What Religion Was Dominant In India When Islam Expanded There? (Question)

What was the predominant religion in India before Islam?

  • The predominant religion in India before Islam began to expand there was Hinduism. India is often described as having a diversity of religious believes and many different religious practices. The fact is that India has no state religion because they are a secular state, and freedom of religion is a constitutional right.


What religion was dominated in India when Islam expanded there?

The Hindu religion maintained its presence and continued to grow despite a long period of Muslim rule in India, from 1200-1750 CE, during which Hindus endured violence as Islam grew to become what is now the second largest religion in India, behind Hinduism.

What are the main religion of India?

While 94% of the world’s Hindus live in India, there also are substantial populations of Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains and adherents of folk religions. For most Indians, faith is important: In a 2015 Pew Research Center survey, eight-in-ten Indians said religion is very important in their lives.

How did Islam spread in India?

Islam arrived in the inland of Indian subcontinent in the 7th century when the Arabs conquered Sindh and later arrived in North India in the 12th century via the Ghurids conquest and has since become a part of India’s religious and cultural heritage.

Who accepted Islam first in India?

Numerous Indians living in the coastal areas of Kerala accepted the principles of the new religion and converted to Islam. The Brahmin King Cheraman Perumal was the first Indian to convert to Islam based on a historical event. The event was that a group of Prophet Muhammad’s Sahaba visited Kodungallur.

What is Hindu population in India?

Hinduism is the largest religion in India. According to the 2011 Census of India, 966.3 million people identify as Hindu, representing 79.8% of the country’s population.

Which is the first religion in India?

Hinduism is the world’s oldest religion, according to many scholars, with roots and customs dating back more than 4,000 years. Today, with about 900 million followers, Hinduism is the third-largest religion behind Christianity and Islam.

What is the number 1 religion in the world?

Of the world’s major religions, Christianity is the largest, with more than two billion followers. Christianity is based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ and is approximately 2,000 years old.

Which religion is growing fast in India?

India. Islam is the fastest-growing religion in India. Growth rate of Muslims has been consistently higher than the growth rate of Hindus, ever since the census data of independent India has been available.

What is China’s main religion?

Chinese Buddhism and Folk Religions Though Buddhism originated in India, it has a long history and tradition in China and today is the country’s largest institutionalized religion.

Does Japan have religion?

Religion of Japan. Learn about traditional Shintō wedding ceremonies in Japan. The indigenous religion of Japan, Shintō, coexists with various sects of Buddhism, Christianity, and some ancient shamanistic practices, as well as a number of “new religions” (shinkō shukyō) that have emerged since the 19th century.

What religion is in Israel?

About eight-in-ten (81%) Israeli adults are Jewish, while the remainder are mostly ethnically Arab and religiously Muslim (14%), Christian (2%) or Druze (2%). Overall, the Arab religious minorities in Israel are more religiously observant than Jews.

In what way was the Islamic expansion into India similar to the way Islam expanded in other areas?

In what way was the Islamic expansion into India similar to the way Islam expanded in other areas? Islamic expansion into India was facilitated by both Islamic merchants and conquerors. Many people in lands subject to Muslim rule adopted Islam.

FLVS World History Segment 1 Honors Study Questions Flashcards

In order to answer the next question, you should refer to the passage from the Chronicle of St. Denis. The Life of St. Denis is chronicled in the Chronicle of St. Denis The Muslims intended to travel to Tours in order to demolish the Church of St. Martin, as well as the city and the entire country. Then, at the head of his entire army, the great Prince Charles marched against them and defeated them. As the ravenous wolf falls upon the stag, so did he draw up his army and fight with all of his might to keep them at bay.

Then he was given the name “Martel,” since he surged through the air like an iron hammer, steel hammer, and every other metal imaginable, smiting all of his opponents in the process.

They were stripped of their tents and harness, and anything else they had became a prey for him and his band of supporters.

It is in the public domain.

Do you know how Islam spread in the Indian subcontinent?

CAIRO, Egypt, May 29th, 2017: The Indian subcontinent (which includes India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) is home to more than 500 million Muslims today, making it one of the world’s greatest concentrations of Muslims in terms of population size. Since Islam first arrived in India, it has made significant contributions to the region and its people. There are a plethora of ideas on how India got to be such a mostly Muslim country today. As far as politics is concerned, some (such as the Hindutva movement in India) are attempting to make Islam appear foreign to India by asserting that it only exists as a result of Muslim conquests from Arab and Persian lands.

