The Muslim conquest of the city solidified Arab control over Palestine, which would not again be threatened until the First Crusade in 1099.
Siege of Jerusalem (636–637)
|Date||November 636 – April 637|
|Territorial changes||Jerusalem captured by the Rashidun Caliphate|
- 1 How many times did Jerusalem fall?
- 2 When did the Kingdom of Jerusalem fall?
- 3 How did Islam get to Jerusalem?
- 4 Why is Jerusalem important to Muslims?
- 5 Why was Jerusalem destroyed?
- 6 What happened in the fall of Jerusalem?
- 7 Who owns Jerusalem?
- 8 When was Islam founded?
- 9 How many times is Jerusalem mentioned in the Quran?
- 10 Who was the founder of Islam?
- 11 What religion is in Korea?
- 12 Who is the God of the Judaism religion?
- 13 Muslims Occupy Jerusalem for 451 Years until the First Crusade : History of Information
- 14 Saladin’s Conquest of Jerusalem (1187 CE)
- 15 The history of Jerusalem
- 16 Why Jews and Muslims Both Have Religious Claims on Jerusalem
- 17 kingdom of Jerusalem
- 18 Capture of Jerusalem: The Treaty of Umar
How many times did Jerusalem fall?
During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.
When did the Kingdom of Jerusalem fall?
kingdom of Jerusalem, a state formed in 1099 from territory in Palestine wrested from the Muslims by European Christians during the First Crusade and lasting until 1291, when the two surviving cities of the kingdom succumbed to attacks by Muslim armies.
How did Islam get to Jerusalem?
Muhammad is believed to have been taken by the miraculous steed Buraq to visit Jerusalem, where he prayed, and then to visit heaven, in a single night in the year 610.
Why is Jerusalem important to Muslims?
For Muslims, Jerusalem is a site of key events in the life of Jesus and other important figures. It’s also the spot where, according to traditional interpretations of the Koran and other texts, the prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven.
Why was Jerusalem destroyed?
The Jewish Amoraim attributed the destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem as punishment from God for the “baseless” hatred that pervaded Jewish society at the time. Many Jews in despair are thought to have abandoned Judaism for some version of paganism, many others sided with the growing Christian sect within Judaism.
What happened in the fall of Jerusalem?
Siege of Jerusalem, (70 ce), Roman military blockade of Jerusalem during the First Jewish Revolt. The fall of the city marked the effective conclusion of a four-year campaign against the Jewish insurgency in Judaea. The Romans destroyed much of the city, including the Second Temple.
Who owns Jerusalem?
Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel’s Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country’s undivided capital.
When was Islam founded?
The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula.
How many times is Jerusalem mentioned in the Quran?
Heckled by a lawmaker from Israel’s Arab minority, Netanyahu offered a lesson in comparative religion from the lectern. “Because you asked: Jerusalem is mentioned 142 times in the New Testament, and none of the 16 various Arabic names for Jerusalem is mentioned in the Koran.
Who was the founder of Islam?
The rise of Islam is intrinsically linked with the Prophet Muhammad, believed by Muslims to be the last in a long line of prophets that includes Moses and Jesus.
What religion is in Korea?
Religion in South Korea is diverse. A slight majority of South Koreans have no religion. Buddhism and Christianity are the dominant confessions among those who affiliate with a formal religion. Buddhism and Confucianism are the most influential religions in the lives of the South Korean people.
Who is the God of the Judaism religion?
Israelite tradition identified YHWH (by scholarly convention pronounced Yahweh), the God of Israel, with the creator of the world, who had been known and worshipped from the beginning of time.
Muslims Occupy Jerusalem for 451 Years until the First Crusade : History of Information
From 638 to 1099, Muslims controlled the city of Jerusalem for 451 years “The Arab troops of Umar ibn al-Khattabin seized Byzantine Jerusalem in 638 CE, bringing the city under their control. The Temple Mount was referred to asMadinat bayt al-Maqdis(“City of the Temple”) by the earliest Muslims, a title that was reserved only for the Temple Mount. After the city was destroyed in 70 CE, the rest of the city was renamed Iliya, which reflected the name given to it by the Romans after the destruction: Aelia Capitolina.
Prayers were directed toward Mecca after 13 years in the previous orientation.
Jews were permitted to return to the city after it was conquered by the Arabs.
