it is those who have insight who realize the advice.” (39:9) This ayah demonstrates that Allah Almighty admires and respects the individual who has understanding of Fiqh, and that he is on the correct road.

Why should you learn Fiqh?

Now, the issue arises as to why we should learn Fiqh in the first place. What is the significance of this? We must understand that once a person reaches puberty, he or she is considered an adult, and knowing the Fiqh connected to the obligations of Islam becomes mandatory for him or her at that point. How will he or she accomplish his or her responsibilities if he or she does not know what they are? Furthermore, he is acting in direct opposition to the will of Allah Almighty. To provide an example, a Muslim understands that conducting ablution before Salah is essential, and that our Salah would not be accepted if we fail to do so.

In this case, Fiqh comes into play, as Fiqh instructs us on how the person who is going to give prayer should do ablution.

However, you must understand the fundamentals of our great faith Islam, which are all founded on the Fiqh (Islamic law). That is why we must be familiar with Fiqh if we are to carry out our responsibilities in accordance with the requirements of the Quran and Sunnah.

How much Fiqh is compulsory for a Muslim to learn?

It is mandatory for him or her to learn the Fiqh in relation to all of the responsibilities that are imposed on an adult. For example, if someone wants to be a trader, he or she must become familiar with the legal difficulties surrounding trading. In the case of an adult, it is his or her responsibility to fast throughout Ramadan, and as such, he or she must be familiar with all of the Fiqh that pertains to fasting and other related topics. Every adult is required to be familiar with everything of the Fiqh that pertains to his or her responsibilities.

How learning Fiqh can put an impact on a Muslim’s life?

“The individual who knows is not equal to the person who does not know,” the Quran declares. Someone who is well-versed in Fiqh can guide others in a more dignified manner than someone who is not well-versed in the subject. In Islam, Muslims show greater reverence for their Ulamas (imams) (Scholars of Islam). As an Islamic scholar, you will have a prominent position in Islam, and the blessings of Allah Almighty will be upon your head. According to the Almighty’s words in the Holy Book, “No doubt only Islamic academics are afraid of God and his people.” One of the greatest benefits of all time is not to be afraid of Allah’s judgement.

Who is a Faqih?

In Islamic law, a Faqih is someone who develops Fiqh by applying the principles of Islamic jurisprudence. Keep in mind that not everyone has the ability to rise up and start making Fiqh! It is a true work of art. If a faqih wishes to create Fiqh for a certain scenario, he will have to go through four sources of Islamic jurisprudence provided by the Shari’ah in his study, and then he will be able to explain his rules pertaining to that case to the audience in question.

The four sources of Islamic jurisprudence

He will do his study in the sequence that has been specified. This suggests that he will first look for a solution in the Quran, which will take some time. Assuming he has not been successful in finding the answer, he will turn to Hadith, and assumining that has not been successful in finding the solution, he will turn to ijma. He has failed to discover the solution through any of the three alternatives, he will turn to Ijma. He will now go to the last stage, which is qiyas. The alternative is for him to ignore the Quran and go straight to Hadith, Ijma or Qyas for a solution to his problem.

  • Qiyas: In Islamic law, qiyas is the process of extracting rules for a specific scenario by a person who has extensive understanding of the subject matter (Faqih).
  • In Islam, there is a requirement for a faqih.
  • “O Allah!
  • “Make him a Faqih of the Religion,” says the Prophet (Bukhari) He also claims that the Prophet (peace be upon him) declared, “One Faqih is more superior to Shaytan than a thousand worshipers” at another point in his writings (Tirmidhi, Mishkat).

These ahadith demonstrate the importance of a faqih in Islam, as well as the qualifications required of one.

Schools of Fiqh

Fiqh is divided into four major schools. In order to be on the straight path, every Muslim must adhere to one of the four schools of Fiqh. The four schools of Fiqh are as follows:

A little introduction about schools

The Imam e Azam Abu HanifahNauman bin Sabit is credited with founding the Hanafi school. In the year 80AH, he was born in the Iraqi city of Kufa. Approximately 420 million Muslims across the world adhere to the Fiqh of the Hanafi School, accounting for approximately one-third of the world’s Muslim population. The Shafi school was created by Imam Shafi Muhammad bin Idrees, who was born in Gazzah in 150AH on the same day that Imam e Azam, the founder of Fiqh Hanafi, died. Imam Shafi Muhammad bin Idrees is known as the “Father of the Shafi School.” According to research, Muhammad bin Idrees’ school of thought is followed by 15 percent of Muslims throughout the world.