  • The First Muslim Indians to Arrive in North America Traders from Arab countries came in touch with Indian traders as early as the 600s, during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him).
  • So it was only natural that when Arabs began to convert to Islam, they brought their new faith with them to the coasts of India.
  • Islam continued to flourish in coastal Indian cities and towns as a result of the continuation of commerce between Arab Muslims and Indians, both through immigration and conversion to Islam.
  • A young 17-year-old teenager from Taif was selected by the Umayyads to extend Umayyad power into Sindh in 711.
  • According to Wikipedia, Sindh is the region around The Indus River in Pakistan’s Northwestern region, which is located in the subcontinent’s Northwestern section.
  • As he made his way into India, he faced little opposition.
  • As a result, most cities along the Indus River fell under Muslim authority peacefully and without any conflict.

Although many of the populace supported and approved of Muhammad bin Qasim’s Muslim invasion, the Raja of Sindh, Dahir, was hostile to it and prepared his army against the Muslim conqueror.

With the triumph, Muslims gained control of the whole province of Sindh.

In reality, practically everyone said that their day-to-day activities had not changed.

Those belonging to the Brahman caste, for example, remained to work as tax collectors, and the Buddhist monks continued to maintain their monasteries.

Consistency in Conversion Patterns The successive waves of Muslim troops that penetrated into India followed a pattern that was very similar.

Because pre-Islamic India was fully founded on a caste system in which society was divided into various portions, conversion to Islam was a gradual process that took place in stages over centuries.

This might occur for a variety of different causes.

In the caste system, your social standing is determined by the family you were born into.

By switching to Islam, people were given the opportunity to advance in society and were no longer subject to the Brahman caste’s authority.

If individuals desired to escape the caste system, they used to relocate to big population centers and convert to Buddhism, which was the traditional method.

Islam is not responsible for the brutal destruction of Buddhism in India, as is commonly believed.

Wandering instructors also had a significant role in spreading Islam to the general public.

Many of them advocated Sufi teachings, a more mystical approach to Islam that was popular among the general public.

Did Islam spread as a result of coercion?

Despite the fact that Muslim authorities succeeded Hindu rulers in the majority of places, society remained mostly unchanged.

If Islam were to spread by bloodshed and battle, the Muslim population in India today would only exist in the places that are closest to the rest of the Muslim world, which is not the case.

As a result, we are seeing pockets of Islam spread over the subcontinent.

Isolated Muslim populations can also be found in western Myanmar, central India, and eastern Sri Lanka, among other places.

If Islam were to be promoted by force, as some believe, these Muslim communities would not exist today.

Because the Indian subcontinent continues to be a multi-ethnic and multi-religious environment, it is critical to comprehend Islam’s status in the area.

Written by Firas AlKhateeb and first published in Lost Islamic History, this piece is a reprint of the original.

Hinduism – The spread of Hinduism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific

  • The Vedas, Brahmans, and questions of religious authority are discussed.
  • Issues of religious authority, including the Veda and Brahmans
  • The Vedic period (the second millennium bce to the seventh century bce)
  • The growth of the major sects, including Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and Shaktism
  • Southeast Asia and the Pacific are seeing an increase in Hinduism.
  • Influence on the Mediterranean world and its implications
  • The growth of devotional Hinduism in the fourth through eleventh centuries
  • Textual and liturgical elaborations include: the later Vedas
  • The development of philosophical sutras and the establishment of the Six Schools of thought
  • Views of nature, mankind, and the sacred held by Tantric and Shakta practitioners
  • Visual arts, drama, and dance are examples of cultural expressions.