The caliph Umar, when summoned to pray at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, one of the holiest sites for Christians, refused to do so in order to prevent Muslims from petitioning for the conversion of the church to a mosque.
As described by the Gaullic bishop Arculf (d.
According to contemporary Arabic and Hebrew accounts, the location was strewn with trash, and Arabs and Jews worked together to clean it up.
Al-Muqaddasi, a geographer, and Al-Tamimi, a physician, were two of the city’s most prominent Arab residents during the 10th century.
According to al-Muqaddasi, Abd al-Malik constructed the edifice on the Temple Mount in order to compete in terms of grandeur with the monumental churches of Jerusalem “The importance of Jerusalem waned over the next four hundred years as Arab powers in the region jockeyed for control of the region’s resources.
Following Atsz’s death, the Seljuk princeTutush I awarded the city to Artuk Bey, another Seljuk commander, as a reward for his services.
The city was ruled by Artuk’s sons Sökmen and Ilghazi after his death in 1091 until 1098, when the Fatimids retook control of the territory.” (See Wikipedia’s page on Jerusalem, which was last updated on 9-2020.)
Saladin’s Conquest of Jerusalem (1187 CE)
After the First Crusade in 1099 CE, the soldiers of the Sacred Roman Empire seized Jerusalem, which became a holy city for believers of all three main monotheistic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). Despite their best efforts, the Muslims were unable to stop their march since they were themselves divided and confused. However, this was shortly to change, and the Holy City would be retaken. After a long reign as Sultan of Egypt and Syria, Saladin (r. 1137-1193 CE) planned to retaliate by uniting the heart of the Islamic Empire under his control.
Saladin’s victory, on the other hand, was considerably less brutal than that of the Medieval Knights of the First Crusade (1095-1099 CE), and it is for this reason that he has been constantly idealized by Muslims as well as Christians.
Jan Luyken is a Dutch painter and sculptor (Public Domain)
As a result of the rising of the Seljuk Turks in the 11th century CE, the established order in Asia Minor was completely destroyed. Anatolia had been mostly destroyed by steppe warriors who had arrived from Central Asia to establish themselves in this pastureland. However, despite the fact that the Turkish princes were chivalrous, their soldiers were highly ruthless and frequently undisciplined, and they were capable of executing the most heinous of war crimes on their own initiative. When a Byzantine force was defeated in the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 CE, the dream of restoring Byzantine sovereignty over the region was dashed.
Saladin had spent more than two decades of his life battling the Crusaders, and the year 1187 CE would prove to be the year in which he achieved his biggest victory.
1081-1118 CE) was resolved to undo the mistakes of his predecessors, and he achieved this goal.
When the emperor appealed to Pope Urban II (r.
To motivate them, he told stories of the sufferings of their fellow Christians in the Holy Land that were spiced up and exaggerated (with a little amount of reality), and preached a holy war against the “infidels” (Muslims), in exchange for which he pledged total plenary forgiveness (remission of sins).
- From there, they advanced to Jerusalem, where they took Nicaea in 1097 CE (which was later taken over by the Byzantines), Antioch in 1098 CE, and Edessain in 1099 CE before returning to Nicaea in 1099 CE.
- The defilement of the Al Aqsa mosque, which was eventually transformed into a church known as theTempleChurch, was the most shocking event to occur in the Muslim world during this period.
- A Turkish dynasty with roots in Mesopotamia and Syria, the Zengids (1127-1250 CE) were the first to initiate the Islamic holy war, or Jihad, against the Crusaders, after it had been dormant for over a millennium.
- 1118-1174 CE) died, his protégé, Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt (r.
- 1137-1193 CE).
- Hostilities between the two sides erupted when a crusader knight, Reynald of Chatillon (l.
- 1125-1187 CE), attacked a Muslim trade caravan in defiance of the peace pact of 1185 CE proposed by his side.
- When reminded of the covenant, he insulted Prophet Muhammad.
- The Battle of Hattin, fought on July 4, 1187 CE, resulted in the defeat of the biggest Crusader army in history (despite being outnumbered by Saladin’s forces), leaving the Holy Land undefended.
Do you enjoy history? Subscribe to our free weekly email newsletter! Surrender to Saladin in Latin, 1187, according to Tahsine (Public Domain)
Taking the Levantine Coast
Following the annihilating defeat at Hattin, most Crusader castles were left with insufficient numbers of warriors to protect them. And, with the fear of a Crusader counterattack no longer present, Saladin dispersed his men to seize control of the Levantine coastline. The Crusader strongholds fell, most of them without incident; in many cases, local Muslim and Jewish communities rose up in revolt and drove the Crusader soldiers out, allowing the Ayyubid army to take over the cities that had been left defenseless.