This school is not followed by any prominent figures in the Muslim world.

There are just a handful of Muslims remaining in the world who adhere to the teaching of Imam Malik.


Fiqh books for the beginners

For those who are just getting started with fiqh, the following texts are recommended:

  1. The following are examples of Hidayah: Bahar e Shariyat
  2. Rad ul Muhtaar alaa Dur e Mukhtar (Ftawa Shami)
  3. Al Ataa Al Nabawiyyah Fi Al Fatawa Al Razawiyyah
  4. Al Mukhtasr Al Qudoori
  5. Al-Usool Al-Shashi
  6. Rad ul Muhtaar alaa Dur e Mukhtar (Ftawa

The Meaning of “Fiqh” in the Qur’an and Its Position in Islam

In Islamic studies, the term “fiqh” has come to denote “studying Shari ‘a or ‘Islamic law,'” which I quickly stated in my essay “Shari’a,” “Fiqh,” and “Usul al-Fiqh” in Islamic Law. The Arabic origin of this phrase, on the other hand, has a more wide connotation in the Qur’an. The restrictive legal meaning that this phrase has acquired as a result of a limiting reading of a single Qur’anic verse, which is itself the product of a narrow understanding of Islam, is a reflection of this. The term “fiqh” literally translates as “understanding,” “comprehending,” and so on.

I’ve included the following versions, along with any associated pronouns they may have, their meanings, the number of times each appears, and the verses in which they appear:

Variation Meaning Count Verses
Yafqahuna they understand 13 4.78, 6.65, 6.98, 7.179, 8.65, 9.81, 9.87, 9.127, 18.93, 48.15, 59.13, 63.3, 63.7
Yafqah u hu they understand it 3 6.25, 17.46, 18.57
Yafqah u they understand 1 20.28
Nafqahu we understand 1 11.91
Tafqah u na you understand 1 17.44
Liyatafaqqah u to study 1 9.122

The term appears in the expression “la yafqah u na” or “they do not understand” in eight of its thirteen appearances in the masculine plural present tense verb “yafqah u na,” referring to the disbelievers’ failure to accept God’s revelation and appreciate His signs (7.179, 5.65, 9.87, 9.127, 48.15, 59.13, 63.3, and 63.7) of the masculine plural present This is a sample of three of these verses: Many jinn and humans have been consigned to hell because they have hearts but are unable to comprehend (la yafqah u na) with them; they have eyes but are unable to see with them; and they have ears but are unable to hear with them.

  1. Rather, they have gone astray much more than the animals have gone.
  2. (7.179) You (the believers) strike more dread into their (the disbelievers’) hearts than Allah ever could have imagined.
  3. As a result, they (the hypocrites) have a seal placed on their hearts, which prevents them from comprehending what is being said to them (59.13).
  4. (63.3) Yafqah u na appears in five additional verses, in addition to the eight times the word “la yafqah u na” is used in the verses mentioned above.
  5. This is the second verse in which the disbelievers’ reasoning is criticized for making an irrational argument against the Prophet: Death will find its way to you no matter where you are, even if you are on the highest of buildings.
  6. “Everything comes from Allah,” you say.

(4.78) Afterwards, there are two verses (6.65 and 6.98), both of which emphasize that Allah explains His verses so that people might understand them: “It is He who has the ability to send on you punishment from above or below your feet, or to cause you to become divided into factions, or to have some of you taste the violence of others,” say the prophet.