Philosophy of Religion
Chapter2.Religions of the World
Section 12 .Sikhism
You should read enough of the materialspresented in this section concerning the tradition of Sikhismin order tounderstand how this tradition displays the characteristics or elements thatmake a tradition one that would be termed a �religion.The traditionpresented in the materials below is one of the world�s living religions. You reading should indicate why this is so.� THE ABSOLUTE: what do thebelievers hold as most important?What is the ultimate source of value andsignificance?For many, but not all religions, this is given some form ofagency and portrayed as a deity (deities).It might be a concept or idealas well as a figure.� THE WORLD: What does thebelief system say about the world? Its origin? its relation to the Absolute?Its future?� HUMANS: Where do they comefrom? How do they fit into the general scheme of things?What is theirdestiny or future?� THE PROBLEM FOR HUMANS: Whatis the principle problem for humans that they must learn to deal with andsolve?� THE SOLUTION FOR HUMANS: Howare humans to solve or overcome the fundamental problems?� COMMUNITY AND ETHICS: What isthe moral code as promulgated by the religion?What is the idea ofcommunity and how humans are to live with one another?� AN INTERPRETATION OF HISTORY:Does the religion offer an explanation for events occurring in time?Isthere a single linear history with time coming to an end or does timerecycle?Is there a plan working itself out in time and detectable in theevents of history?� RITUALS AND SYMBOLS: What arethe major rituals, holy days, garments, ceremonies and symbols?� LIFE AFTER DEATH: What is theexplanation given for what occurs after death?Does he religion support abelief in souls or spirits which survive the death of the body?What is thebelief in what occurs afterwards?Is there a resurrection of the body?Reincarnation? Dissolution? Extinction?� RELATIONSHIP TO OTHERRELIGIONS: What is the prescribed manner in which believers are to regardother religions and the followers of other religions? **********************************************************For those who wish to listen to information on the world’sreligions here is a listing ofPODCASTS on RELIGIONSby CynthiaEller.If you have iTunes on your computer just click and you will be led to thelistings.s=143441Here is a link to the site for the textbook REVEALING WORLD RELIGIONSrelated to which these podcasts were made.************************************************************
About 2% of India’s population are Sikhs. Even so they because of their unique appearance, sometimes stand for India. Traditionally the men keep their hair and do not shave their beard or moustache. They gather their head hair in a turban. Sikhism is comparatively a new religion in India. This religion was established by Guru Nanak. Guru Nanak was born in 1469 in the Punjab region of north India. Guru Nanak was a Hindu and he loved to travel and learn. He developed a new religion and included in it what he thought were the good beliefs of the two dominant religions in the Punjab region,HinduismandIslam. And Sikhism indeed has beliefs from these two religions. From Islam it adopted the belief in the existence of one invisible God. From Hinduism it adopted the belief in Karma and reincarnation, meaning your actions in this life will decide your fate in the next incarnation. The Sikhs also cremate their dead ones as is done in Hinduism. The creators of Sikhism tried to abolish some of the Indian customs such as thecaste systemandSati- burning of the widow. In Sikhism everyone has equal rights irrespective of caste, creed, color, race, sex or religion. Sikhism rejects pilgrimage, fasting, superstitions and other such rituals. Sikhism does not have a clergy class as it considers this as a gateway to corruption. However they have readers and singers in their temples. A Sikh place of worship is called Gurdwara. Sikhism does not support pilgrimage to holy sites because according to Sikhism, God is everywhere and not in any certain place. But Sikhism has a few important sites, of which, the Hari Mandir, also known as the ‘Golden Temple’ in Amritsar in Punjab is the most important site and is considered the holiest shrine of Sikhism. Sikhism emphasis community services and helping the needy. One of the distinct features of Sikhism is the common kitchen called Langar. In every Gurdwara there is a Langar. Every Sikh is supposed to contribute in preparing the meals in the free kitchen. The meals are served to all and are eaten sitting on the floor and this is to emphasis the point that all are equals. Sikhism does not believe in holding fasts for body is God’s present to human being and therefore humans must foster, maintain and preserve it in good sound condition, unless fasting is done to foster the human body like healthy diets. Guru Nanak who established Sikhism was its first Guru. After him there were nine more Gurus who were the highest religious authority. The last Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, proclaimed that after him the Guru of the Sikhs would be the holy book of Sikhism, Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Granth Sahib is written in Gurumukhi script. It includes the writings of the Sikh Gurus and the writings of Hindu and Muslims saints. But out of humility Guru Gobind Singh did not include his own writings in the book, which he proclaimed as the permanent Guru of the Sikhs. His writings appear in a separate book called Dasam Granth. Guru Gobind Singh is also the Guru behind the unique appearance of Sikh men. During Guru Gobind’s term as the Guru of the Sikhs and also before him, the ruling empire of Punjab region was the Moghul Empire. The Moghuls were Muslims. Some of the Moghul emperors, like Aurangazeb were fanatic Muslims who harassed the non- Muslims, including the Sikhs. Some of the Guru Sikhs were even executed by the Moghul emperors. In order to stop their persecutions, Guru Gobind decided to make his followers a community of fighters. He changed his surname to Singh, which means lion. His followers also changed their surname to Singh. Since then a ceremony of baptizing was established among the Sikhs in which the boys were given the title Singh and the girls were titled Kaur meaning princess. In those days “Singh” as a surname was very popular among a famous warrior caste of north India, the Rajputs. Some of the first Sikhs were also Rajputs. In order to make it easier for his followers to recognize each other, Gobind Singh, chose five marks, some of which even today symbolize the Sikhs. The five signs were, uncut hair; comb; sword or dagger; bracelet on the right wrist and shorts. The religious Sikhs dress according to Guru Gobind Singh’s order, carrying a sword. Most of the Sikhs even today have uncut hair and gather it in a turban. But some easygoing Sikhs cut their hair or they do not gather their uncut hair in a turban. The emphasis on militant tradition andcommunity service in Sikhism continues even today and many Sikhs serve inthe Indian army or police. � Aharon DanielIsrael1999-2000