- Badr al-Din Dildrim captured Haifa, Arsuf, and Caesarea, while al-Adil captured Jaffa and the surrounding territory.
- (185)Tibnin was defeated, but it was Tyre that should have been Saladin’s initial objective; this tactical oversight would come back to haunt him later in the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE).
- Having failed in his effort to negotiate a surrender of the city, Saladin continued on to Ascalon (the entrance to Egypt), passing through the cities of Ramla, Ibelin, and Darum on his way.
- He was now on a mission to capture the most valuable jewel of all, which he knew only as Quds, the Holy City – Jerusalem, and which he had never seen before.
- Stanley Lane Poole is a fictional character created by author Stanley Lane Poole (Public Domain)
At the Walls of the Holy City
Saladin was anxious to seize control of the holy city before the chance passed him by. He was well aware that the strength of the entire Christian world would soon be arrayed against him. Ascalon’s deputies from the city outside the city came to him, he offered them generous conditions of surrender: they could take all of their belongings and flee the city under protection of an Ayyubid military contingent. As a result of their rejection of this offer, the Sultan made an even more generous offer: they may continue living their lives unimpeded by the Ayyubid soldiers, and if no army came to their aid within six months, they would be forced to cede the city under the same terms as before.
- When the Sultan found out about it, he decided to submit the Christians to the same fate as the Muslim and Jewish occupants of the city, which occurred in 1099 CE.
- 1143-1193 CE), a French nobleman who had survived the field of battle at Hattin, sought Saladin’s favor and requested to be given entry into the city so that he might transport his wife and children to Tyre.
- But once inside the city, the French knight was recognized by the residents and was persuaded to stay and protect Jerusalem.
- Not only did the Sultan agree with his request, but he also hosted his family members as guests and departed them with presents and an armed escort, to Tyre.
- Their flags were seen on the western side of Jerusalem on 20 September.
- On 25 September, Saladin’s siege army was positioned, ironically, near the place from whence the knights of the First Crusade had stormed the city 88 years previously.
- A few days passed before the Sultan recognized that he had made a tactical error: not only was this region readily defendable, but the sun was shining straight at his warriors, making it impossible for them to battle until the midday sun had gone.
- Saladin’s siege force was stationed, strangely, on the same site where the knights of the First Crusade had launched their attack on the city 88 years before on September 25th, 1187.
Indeed, this was a successful strategy, a breach was opened in thewalljust three days later by the Sultan’s miners, and now the city could be invaded.
The City Surrenders
Balian, unable to defend the city any longer, mounted his horse and went out to the Sultan’s court, where he offered the Sultan a bloodless surrender of the city. Stanley Lane Poole has cited the following as his own words: Then he continued, “O Sultan, be aware that we soldiers in this city are fighting in the midst of God knows how many people who are slackening their efforts in the hope of thy grace, believing that thou wilt grant it to them as thou hast granted it to the other cities – for they despise death and long for life.” But we will slaughter our sons and daughters, burn our wealth and possessions, and leave you neither a sequin nor a stiver to loot, nor a man nor a woman to enslave; and when we have finished that, we will demolish the Rock, the Mosque el-Aqsa (al-Aqsa), and the other holy places, slay the Moslem slaves who are in our hands – there are 5,000 of them (228-229) Whether the threats were fabricated or actual, the speech was effective, and Saladin, who had been blinded by wrath during a humiliating meeting with Crusader ambassadors in Ascalon, made the decision to spare the city a massacre after all.
Upon seeing what was happening, he knew that he could not let damage come to the Islamic sacred places and Muslims – especially since he had championed himself as their keeper (1187 CE) There is no such thing as an unknown (Public Domain) There was another issue to deal with as well; he had made a pact with the city and could not back out of it under any circumstances.
- In spite of the fact that the ransom was quite substantial by today’s standards, it was 10 dinars for males, 5 dinars for women, and 1 dinar for children.
- 1154-1189 CE).
- Many ameers (generals) of the Ayyubid army, including Saladin’s brother al-Adil, Balian of Ibelin, and many other Ayyubid generals, released individuals of their own volition.