  • (6.65) The final stanza (18.93), in which the phrase “yafqah u na” is employed, alludes to the inadequate comprehension of one of the peoples visited by Dual-Qarnain and his party.
  • The pronoun “it” refers to the Holy Qur’an in this context.
  • Here’s an example of a verse: Who could be more wrong than the person who, after being reminded of the signs of his Lord, turns away from them and forgets what his hands have done in the first place?
  • (18.57) It is used in the prophet Moses’ petition to God to remove a speech impediment he was experiencing so that the people he was sent to would understand him: ” So that they comprehend (yafqah u) my words ” (20.28).
  • (11.91).
  • (17.44).
  • It is important to distinguish between the two since the former is passive, whilst the latter is active.
  • The verse in question is as follows: The believers would not all march forth at the same time.
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(9.122) Exegetes have voiced varying interpretations concerning which portions of Christians are being referred to in this passage and what it means to “march forth.” However, there is no argument over the fact that there is a clear allusion to communities of believers who devote their time to religious study.

  1. This includes, but is not limited to, the study of Islamic law.
  2. The late Shaikh Muhammad al-Ghazali (1917-1996) has stated that the term fiqh has been hijacked by jurists, who have given it a narrow legal connotation in their interpretation of the term.
  3. Consider the subject of ablution.
  4. What a conundrum this is!
  5. instead of studying ablution for three months, he continues.
  6. Is today’s society similar to that of ‘Ad or Tham u d, or does it differ?
  7. ….

2 Of course, the way religious experts think influences the way the common person perceives religion and spirituality.

This is an experience that every Muslim who participates in the mosque’s communal prayer will have had to go through at some point in their lives.

It is rather surprising how this gap has grown to be such a significant concern that it has become the topic of repeated recommendations.

Almost without a doubt, never.

This typical occurrence captures the position that we Muslims find ourselves in very well.

We have abandoned the heart in favor of the body, the intellect in favor of false professors, and thinking in favor of dead, antiquated rules.

However, it is having the appropriate attitude of mind that is most important.

The overelaboration of Islamic law, according to Shaikh al-Ghaz a l isa, demonstrates a misunderstanding of the goal of Islamic law and its position within Islam, as stated by Shaikh al-Ghaza l isa.

In a same vein, Islamic fiqh should be concerned with learning all parts of the faith rather than just its legal system.

1 M. Ghazali’s work is a good example of this (2005). Kayfa Nahd at Mi s r, Cairo, p. 156.2Ibid., p. 157. Nata’ a mal ma’a al-Qur’an (How Should We Deal with the Qur’an), Nahd at Mi s r, Cairo, p. 156.2Ibid., p. 157.


Entry of a reference work for the first time online: DOI:


Fiqhin In Islam, jurisprudence is referred to as “Islamic jurisprudence,” which is a dynamic discipline that deals with the practical regulations and rules of thesharah such as the observance of worships, rituals, and social legalism derived from the primary sources of the Qur’an and the Sunnah, among other things. To put it another way, fiqh is the legal dimension of Islam, and the extension of the Shariah rules is on the rise. Traditionally, the study of fiqh might be characterized as the “knowledge of the Divine Law” in Islamic jurisprudence.

At the intersection of individual, social, communal, and civilizational settings, fiqhenvisages the efforts of jurists to comprehend and put into effect God’s will and direction in a variety of situations.

Meaning ofFiqh

Fiqh is an Arabic noun that is taken from the root word for law.


  1. 1. Abu Zahrah M (1957) Usul al-fiqh (Usul of Fiqh). Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi is located in Beirut. 2.Al-Nawawi (1277) al-Majmu’ sharh al-Muhadhdhab, vol. 1. Muhammed Najib Al-Mudi’I
  2. 2.Al-Nawawi (1277) al-Majmu’ sharh al-Muhadhdhab, vol (ed) Leicester’s Dar Ehia Al-Tourath Al-Arabi is an Arabic language school. 3.Bukhari M (1997) Sahih Al-Bukhari (Sahih Al-Bukhari) (Google Scholar)
  3. (trans: Khan MM). The meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari are translated from Arabic to English in this section. Dar-us-Salam Publications, located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 4.Kamali MH, according to Google Scholar (2005) The fundamental principles of Islamic jurisprudence. The Islamic Texts Society is based in Cambridge, United Kingdom. 5.Levy R, according to Google Scholar (1957) Islam’s social structure is described here. Cambridge University Press is based in Cambridge, United Kingdom. 6.Maghnisawi AIM, according to Google Scholar (2007) Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar, written by Imam Abu Hanifa, is explained. White Thread Press is based in the United Kingdom. 7.Muslim I (1976) Sahih Muslim (Muslim the First), Google Scholar (trans: Siddiqui AH). KAZI Publications is based in Chicago. 8.Nasr SH (2004) The core of Islam: lasting ideals for mankind (Google Scholar)
  4. HarperOne Publishing Group, New York 9.Wael BH, according to Google Scholar (1984) Was the entrance to Ijtihad locked or unlocked? International Journal of Middle East Studies 16(1):3–41CrossRef Google Scholar is an excellent resource.