I. IntroductionSikhs, followers of the Sikh religion, centered in Punjab State, in northwestern India. Sikhism is an ethical monotheism fusing elements ofHinduismandIslam. It was founded by Nanak (1469-1539), a mystic who believed that God transcends religious distinctions.II. Beliefs and PracticesInfluenced by the devotional emphasis ofbhaktiHinduism and Sufi Islam, Sikhism stresses the unity, truth, and creativity of a personal God and urges union with him through meditation on his title, the Name (Nam), and surrender to his will. It also advocates active service rather than the Hindu ideal of ascetic withdrawal. Loyalty and justice are admired, smoking and intoxicants forbidden. Sikhism also rejects the Hindu caste system, priesthood, image worship, and pilgrimage, although it retains the Hindu doctrines of transmigration and karma. The ultimate spiritual authority is theAdi Granth,consisting of hymns by the ten Sikh gurus (Hindi for �teachers�) and Hindu and Muslim devotional poetry in several languages. All Sikhs may read theAdi Granth,which is the focus of devotion at the Golden Temple inAmritsar, the Sikh religious center.Sikhs are expected to join theKhalsa(Punjabi for �pure�), a religious and military order. Initiates are �baptized� by drinking sweetened water stirred with a sword, after which Sikh men take the surname Singh (�lion�) and women take the surname Kaur (�prince,� or here, �princess�). Members of the Khalsa are instructed to observe the fivek ‘s: They must wear four symbols of the Sikh faith�soldiers’ shorts (kaccha), an iron bangle (kara), a steel sword (kirpan), and a comb (khanga)�and they must not cut their hair (kes).III. HistoryNanak, the saintly first guru, wandered over India seeking converts. He was succeeded by nine gurus, the office staying within the family line of the fourth guru, Ram Das. Ram Das was also the founder of the Golden Temple. The fifth, Arjan Dev, compiled theAdi Granthin 1604. As the Sikhs became a distinct religious community, they took up arms against persecution by Hindus and by Muslim rulers of the Mughal Empire. Opposing Mughal tyranny, the tenth guru, Gobind Singh, formed the Khalsa in 1699. During the decline of the Mughals, the Sikhs, led by the warrior Ranjit Singh, created a powerful state in the Punjab about 1800 that eventually threatened British-controlled India. After internal dissension and two wars the Punjab was annexed by the British in 1849.The British governed the Sikhs fairly and, in return for their loyalty during the Sepoy Rebellion of (1857-1859), gave them preferential land grants. The Sikhs gained wealth and a great reputation as soldiers and policemen. During the creation of an independent India in 1947, the Sikhs lost their privileges and found that Punjab was to be divided between India and Pakistan. Many Sikhs migrated east to be on the Indian side of the partition. In response to years of agitation, the Indian government created Punjab as a single Punjabi-speaking state in 1966; it remains the home of most of India’s more than 16 million Sikhs. Terrorism by Sikh separatists demanding greater autonomy led the Indian government in June 1984 to send in troops to seize the Golden Temple from Sikh extremists, who vowed to avenge the violence. Sikh members of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s personal guard were implicated in her assassination on October 31. In 1985 an accord was finally reached with the Indian government on expanding Punjab. Sikh terrorists then stepped up their activities, demanding the establishment of a Sikh state, Khalistan. In 1992 the government sent in police and army reinforcements and reestablished its authority in Punjab.Special thanks to the Microsoft Corporation for their contribution to our site.The information above came from Microsoft Encarta. Here is a hyperlink to the Microsoft Encarta home page.
Related Sites: Internet Sites: History of the Sikhs “This site is roughly divided into Six Categories which are, Sikh Gurus, Sikh Martyrs, Sikh Warriors, Historical Events, Modern Sikh Personalities and Sikh institutes.” Proud to Be Sikh ” We carry complete audio of Siri Guru Granth Sahib ji � Sikh holy bible And numerous sikhinternet radios, sikh jukeboxes.” Sikhism “True essence of Sikhism in rare flashes of Light, Divine Wisdom, Quotations, Saakhis, Video and Audio.”By Parminder Singh The Sikhism Home Page A beautiful and well put together page – the focus is mostly devotional but does include information on the Sikh alphabet Gurmukhi, essays, audio taped prayers to download, a bibliography as well as links to other online resourcesMaintained by Sandeep Singh Brar Sikhnet The Sikh NetworkA well designed portal for world wide Sikh community. Includes Live Chat; Discussion; Current News; Radio; Hukamnama; Matrimonials; Directories ; Calendar and more. The Sikh-Faith Question Answer and Philosophy Includes An Outline of Sikh Doctrines, QuestionsAnswers in Punjabi and in English, Links, more.By Makhan Singh Purewal Understanding Sikhism Sections include: The Research Journal; Current News; Other Articles; Glossary.By Devinder Singh Chahal, Ph.D.This page is part of a larger Web site, ‘Religion and Philosophy Resources on the Internet.’ It contains lists of reference books and bibliographies on Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Chinese and Japanese religions.Find comparative descriptions of dozens of world religions, pagan faiths, cults and ethical groups, from Asatru to Zoroastrianism.
Proceed to the next section by clicking herenext � Copyright Philip A. Pecorino 2001. All Rights reserved. Web Surfer’s Caveat: These are class notes, intended to comment on readings and amplify class discussion. They should be read as such. They are not intended for publication or general distribution.