- He also let all noblewomen to leave the city without being held to ransom; the Queen of Jerusalem, Sybilla (r.
- In addition, the Sultan was approached by a group of sobbing ladies, who, following further questioning, revealed themselves to be dames and damsels of knights who had either been slaughtered or imprisoned by the Turks.
- Saladin’s generosity was subsequently reported in a laudatory way by Balian’s squire, who praised Saladin for his actions.
- Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe de Neuville and François Guizot are two of the most famous French painters of the 18th century (Public Domain) Rich individuals, on the other hand, refused to pay for the poor, despite the fact that they possessed the required means.
- His replacement was to flee with carts full of gold chalices and other religious artifacts from the holy churches, while Muslim feudal lords snatched up their fair share of slaves and greedily chained up the population as their personal property.
- It was on Friday, 2 October, when Saladin himself arrived in the city, which also happened to be the 27th of Rejeb according to the Islamic calendar, commemorating the anniversary of the Prophet’s nocturnal voyage to the city.
This, of course, was done on purpose; he wanted to demonstrate to the Muslim world that he was following in the footsteps of their forefathers and grandfathers.
After purification, the Al Aqsa mosque was desecrated, and the Crusader cross was demolished. The mosque was scrubbed and cleaned, and the nearby buildings that had encroached on its space were demolished, as were the various Crusader items that had been put inside the mosque during its construction. Oriental carpets were laid throughout the interior, and scents were strewn over the room in every direction. The Sultan installed a pulpit in the mosque, which had been built on the instructions of Saladin’s patron Nur ad-Din (who had hoped to reconquer the holy city himself but had not lived long enough to do so).
- After 88 years, the Friday prayer service was performed at the mosque with a throng of worshippers present.
- Three days were spent closing the church of the Holy Sepulchre, which is the holiest site in the Christian faith, while Saladin deliberated what would happen to it.
- Saladin ultimately made a choice in favor of the latter towards the end of the day.
- 634-644 CE), more than five centuries before his time.
- Saladin was seen as a sort of divine chastisement by many intellectuals, notably William, the Archbishop of Tyre (l.
- For the Muslims, on the other hand, this was the long-awaited victory that their Sultan had delivered them.
- As previously said, Tyre, the lone stronghold of the Cross in the Holy Land, was transformed into a focal point of resistance.
- The Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE) under Richard I of England (r.
- 1180-1223 CE).
Saladin’s magnum accomplishment might be considered to be the capture of Jerusalem, which followed the Battle of Hattin in 1187. To achieve one single goal, he had worked tirelessly throughout his life. He had spent his whole fortune and committed his entire will to resurrecting the Muslim cause in the Holy Land and expelling Christian invaders from the region. Despite his failure to achieve the latter goal, he inflicted irreparable harm to the Crusader cause in the process. Saladin’s Statue in Damascuskrebsmaus07 krebsmaus07 (CC BY) Saladin has long been regarded as the most prominent Muslim character in the Crusades, and he continues to remain so.
His acts, on the other hand, were motivated by a practical consideration: he did not wish to produce martyrs for the Christian cause in order to revenge himself.
Though based on fiction, stories about Saladin’s accomplishments and personality have endured to this day, and despite the fact that these fables are works of fiction, they serve to affirm Saladin’s place among the most prominent individuals in global history.
Did you like reading this article? Prior to publication, this paper was checked for correctness, dependability, and conformance to academic standards by two independent reviewers.
The history of Jerusalem
- The topic of Jerusalem’s capital
- UN resolutions
- The old city of Jerusalem
Although Jerusalem (or al-Quds in Arabic) symbolizes the spiritual center of three global religions: it is a sacred location for Muslims as well as Jews and Christians, it also serves as a potential flashpoint in one of the world’s most intractable crises, the Palestine-Israel conflict. Jerusalem is the third holiest site in Islam, and it is the location of the al-Aqsa mosque (Muslims worldwide faced this mosque in prayer before the direction was changed to the mosque in Makka). It is also home to the Dome of the Rock, from which the Prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven on his nighttime journey.
- The history of Jerusalem However, for many people throughout history, Jerusalem has been a valued asset that has been fiercely battled for for centuries.
- Its first known name may have been Jebusite, which is a translation of the name of a Canaanite city.