Copyright information

It is published by Springer Science+Business Media B.V., which is a division of Springer Nature 2018.

Authors and Affiliations

Fiqh is the Arabic term for Islamic Jurisprudence as determined by Islamic jurists known as Fugaha, and it refers to the decisions of these jurists. The Quran and the Sunnah (in particular, the shari’ah) are the primary sources of fiqh development, and they are the most important religious scriptures in Islam. Fiqh is a branch of Islamic law that is meant to control Islamic ceremonial activities, society values, and social standards. In addition to drawing on Islamic teachings, it is widely acknowledged that Muslim jurists employ a certain amount of human reasoning and understanding in the development of Fiqh.

Fiqh is concerned with developing a comprehensive grasp of Islamic law that is based on the sacred writings.

In shari’ah courts all across the modern Islamic world, fiqh continues to play a crucial role in determining the outcome of cases.

on April 10, 2009: ian: With the establishment of the madrasah, fiqh became the preeminent Islamic discipline and source of both ethical and religious practice in Muslim cultures, and it became the primary source of social connections in Muslim civilizations.

Meaning and explanation of the terms fiqh, faqih and Usul al-fiqh

In Islam, Sharia is a canonical rule that is founded on teachings from the Koran and traditions from the Prophet Muhammad (Hadith and Sunna). It prescribes both religious and secular responsibilities, and it can impose retributive punishments for anyone who transgress the laws. However, the way in which it should be administered in modern governments is a source of contention between Muslim traditionalists and reformers. It has typically been reinforced by legislation that has been tailored to the circumstances of the day.

  • Shariah has several components, which are as follows: Tawhid / Aqidah (belief in the Oneness of Allah) is defined as follows: Tawhid is considered to be the founding doctrine of Islam.
  • The Islamic reformers and activists have used it as an organizing concept for human society and the foundation for religious knowledge and history, as well as metaphysics, aesthetics, and ethics.
  • The Akhlaq (Code of Conduct for an Islamic Way of Life) is a set of rules that govern how Muslims should conduct themselves in their daily lives.
  • In contemporary disputes on social and political ethics, it is primarily the rationalist perspective that is gaining traction among activist reformers, owing to the idea of the human capacity to discern what is good by reason.
  • Difference The difference between Shariah and Fiqh: In contrast to Shariah, which is unchangeable and infallible, fiqh is liable to change and is subject to change.
  • Fiqh is the result of the application ofUsul al-fiqh, which is the culmination of human endeavors to comprehend the divine intent and its manifestations.
  • A larger circle encompasses all human behaviors, whereas a narrower circle views only lawful acts as falling under the purview of the Sharia law system.
  • The Koran is the fundamental source of legal authority.

a third source is the unanimous agreement (ijma) of all Muslim interpretative experts in a certain period of time on a legal rule pertaining to a topic not addressed by the Quran or Sunnah The majority of Sunni academics regard unanimity to be binding; nevertheless, some, especially Shia scholars, believe that such consensus is impossible to achieve.