BBC – Religions – Islam: Early rise of Islam (632-700)

The Muslim community grew throughout the Middle East as a consequence of conquest, and the expansion of the Muslim state that resulted offered a fertile environment for the newly revealed faith to take root and flourish. The religious inspiration for the military conquest was strong, but it was also fueled by wealth and politics. Men fought for the sake of their faith, the promise of loot, and the fact that their friends and other tribesmen were also engaged in combat. Hugh Kennedy’s 2001 book, The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State, is a good example of this.

The history problem

It is possible to find many narratives from this time period regarding the early Muslim conquests, although most of the material is inaccurate and written in a style that glorifies the conquerors and their god. Although they provide some insight into the big events of the seventh century, they are just incomplete explanations. However, this is not to suggest that the Muslims were not courageous or that their belief that they were carrying out Allah’s will was not significant: it was unquestionably.

Despite the massive amount of words written, we have yet to discover the complete explanation for Muslim success.

Conversion by conquest?

Although it is impossible to determine if Islam was the driving force behind Muslim military development, one new book shows that Islam undoubtedly aided the rise of Muslim power.only one viable explanation exists for Arab success—and that is the spirit of Islam. The generous terms that the conquering troops frequently presented enabled their faith to be accepted by the subjugated inhabitants. Moreover, even though it was a young and upstart religion, its administration by simple and honest individuals was better to the corruption and persecution that were the norm in more sophisticated civilizations at the time.

  • Nafziger and Mark W.
  • And Islam reaped enormous benefits from the improbable military victories of the troops of Arabian Arabia.
  • Simply said, Islam may have accelerated the conquests, but it also shown far more long-term viability.
  • Islam at War: A History, edited by George F.
  • Walton, published in 2003.
  • Following the Ridda wars and the Arabs’ quick conquest of the majority of the Near East, the new religion was more clearly characterized as a monotheistic religion for the Arab people than it had been previously.

As is generally known, the Arabs made no attempt to force their religion on their new subjects, and in fact actively discouraged non-Arabs from converting to Islam at first. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800, by Jonathan P. Berkey, published in 2003.

The justification of conquest

Whether Islam was the driving force behind early Muslim imperialism or not, it could be used to offer justification for it in the same way that it had previously been used to defend Muhammad’s own actions against his adversaries. The Qur’an contains a number of passages that support military action against non-Muslims, such as:But when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem; but when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them (of war).

Qur’an 9:5 (from the Qur’an) You must fight all of those who deny the existence of Allah and the Last Day, as well as those who adhere to that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and who refuse to recognize the religion of Truth (even though they are) of the People of the Book.

Considering that the armies of those days were not like contemporary armies – rather, they were more like an association of tribal mercenary groups that received no compensation and received their sole material benefit from the spoils of war – this is hardly unexpected.

After Muhammad’s death

When Islam was elevated to a political stature and given the function of both a political and a religious force by Muhammad, the military conquests served to solidify this position. For a caliph like Umar, it appears that he considered himself first and foremost as the leader of the Arabs, and that their monotheistic religion served as the religious component of their new political identities. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800, by Jonathan P. Berkey, published in 2003.

The conquest of Arabia

Following Muhammad’s death in 632 CE, the new Muslim commonwealth began to experience difficulties. Some tribes came to the conclusion that, because their commitment to Islam had been largely to Muhammad himself, Muhammad’s death gave them the opportunity to renounce their allegiance to Mecca and to Islam. Furthermore, the Prophet had not given clear instructions as to who would be in charge of the community following his death, which made matters much more complicated. Fortunately, the community picked Abu Bakr, the Prophet’s close associate and father-in-law, to be his successor very soon after his death.

Abu Bakr took rapid military action against the villages that were attempting to secede from the government.