- For many years, the “Philistinians” lived along a region of the Mediterranean coast that stretched roughly from Jaffa to the Gaza Strip, and which was considered to be part of the country of Canaan at the time.
- David makes an appearance.
- Later, once King Solomon completed the construction of the temple, Jerusalem was designated as a spiritual capital, first for Jews, then for Christians and Muslims.
- In 332 BC, Alexander the Great also conquered the entirety of Palestine, and for the next few centuries, the Egyptian Ptolmies and Syrian Seleucids dominated the city of Jerusalem.
- During the Roman era, the village of Bethlehem, near Jerusalem, witnessed the birth of Jesus Christ, who was regarded as a prophet in Islam and as the son of God according to Christian theology.
|Jerusalem is a spiritual capital for Jews, Christians and Muslims|
|Jerusalem is a spiritual capital forJews, Christians and Muslims|
Throughout his life, Jesus spoke about the need of worshiping just one God in the villages of Nazareth and Galilee, which were close to where he resided. However, it would be in Jerusalem that he would be brought before the Roman ruler Pontius Pilate and convicted for being a rebel and false prophet. It is believed by Christians that he was crucified after receiving the death sentence that was passed upon him. This deed became the basic pillar of Christianity, and the location of his (said) crucifixion in Jerusalem became the holiest site in all of Christendom as a result of his death and resurrection.
- Biblical Palestine was elevated to the status of a Christian sacred place.
- Rome’s emperor Titus demolished the Temple in Jerusalem in AD70 as a means of punishing and discouraging the Jews who had revolted against his dominion.
- As Christianity gained popular acceptance in Rome beginning in AD313, the city of Jerusalem had a resurgence, which was significantly supported by St Helena (wife of Emperor Constantine), who financed most of the city’s re-building in the early fourth century.
- Due to the fast development of a new religion in the region, Islam, by AD638, a military force commanded by Abu Ubaydah under the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab successfully seized the city, and Islam was officially introduced to Palestine.
Since Muhammad’s time, Muslims have regarded Jerusalem as the second most significant location for pilgrimage after Makka, owing to its religious significance as the site of the prophet’s miraculous trip to the heavenly realm.
|The famous golden roof of theDome of the Rock in Jerusalem|
Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik was the architect who designed the Dome of the Rock mosque, which was built between AD688 and AD691. The al-Aqsa mosque, which was erected on the same site two years later to commemorate the location of the prophet’s prostrations, was dedicated two years after that. Islam had existed in the region for more than 500 years by the 11th century, when the two mosques and their surrounding area were collectively known as al-Haram al-Sharif, and it was designated as the third holiest location for Muslims.
- However, with the Fatimids in control and their empire waging a war against Christian expansionism, the rulers sought to limit the flow of Christian pilgrims into their lands.
- In AD1095, Pope Urban II preached for a crusade against Muslims in Palestine, which was eventually carried out.
- Those who battle, he claimed, will be guaranteed celestial atonement for their sins as well as plunder for what they capture or conquer (Muslim, Christians and Jews alike).
- Much to the relief of the Christian population, there was no reprisal killing.
Salah al-Din appointed Diya al-Din Isa al-Hakkari as governor and protector of the city before departing to reconquer Muslim lands.Thereafter, under Mamluk and then Ottoman rule, Jerusalem was rebuilt and restored, particularly by Sulayman II (also known as Sulayman the Magnificent), who constructed walls, gates, towers, and aqueducts for the city.
|Tiles inside the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem|
|Tiles inside the Dome of the Rockin Jerusalem|
Probably his most well-known piece is the stunning tile work that was commissioned for the outside of the Dome of the Rock. 40,000 tiles were burned and placed in the structure, which was capped with the inscription of passages from the Quran, thanks to the matchless talents of Persian master ceramicists. They have survived to this day. Within two years of landing on the coast of Palestine, the sixth Crusade had concluded a pact that allowed the German emperor Frederick II to proclaim himself as ruler of the Holy City of Jerusalem.
- This fortress was defended by the Egyptians in the face of the Seventh Crusade until the 15th century, when it was captured and captured by the Ottoman Turks and sent to Istanbul.
- The number of Christian pilgrims grew, and churches, hospices, and other institutions were established to accommodate them.
- Europe-bound Jewish immigration to Jerusalem was also on the upswing, and some groups believe it is an important component of a Zionist master plan to bring the city under Israeli control.