  1. A number of Hanafi jurists, like Ibn Abidin and Maliki jurists, believe that urf (custom) is an extra source of law.
  2. This subject is also concerned with the concepts of hermeneutics and deductive reasoning.
  3. Because there is no obligatory order from the Koran, it means that the use of intelligence is required in deciding an issue of law.
  4. When it came to a broad grasp of Islam in the early days of Islam, the termsilm (knowledge) and fiqh (jurisprudence) were commonly employed to signify this understanding.
  5. To be an afaqih, a person must possess both the necessary knowledge and the ability to exercise autonomous judgment.
  6. For the sake of explaining the obligation offaqih, some scholars have used the following comparison.
  7. The color black represents ugliness, whereas the color grey represents things that are neither lovely nor ugly.
  8. The argument employed by the faqih is that God cannot prescribe anything other than that which is morally beautiful; He cannot forbid anything other than that which is morally ugly; and He cannot allow anything that is, at the very least, in the middle of the beautiful and the unattractive.

It is through the interpretation (ijtihad) of the Koran and the Sunnah by Islamic jurists (ulama) that the Shariah is expanded and developed, and it is put into effect by the judgements (fatwa) of jurists on matters that are brought to them. Fiqh is divided into several categories:

  1. The term “Usul” refers to the origins of law. Muslim Jurisprudence, which is the basic premise of Muhammadan law, is the subject of this book. The fiqh is the branch of Islamic law that deals with the substantive law of specific injunctions.
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Previous Topic: Schools of Muhammadan Law; Next Topic: The Quran as a Source of Muhammadan Law; Conclusion

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In commerce, a transaction is defined as the exchange of property or advantage in the form of trade that is permitted as long as it takes place within a certain time limit. It is preferable to have witnesses present, especially in significant transactions.


Jinayah is the Arabic word for offense, and it refers to a crime committed against a person, their property, or their reputation.

Mandatory Punishments (Hudud)

According to Islamic law, the Arabic term hadd (plural: hudud) refers to a penalty that is meted out when one crosses the line that Allah has established. A penalty stipulated in Islamic law, intended to serve as a deterrence against repeating a similar offense, is also classified as a heinous crime.

Food, Animal Slaughter and Hunting

According to Islamic law, every food is permissible to consume, with the exception of those that God has banned. God bans just those things that are harmful to man, or that may have a negative impact on man’s health, or that are wicked in nature.

Oaths and Pledges

False vows are considered cardinal crimes and cannot be atoned for. Idle oaths do not carry legal consequences, but confirmed oaths carry legal consequences and cannot be atoned for.

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This chapter discusses the relationship and differences between the legal concepts of sharia and fiqh, as well as the implications of these differences for the reinterpretation and reform of specific legal rulings today by qualified American Muslim jurists and academic scholars through the process of ijtihad (legal interpretation and reform). In this chapter, we will discuss some of the internal Muslim arguments about the scope of sharia, its purposes (maqasid al-sharia), and some of the special issues encountered by the American Muslim community, which is positioned within a wider secular non-Muslim government.

Specific legal concerns addressed in this chapter include the formulation of a “jurisprudence of minorities” (fiqh al-aqalliyat), the establishment of egalitarian marriage contracts, and a reconsideration of the permissibility of adoption within Islamic law, to name a few examples.

IU Bloomington Professor of Islamic Studies and Chairperson of the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, Asma Afaruddin has a doctorate in Islamic Studies from the University of Illinois at Chicago.

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The Importance of Fiqh

  • A person’s comprehension (fiqh) of Islam will be granted to him if Allah wishes well for him
  • Halal is clearly defined, haram is clearly defined, and there are unclear topics in between. Those who refrain from engaging in uncertain or questionable things have maintained their Deen, their honor, and their own lives.
Recap of the Hadith of Jibreel

A serious investigation voyage to find the answer to the question: what is this religion known as al-Islam all about began for us. Jibreel’s Hadith (the Hadith of Jibreel) is a deep Prophetic tradition that is considered as the mother of all Prophetic traditions (Umm al-Hadith), and it served as our guide throughout our voyage. It consists of an introductory scene and four fundamental questions, which are as follows:

  • What exactly is Islam? What exactly is Iman? What exactly is Ihsan? So, what are the telltale indicators of the Hour?
The Essence of the Hadith of Jibreel is the Asking of Questions
  • We deduced from the study of the original situation the necessary character characteristics (adab) that we must nurture inside ourselves, as well as the value of collective, community learning (suhba). It is necessary to be a person who is curious
  • The philosophy of the question is to make certain that you are asking the proper question with the appropriate disposition: humility
  • And Developing the habit of asking questions in a humble manner and seeking knowledge from reliable sources is essential. Make assured that the individuals you approach have the qualifications to speak authoritatively on subjects of scripture, as evidenced by their connections to academics who have descended from an unbroken lineage that can be traced all the way back to the Prophetic source
  • And
The Religion of Islam Address The Whole Human Being
  • Each of us is composed of three parts: an external/physical reality, an intellect that allows us to reason, and a spiritual reality that includes our heart and soul (qalbi, ruhani), which together make up a mysterious reality that is unclear. The entirety of Islam’s religious system handles each of these components individually. In our endeavors to be good Muslims who love and yield to our Creator, we must recognize that Allah is concerned with each of these aspects of our lives.
Enter into the Totality Of Islam
  • Each of us is composed of three parts: an external/physical reality, an intellect that allows us to reason, and a spiritual reality that includes our heart and soul (qalbi, ruhani), which together make up a mysterious reality that is difficult to comprehend
  • The entirety of Islam’s religious system handles each of these components individually
  • In our endeavors to be good Muslims who love and surrender to our Creator, we must remember that Allah is concerned with each of these aspects of our lives.
Attaining Understanding (Fiqh)
  • Each of us is composed of three parts: an external/physical reality, an intellect that allows us to reason, and a spiritual reality that includes our heart and soul (qalbi, ruhani), which together make up a mysterious reality that is unclear
  • The entirety of Islam’s religion addresses each of these components
  • As we endeavor to be good Muslims in loving devotion to our Creator, we must remember that Allah is concerned with each of these aspects of our lives.
Fiqh Matters
  • Fiqh is the set of rules and regulations established by Allah. We must study and learn about them, as well as live our lives in accordance with them. It is important to distinguish between Halal and Haram foods. Detailed descriptions of the bounds established by Allah are provided by the four major schools of Islamic jurisprudence (Maliki, Shafi’i, Hanifi, and Hanbali). To ensure that you are meeting your individual commitments (Fard al-Ayn), identify a trustworthy scholar with qualifications and peer recognition to guide you through the process if you are not familiar with any of them. It is beneficial for us to have these lines of demarcation between halal and haram, these dos and don’ts that control our exterior social conduct. Their mission is to “encourage what is good and discourage what is evil.” The totality of this religion, down to the smallest detail, is for our advantage. Our happiness and wellbeing in this life, as well as our happiness and wellness in the Afterlife, are vital considerations.
Exacting Fiqh in our Lives
  • Fiqh is the set of rules that Allah has established. Our lives must be lived within the framework of these principles, which we must study and learn. It is important to distinguish between Halal and Haram. Islamic jurisprudence is divided into four major schools, each of which exhaustively describes the boundaries established by Allah (Maliki, Shafi’i, Hanifi, and Hanbali). To ensure that you are meeting your individual commitments (Fard al-Ayn), identify a trustworthy scholar with qualifications and peer recognition to guide you through the process if you are unfamiliar with any of them. Our exterior social conduct is better governed by the bounds of what is considered halal and haram, as well as the dos and don’ts. They “encourage what is good and forbid what is harmful.”
  • And The totality of this religion, with all of its careful detail, is for our benefit. Our happiness and wellbeing in this life, as well as our happiness and wellness in the Afterlife, are paramount concerns.
  • Allah grant us the ability to internalize the meanings of the Quran and the Sunnah, to follow in the footsteps of our righteous predecessors, and to draw from the wellspring of legal theory, fiqh, and law that has been handed down to us generation after generation in order to make the most of our lives. God willing, Allah will assist us in enacting it in our lives and living by it on a daily basis
  • God willing, Allah will make us responsible citizens and pious Muslims who live lives that are agreeable to Him. May Allah pardon us for our misdeeds, as well as for our imperfections and flaws
  • When I live my life within the limitations that Allah has provided for humanity, how can I assume greater responsibility? What am I prepared to give up in order to ensure that I am performing my Fard al-Ayn obligations? What is the frequency with which I ask inquiries in topics of Fiqh rather than relying on my subjective view

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