Expansion in the Middle East

The caliph Abu Bakr died in 634, and his successor was Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph, who governed until his death in 644. After becoming the ruler of a vast, cohesive kingdom with a well-organized army, Umar utilized this position as a vehicle to advance Islam’s expansion throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Umar’s first operations were against the Byzantine Empire, which he defeated. Following the crucial Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the Muslim troops seized the erstwhile Byzantine realms of Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, bringing them under their control.

It was made considerably simpler by the weakness of the Sassanid Empire, which had been devastated by internal disputes and a protracted battle with the Byzantine Empire when this conquest took place.

It was only a few years later that Muslim armies had already captured portions of Egypt to the south, as well as Anatolia and Armenia to the north.

Is proselytism still appropriate?

In order to see this content, you must have Javascript enabled as well as Flash installed on your computer. For complete instructions, go to BBC Webwise. In this debate, Christians and Muslims compare and contrast their respective histories of mission, conversion, and religious growth around the world. Is there a religion that has a monopoly on the truth?

Change Comes Slowly for Religious Diversity in India

The religious variety of India’s people has been a defining aspect of the country for hundreds of years. Although India does not have an official state religion, religion plays an important role in the country’s everyday life, as seen by temple rituals, festivals, pilgrimages, family religious traditions, and other activities. While Hinduism has been the major religion in India for several thousand years, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Jainism, and Sikhism have all prospered in the country throughout the centuries.

When visiting this supposedly secular country, it might be difficult for a visitor to completely comprehend the significance of religion in the culture.

Violence between groups is referred to as “communal” violence when it occurs between groups, as opposed to “intergroup” violence.

In certain political groups, both national and regional, non-Muslims are concerned that Muslim population growth may accelerate, leading to a societal imbalance in the country with a majority of Hindu citizens.

Communities Growing at Different Rates

According to the 2001 Census, Hinduism accounted for 81 percent of the 1,028 million individuals that were counted in India, leaving 200 million people who practiced other religious beliefs (see Table 1). Hindus constitute the majority in all of the bigger states, with the exception of Jammu & Kashmir, where they account for 30 percent of the population, and Punjab, where Hindus constitute 37 percent of the population. Hindu majorities were found in all of the other states, ranging from 56 percent in Kerala to 95 percent in Himachal Pradesh.

In 2001, there were 134 Muslims for every 1,000 Indians, but only 23 Christians, 19 Sikhs, eight Buddhists, and four Jains for every 1,000 people.

Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka were the four southern states that accounted for half of the country’s Christian population.

Buddhists are mostly concentrated in Maharashtra, which is home to 73 percent of India’s 8.0 million Buddhists, or 7.3 million people.

Many Buddhists are members of the Dalit, or Untouchable, Hindu caste who converted to Buddhism (which does not have castes) in the hope that doing so will remove them from their low caste status in the Hindu community. Table 1 shows the religious composition of India’s population from 1961 to 2001.

1961 a 1981 b 2001
Religion Number (millions) Percent Number (millions) Percent Number (millions) Percent
All Religions 439 100.0 665 100.0 1,029 100.0
Hindus 367 83.4 550 82.6 828 80.5
Muslims 47 10.7 76 11.4 138 13.4
Christians 11 2.4 16 2.4 24 2.3
Sikhs 8 1.8 13 2.0 19 1.9
Buddhists 3 0.7 5 0.7 8 0.8
Jains 2 0.5 3 0.5 4 0.4
Others 1 0.3 3 0.4 7 0.6
Religion not stated c d d d 1 0.1

There is no information available on the religious affiliations of the 297,853 people of the North East Frontier Agency. bExcludes the state of Assam, where the 1981 Census was not conducted. It comes out to less than one million. dLess than 0.1 percent of the population. Sources: India’s Census Bureau, various years. Jains were concentrated in four large states: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan, accounting for 72 percent of the nation’s 4.2 million Jains. The Jains are the only religious community that is centered in urban regions rather than rural ones, making them unique among religious communities.

One group, the Parsis, actually saw a decrease in their numbers.

Muslims saw the most increase throughout the time, accounting for 29 percent of total growth, while Sikhs (second only to Parsis in terms of growth) experienced the lowest growth, accounting for 17 percent.

Hindus, like Sikhs, saw growth rates that were lower than the national average.