- The First World War, which began in 1914, resulted in chaos, devastation, and the necessity for European nations to expand their territories and conquer new territories.
- In the same year, British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour conveyed to rich and important Zionist Lord Rothschild the British Government’s support for a Jewish nation in Palestine.
- As the end of the mandate drew nearer, Arabs and Jews alike fought to keep control of the city in their grasp.
- Those who represented Europe at the United Nations, when Palestine was partitioned into Arab and Jewish nations, claimed that Jerusalem would be an internationally managed city, but that it would be located within a proposed Arab state.
- The Jews of the Old City surrendered on May 28, but the Jews of the New City retained control of the city.
- Following this response, the newly founded state of Israel decided to keep the territory it had gained.
- (In response to ongoing United Nations resolutions contesting the city’s sovereignty, Israel eventually designated Tel Aviv as its capital.) During the Six-Day War with Egypt, Syria, and Jordan in 1967, Israeli troops captured Jerusalem’s Old City.
- Arab East Jerusalemites were given normal Israeli citizenship, but the vast majority preferred to keep their status as Jordanians rather than becoming Israeli citizens.
Although Israel’s parliament approved a bill in July 1980 recognizing Jerusalem as the country’s historic and undivided capital for all Jews, successive Israeli governments have maintained Tel Aviv as the country’s capital city (as recognized by the United Nations) while threatening to “declare” Jerusalem as the country’s capital.
- However, tensions between Arabs and Jews have continued.
- However, it was the excavation work carried out between the al-Aqsa mosque and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in the 1970s that resulted in widespread bloodshed between Muslim and Jewish residents of Jerusalem.
- Land in the possession of the Jews According to United Nations data, around 15,500 Arabs have been removed and replaced in Jerusalem since 1967 in order to enhance the Jewish population of the city.
- When the country was founded in 1918, Jews owned just four percent of the land, Arabs owned 94 percent, and minorities owned two percent.
- Resolutions of the United Nations The issue over the status of Jerusalem as the capital of either Muslims or Jews has raged for so long that it has been the subject of multiple United Nations resolutions and continues to be the deciding factor in any final status negotiations.
- On April 4, 1950, the United Nations (UN) received a plan describing the management of holy sites, which would be governed by the UN through a legislative council: 1.
In addition to this, the most significant resolutions passed by the United Nations and the Security Council in relation to Jerusalem have included: 1.
Ninety members voted in favor of it, with 20 voting against it.
It also deemed all of these operations to be unlawful and urged that the current state of affairs in the city be maintained indefinitely.
On the 3rd of July, 1969, the Security Council enacted Resolution 267, which formally reaffirmed Resolution 252.
Resolution 271, adopted by the United Nations Security Council on September 15, 1969, called on Israel to protect the Al-Aqsa mosque and to cease all activity that would alter the appearance of the city.
In Resolution 298 of the Security Council, adopted on September 25, 1971, the Security Council expressed sorrow over Israel’s nonchalance for international rules and decisions pertaining to Jerusalem.
It also stated that no further activity that may alter the city’s physical characteristics or demographics should be performed.
Resolution 298 of the United Nations General Assembly, adopted on September 25, 1974.
Resolution 446, which was adopted on March 22, 1979.
Resolution 452, which was adopted on September 20, 1979.
Resolution 476, which was adopted on March 1, 1980.
Resolution 471 of the United Nations General Assembly, adopted on June 5, 1980.
Resolution 592, which was adopted on June 30, 1980.
Resolution 478, which was adopted on August 20, 1980.
Resolution 592, which was adopted on September 8, 1986.
Resolution 605, which was adopted on December 22, 1986.
Resolution 904, which was adopted on March 13, 1994.
In 1998, Israel proposed a contentious proposal to enlarge the city of Jerusalem by annexing communities in the surrounding area.
Israel has stated that it will put a halt to such an action.
Beginning in September 2000, Israel has frequently annexed access to Jerusalem from nearby Arab cities, thereby closing the city off from the rest of the world and allowing it to be used for its own purposes. Jerusalem’s historic city is a must-see. Return to the top
Why Jews and Muslims Both Have Religious Claims on Jerusalem
The matter of Israel’s capital city has long been a source of dispute. Although nearly all foreign embassies inIsraelare located in Tel Aviv, the country considersJerusalemto be its capital. Jerusalem, which is one of the oldest cities in the world, has been formally divided between Israel andPalestinefor nearly 70 years, yet changed hands many other times throughout the course of its over 5,000-year history. Israel and Palestine’s dueling claims to the city are steeped in decades of conflict, during which Jewish settlers pushed Muslim Arabs out of their homes and established thestate of Israelon their land in the middle of the 20th century.
- On December 6, 2017, PresidentDonald Trumpbroke with longstanding U.S.
- will declare Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, thus backing Israeli rule of the city.
- transferred its embassy to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv.
- 6, and instruct the State Department to begin the multi-year process of moving the American embassy from Tel Aviv to the holy city.
- In 1,000 B.C.E.,King Davidestablished Jewish control over Jerusalem.
- And between 1517 and 1917, theOttoman Empire —whose official religion was Islam—ruled the city.
In the Jewish tradition, it is the place where Abraham, the first Patriarch of Judaism,nearlysacrificed his son Isaac to God thousands of years ago.
Religious Jewish men praying at The Western Wall, Judaism’s holiest site, ahead of the Sabbath, 2005.
In biblical times, Jewish people who could not make a pilgrimage to the city were supposed to pray in the direction of it.
Before that, he was flown from Mecca to Jerusalem overnight by a mythical creature.
During the night journey, Muhammad was purified in preparation for his meeting with God.
However, Muhammad begged God to reduce the number to five times a day, which is the current standard for Muslim prayer.
(Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images) Muhammad saw his mission as an extension of the Abrahamic traditions of Judaism and Christianity.
In addition, Islamic tradition predicts that Jerusalem will play an important role in the future, naming it as one of the cities where the end of the world will play out.
The president’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital drew praise from Israeli Prime MinisterBenjamin Netanyahuand condemnation from Palestinian allies who worried that this move would make it more difficult to negotiate a long-sought peace treaty between the states.
And in fact, hours before Trump’s announcement, the Palestinian general delegate to the U.K. stated that if the U.S. president recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, he would effectively be“declaring war.”
kingdom of Jerusalem
After European Christians wrested territory from Muslims during the First Crusade in Palestine in 1099, they established the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which lasted until Muslim armies attacked the kingdom’s last two remaining cities in 1291, when the kingdom’s two remaining cities were destroyed by Muslim armies. It was the king of Jerusalem who ruled over the nearby Crusader realms of Antioch, Edessa, and Tripoli, and in exchange for their devotion and military duty, he supplied them with help and safety.
- The county of Jaffa and Ascalon was divided into four great baronies: the county of Jaffa and Ascalon, the lordship of Krak or The royal realm consisted of the city of Jerusalem and its surrounding land, as well as the cities of Tyr (in Lebanon) and Acre (in Israel).
- Quiz on the Encyclopedia Britannica History: Is it true or false?
- You’ll learn the actual story behind the invention of moveable type, who Winston Churchill referred to as “Mum,” and how and when the first sonic boom was heard.
- Trade with Muslims, banking operations, and pilgrimage taxes were the main sources of revenue.
- BALDWIN I(reigned 1100–18) and BALDWIN II(1118–31), the early kings of Jerusalem, established the kingdom by conquering coastal towns and constructing new defenses to protect the interior of Palestine and the Northern Territories.
- Following the failure of the Second Crusade (1147), the Muslims began to consolidate their power.
- Saladin’s army captured the city of Jerusalem in 1187, and the city remained in Muslim hands despite considerable territorial recovery achieved by the Third Crusade (late 12th century).
Having been expelled from the Asian mainland in 1291, the royal dynasty of Lusignan relocated to the island of Cyprus, where its members continued to govern until the late 15th century, claiming to be the king of Jerusalem.
Capture of Jerusalem: The Treaty of Umar
Jerusalem is regarded as a sacred city by the three biggest monotheistic religions – Islam, Judaism, and Christianity – and by many others. Because of its long and illustrious history that dates back thousands of years, Jerusalem has been known by a variety of names, including Jerusalem, al-Quds, Yerushaláyim, Aelia, and others, all of which represent its rich and diversified legacy. Numerous Muslim prophets, from Sulayman and Dawood through Isa (Jesus), all of whom, may Allah be pleased with them, have named this city their home over the centuries.
During his lifetime, however, Jerusalem was never subjected to governmental domination by Muslims.