Population Increase(percent) 1991-2001 Population Ages 0-6 (percent) Urban Percent of Population
Total 22 Total 16 Total 28
Muslim 29 Muslim 19 Jain 76
Jain 26 Hindu 16 Buddhist 39
Buddhist 23 Buddhist 15 Muslim 36
Christian 22 Christian 14 Christian 34
Hindu 20 Sikh 13 Sikh 27
Sikh 17 Jain 11 Hindu 26
Other 111 Other 18 Other 10
Sex Ratio (females per 1,000 males) ages 0-6 Female Literacy Rate (percent) Female Labor Force Participation Rate (percent)
Total 927 Total 54 Total 26
Christian 964 Jain 91 Buddhist 32
Muslim 950 Christian 76 Christian 29
Buddhist 942 Sikh 63 Hindu 26
Hindu 925 Buddhist 62 Sikh 20
Jain 870 Hindu 53 Muslim 14
Sikh 786 Muslim 50 Jain 9
Other 976 Other 33 Other 44

Census of India, 2001, as a source of information. Diverging growth rates can be reason for concern, but the actual numbers reveal that the shifting balance is far less substantial than it looks at first glance. In terms of absolute numbers, Hindus climbed by 140 million between 1991 and 2001, whereas Muslims increased by 37 million over the same time period. In the 40 years between the 1961 and 2001 censuses, the Hindu fraction of the overall population showed just a slight reduction, from 84 percent to 81 percent, indicating that the Hindu religion has not lost any ground.

As a result, according to census statistics, India’s religious makeup will seem remarkably similar to how it does now several decades from now.

Social and Economic Differences

Despite this, as seen in Table 2, there are still large social disparities. For Jains, female literacy is 91 percent, but for Hindus it is just 53 percent, and for Muslims it is only half that figure. Because of significantly greater fertility than other groups, the Muslim population is slightly younger than the general population, with the under-7 age group accounting for 19 percent of the total population. It is not uncommon for Jains to be among India’s most successful businesses, and their high levels of urbanization and literacy reflect this fact.

Finally, A “normal” sex ratio is around 950 girls for every 1,000 boys, and for Buddhists, Christians, Muslims, and other religions, the ratio is close to that level.

2 Local and national politics reflect some of the social and economic inequalities that exist across religious communities, which can sometimes result in bloodshed.

Furthermore, terrorism, which is frequently designed to foment community violence, has accomplished precisely the opposite. 4 In light of census statistics and population patterns, it appears that there would be no significant shift in India’s demographic makeup; after all, demography is destiny.


  1. On November 20, 2003, Maseeh Rahman wrote in The Guardian (London) about Hindus being urged to have large families in order to combat the “Muslim threat.” Vinod Kumar wrote in Kashmir Herald 4, no. 4 (October 2004), which was accessed online on March 9, 2009
  2. O.P. Sharma and Carl Haub wrote in “Sex Ratio at Birth Begins to Improve in India” (2008), which was accessed online on March 11, 2009
  3. “Where Invisible Threads Frey,” The

Islamic Expansion & Influence in India – Video & Lesson Transcript

Kevin Newton is the instructor. Include a biography Kevin has worked as an encyclopedia editor, history teacher, and holds an MA in Islamic law and finance. Newton Analytical, his own financial advisory firm, was established after he left the company. The growth of Islam in India has been limited to a narrow geographical area, but it has had a significant influence on the country as a whole. Learn about the first innovations brought to Europe by Mahmud of Ghanzi from Afghanistan, the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, and the consequences of Tamer Lang’s Turkic invasion.

Mahmud of Ghanzi

The first Muslims to conquer the Indian subcontinent were Afghans under the leadership of Mahmud of Ghanzi in the year 1000. Finding a path through the Hindu Kush’s mountain passes, notably as the infamousKhyber Pass, Mahmud was able to launch a series of raids into a territory that, except from the odd brief Central Asian assault, was mainly unaccustomed to being attacked from across the mountains. In an ironic twist of fate, many of the troops in Mahmud’s army were really of Central Asian descent as a result of the establishment of theMamlukes.

They were also known as “Muslim converts” or “Muslim converts.” During their time in Afghanistan, these Mamlukes served alongside the rulers of the newly formed republics, who were highly influenced by the Persian culture of their homeland.

Unlike Jews and Christians, who were to be taxed but otherwise left alone, the Qur’an made its position on the pagan idolaters of pre-Islamic Arabia quite clear: these people should be converted or slain.

Having said that, these initial conquerors quickly understood that it would be impracticable to murder or convert such a large number of people, and instead, Mahmud of Ghanzi established a strong Islamic civilization based on Indian riches and Hindu sweat that is still in existence today.

Delhi Sultanate

As a result of these conquests into Northern India, all of which were extensively militarized as a result of the presence of Mamluke forces, a government known as the Delhi Sultanate arose. Not coincidentally, it was focused on the city of Delhi, and while it remained highly reliant on the influences of Islam and Persia in terms of art and culture, a significant Hindu impact continued to sneak in with regard to religion and philosophy. Although the British gained a fresh regard for local Indian culture, they were unable to use this newfound respect to capture any more territory in India.