At the time of Muhammad’s life, the Byzantine Empire made it apparent that it wished to eradicate the nascent Muslim faith that was gaining ground on its southern frontiers. It was therefore in October 630 that the Expedition of Tabuk was officially launched, with Muhammad leading an army of 30,000 people to the frontier with the Byzantine Empire. Despite the fact that no Byzantine army confronted the Muslims in a combat, the mission signaled the beginning of the Muslim-Byzantine Wars, which would last for several decades.
It was under the reign of Umar ibn al-Khattab that Muslims began to make significant inroads into the Byzantine Empire, particularly in the northern hemisphere.
After the crucial Battle of Yarmuk in 636, Byzantine supremacy in the region suffered a significant blow, which resulted in the loss of various cities throughout Syria, including Damascus.
The majority of Christians in the region were Monophysites, who had a more monotheistic view of God, which was similar to the belief held by the new Muslims at the time of their conversion.
Capture of Jerusalem
It wasn’t until 637 that Muslim troops began to arrive in the area surrounding Jerusalem. Patriarch Sophronius was in control of the city of Jerusalem, and he was both a representative of the Byzantine government and a leader in the Christian Church at the time. Despite the fact that large Muslim troops under the direction of Khalid ibn al-Walid and Amr ibn al-As began to surround the city, Sophronius refused to submit until Umar personally came to receive the surrender. Upon learning of this situation, Umar ibn al-Khattab set out from Madinah with only one donkey and one servant to travel as far as he could.
Umar was taken on a sightseeing tour of the city, which included a stop at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
According to him, praying there would serve as a reason for Muslim converts to turn the building into a mosque, robbing Christianity of one of its holiest locations in the process. A mosque (named Masjid Umar – the Mosque of Umar) was afterwards constructed on the site where Umar worshiped instead.
The Treaty of Umar
As they had to do with all of the other towns they had conquered, the Muslims in Jerusalem were required to sign a contract outlining the rights and privileges of the captured people and the Muslims in the city. As well as Umar and Patriarch Sophronius, other generals from the Muslim forces were present to sign this contract. The pact was signed in the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate, according to the text. This is the promise of protection that has been provided to the people of Jerusalem by the servant of God, Umar, the Commander of the Faithful, in his capacity as Commander of the Faithful.
- Their churches will not be occupied by Muslims, and they will not be demolished as a result of this.
- They will not be coerced into becoming Christians.
- Likewise, the citizens of Jerusalem must pay their taxes like those of other towns and must drive the Byzantines and the thieves from their lands and territories.
- They are free to remain in the city if they so want, but they must pay taxes in the same manner as other citizens.
- Nothing is to be taken away from them until the crop has been reaped.” If people pay their taxes in accordance with their commitments, then the conditions outlined in this letter are in accordance with God’s promise and are the duty of His Prophet, the caliphs, and the faithful.
- At the time, it was unquestionably one of the most progressive treaties in the history of the world.
- When the Crusaders captured Jerusalem from the Muslims in 1099, a second slaughter occurred as a result of the conquest.
- There has never been a more important or historically relevant guarantee of religious freedom than this.
- Kaab al-Ahbar, a Jew from Jerusalem, served as one of Umar’s guides while in the city.
- As a result, the legitimacy of the paragraph pertaining to Jews is called into question.
A benchmark for Muslim-Christian relations across the former Byzantine Empire, the treaty guaranteed the rights of conquered people in all conditions and prohibited the practice of forced conversions. It is still in effect today.
Revitalization of the City
Umar promptly went about establishing the city as a major Muslim pilgrimage destination. In the process, he cleaned the space around the Temple Mount, from where Muhammad ascended to heaven. As a means of offending the Jews, the Christians had used the location as a rubbish dump. Umar and his troops (together with a few Jews) personally cleaned it up and constructed Masjid al-Aqsa, which means “Mosque of the Holy Sepulcher.” Throughout the duration of Umar’s caliphate and into the reign of the Umayyad Empire over the city, Jerusalem grew in importance as a hub of religious pilgrimage and commercial activity for the region.
Many more mosques and civic institutions were quickly erected across the city as a result of this.
In accordance with the Treaty of Umar, Muslims would reign for the following 462 years, and religious freedom for minorities would be preserved.
(This is an excerpt from Lost Islamic History.) DISCLAIMER AND RULES OF ENGAGEMENT COMMENTARY The opinions stated above, whether in this post or in comments, represent positions and ideas that are not necessarily those of IslamiCity or its editors.
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