In the same manner that prior empires in India going all the way back to Alexander the Great had conquered the northern river basins, the rugged geography of the Deccan Plateauproved to be a tactical advantage for the defending South Indians over the course of the war.

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Muhammad and the Faith of Islam [ushistory.org]

University of Southern California’s Muslim Students Association provided the image. In this passage from the Qur’an, which was originally written in Arabic, “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” is translated. According to the Qur’an (48:29), A religious vision was revealed to a guy who was meditating alone in a cave near Mecca. This vision set the groundwork for the establishment of a new religion. Muhammad was born in the year 610, and he was a man of many names. Islamic thought evolved from Muhammad’s thoughts, and the belief system that resulted from these concepts is now the foundation for Islam, which is one of the most commonly practiced religions in the world.

  • Both of Muhammad’s parents died when he was six years old, and he was raised by his grandpa and uncle after that.
  • A Bedouin family welcomed him into their home throughout his boyhood, as per the customs of rich families.
  • Muhammad’s encounters with these persons are highly likely to have had a significant impact on the formation of Islamic thought.
  • Over the following 20 years, he rose from obscurity to become a wealthy and well-respected trader who traveled across the Arab world.
  • By the time he was 40 years old, he began receiving religious visions that would forever alter the course of his life.

A Revelation of Faith

Muhammad received a revelation while meditating in a cave on the mountain of Hira. Eventually, Muhammad came to think that he had been chosen by God to serve as a prophet and teacher of a new religion, Islam, which literally translates as “submission.” The elements of Judaism and Christianity were merged into this new religion. Religions’ sacred texts, as well as their famous prophets and leaders – Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others — were held in high regard. Muhammad addressed Abraham as “Khalil,” which means “God’s companion,” and designated him as the ancient patriarch of Islam.

Muhammad thought that he was God’s ultimate prophet and that he himself was the final prophet. The Five Pillars of Faith, which are fundamental to Islamic ideas and must be followed by all Muslims, are at the heart of Islamic principles:

  • There is just one worldwide God, and his name is Allah. Muslims are obliged to pray five times a day with their backs to Mecca, according to Islamic tradition. All Muslims are required to pay an annual tax, which is mostly used to assist the poor and needy. Muslims are prohibited from eating, smoking, drinking, or engaging in sexual intercourse from sunrise to sunset during the whole month of Ramadan. All capable Muslims are required to do the Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) at least once in their lives.

The Kaaba

The Kaaba, Islam’s holiest location, is located in Mecca and is believed to have been erected by Abraham and his son Ishmael for the worship of Yahweh. Islam grew at a breakneck pace, engulfing most of what was formerly the ancient Near East, North Africa, and Spain, and eventually enveloping the whole world. The impoverished and slaves, in particular, responded favorably to Muhammad’s message. However, his message was met with strong opposition from many quarters. As a result of the pushback, he appeared to become even more determined.

From Mecca to Medina and Back

Muhammad escaped to the town of Medina in 622 because he was afraid for his life. The Hegira, which is Arabic for “flight,” was the name given to this voyage from Mecca to Medina. This year marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. When Muhammad and his entourage arrived in Medina, the locals greeted them warmly. Muhammad established the first mosque, also known as the Islamic temple, at Mecca and began the process of separating Islam from the religions of Judaism and Christianity, which had first inspired him.

Allah’s revelations to Muhammad lasted throughout his life.

During his time in Mecca, Muhammad was involved in a number of fights with the locals.

Before his death two years later, he had forced the conversion of the majority of the Arabian Peninsula to his new faith and established a tiny kingdom on the peninsula’s southern tip.


Many Islamic sects have a belief in jihad, which is a common thread running through them. Despite the fact that the actual meaning of the Arabic word is difficult to convey in English, the word jihad is most appropriately translated as “fight.” For the vast majority of Muslims, jihad is a personal battle against evil. The sacred wars of this spiritual conflict are fought within the minds and hearts of Muslims. Sometimes the fight takes the shape of a physical battle against those who do not believe in God.

A small but vocal minority of Muslims, on the other hand, places a high value on holy war jihads.

It is this idea of jihad that serves as an inspiration for Islamic extremist terrorist activity.

It should be emphasized that mainstream Islam is a peaceful religion that opposes the concept of unjustified violence.

The unfortunate thing is that Muhammad had not named a successor.

Despite these difficulties, a huge Islamic empire was established over the course of the following 12 centuries, resulting in a worshiper base that was unsurpassed by any other religion.

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