When Islam Started? (Solution found)

The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula.

Who was the first to discover Islam?

  • The Brainliest Answer! Muhammad was the first man to discover Islam. He believed that the Jews, Muslims, and Christians shared the same God.

When did Islam begin?

Islam, major world religion promulgated by the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7th century ce.

Who started Islam?

The rise of Islam is intrinsically linked with the Prophet Muhammad, believed by Muslims to be the last in a long line of prophets that includes Moses and Jesus.

Who wrote the Quran?

The Prophet Muhammad disseminated the Koran in a piecemeal and gradual manner from AD610 to 632, the year in which he passed away. The evidence indicates that he recited the text and scribes wrote down what they heard.

What is the oldest religion?

The word Hindu is an exonym, and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitioners refer to their religion as Sanātana Dharma (Sanskrit: सनातन धर्म, lit.

Who built the Kaaba?

Some say that it was built by the angels. Others say the father of humankind, Adam built the Kaba but over many centuries it fell into disrepair and was lost in the mists of time, to be rebuilt by Prophet Abraham and his son Ishmael. All agree that the Kaba was either built or rebuilt by Prophet Abraham.

When did Muhammad live?

570, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]— died June 8, 632, Medina ), the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qurʾān. Muhammad is traditionally said to have been born in 570 in Mecca and to have died in 632 in Medina, where he had been forced to emigrate to with his adherents in 622.

How is Abraham related to Muhammad?

God Blessed Abraham: Muhammad came from the progeny of Abraham through Ishmael (promised by God).

Where is oldest Quran?

The Topkapi manuscript is an early manuscript of the Quran dated to the early 8th century. It is kept in the Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul, Turkey.

Which is older Quran or Bible?

The Bible is older than the Quran. The Quran was written by Muhammad in the 500 ADs. The Bible consists of books written centuries before. All of them were compiled into the Bible at a later time but the books themselves existed before the Quran.

How old is Quran?

The history of the Quran dates back to around 610 AD when words of the Quran were first revealed to the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. According to Islamic traditions, Muhammad continued to have revelations until he died around 632 AD.

How old is Islam in years?

The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula.

Who founded Hinduism?

Unlike other religions, Hinduism has no one founder but is instead a fusion of various beliefs. Around 1500 B.C., the Indo-Aryan people migrated to the Indus Valley, and their language and culture blended with that of the indigenous people living in the region.

Islam

Islam, after Christianity, is the second most popular religion in the world, with around 1.8 billion Muslims practicing their faith globally. Despite the fact that Islam’s origins trace back far older, experts generally agree that it was founded in the 7th century, making it the most recent of the major global faiths. Islamic teachings were first taught at Mecca, which is now part of modern-day Saudi Arabia, during the prophet Muhammad’s lifetime. Today, the faith is expanding at an alarming rate around the world.

Islam Facts

  • The term “Islam” literally translates as “submission to God’s will.”
  • Muslims are those who adhere to Islam
  • Muslims are monotheistic and worship a single, all-knowing God, known in Arabic as Allah
  • Muslims are those who adhere to other religions. Islamic adherents strive to live lives of total surrender to Allah and His will. Despite their belief that nothing can happen without Allah’s approval, they acknowledge that humans possess free choice. Islamic teachings hold that Allah’s word was given to the prophet Muhammad by the angel Gabriel, and Muslims believe that other prophets were sent to teach Allah’s law throughout history. They hold several of the same prophets in high regard as Jews and Christians, including Abraham, Moses, Noah, and Jesus, among others. According to Muslims, Muhammad was the final prophet. Moschees are sites of religious prayer for Muslims. In addition to the Kaaba shrine in Mecca and the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem, some notable Islamic holy sites are the Prophet Muhammad’s mosque in Medina and the Kaaba in Mecca. The Quran (also known as the Koran) is the most important religious document in Islam. Another significant literature is the Hadith (also known as the Sunnah). Muslims also hold some passages from the Judeo-Christian Bible in high regard
  • Followers of Islam worship Allah via prayer and recitation of the Quran. It is their belief that there will be a day of judgment and that there is life after death. “Jihad,” which literally translates as “battle,” is a major concept in Islam. Despite the fact that the phrase has been used negatively in popular society, Muslims feel it refers to internal and outward attempts to protect their religious beliefs. Although uncommon, military jihad may be used in the event of a “just war” being declared.

Muhammad

Muhammad, also known as Mohammed or Mohammad, was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, around 570 A.D., and is considered to be the founder of Islam. According to Muslims, he was the final prophet sent by God to proclaim their beliefs to the rest of the world. Islam’s sacred writings and traditions claim that an angel called Gabriel came to visit Muhammad during his meditation session in a cave in the year 610 AAD. Muhammad was instructed by the angel to repeat the words of Allah. Muslims believe that Muhammad continued to receive revelations from Allah for the rest of his life, despite his physical limitations.

He preached that there was only one God, Allah, and that Muslims should devote their lives to worshipping this one and only God.

Hijra

Muhammad and his supporters embarked on a journey from Mecca to Medina in 622. The Hijra (sometimes written Hegira or Hijrah) is a voyage that marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar and is commemorated on the Islamic calendar. A little more than seven years later, Muhammad and his throngs of followers returned to Mecca and completely subjugated the surrounding area. He preached until his death in 632, at the age of 84.

Abu Bakr

Following Muhammad’s death, Islam began to spread at an alarming rate. Following Muhammad’s death, a succession of leaders known as caliphs ascended to the throne. A caliphate was a system of leadership in which a Muslim monarch was in charge and was administered by a Muslim king. The first caliph was Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law and close friend, who reigned as the Prophet Muhammad’s successor. Caliph Umar, another father-in-law of Muhammad, ascended to the throne in 634 when Abu Bakr died around two years after he was chosen.

Caliphate System

The job of caliph was taken up by Uthman, Muhammad’s son-in-law, when Umar was slain six years after being proclaimed caliph. Uthman was assassinated as well, and Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, was chosen to be the caliph in his place. During the tenure of the first four caliphs, Arab Muslims conquered vast swaths of the Middle East, including Syria, Palestine, Iran, and Iraq, among other places. Islam also expanded throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia, as well as throughout the Middle East.

The caliphate system endured for decades and eventually gave rise to the Ottoman Empire, which ruled over significant areas of the Middle East from around 1517 until World War I brought the Ottoman Empire to an end on November 11, 1917.

Sunnis and Shiites

When Muhammad died, there was a heated controversy over who should take over as leader of the Muslim community. Due to this division among the Islamic community, two major sects emerged: the Sunnis and the Shiites. Sunnis constitute roughly 90 percent of all Muslims in the globe. They acknowledge that Muhammad’s first four caliphs were the legitimate successors to him. Muslims who follow the Shiite school of thought believe that only the caliph Ali and his descendants are legitimate heirs to Muhammad.

Shiite Muslims now have a significant presence in Iran, Iraq, and Syria, among other places.

Other Types of Islam

Other, minor Muslim denominations exist within the Sunni and Shiite communities, in addition to the larger ones. Some of these are as follows:

  • Wahhabi: This Sunni sect, which was created in Saudi Arabia in the 18th century by members of the Tameem clan, is a branch of Islam. Followers adhere to Muhammad ibn Abd al-exceedingly Wahhab’s stringent interpretation of Islam, which he taught them. Alawite: This Shiite branch of Islam is widely practiced in Syria. Followers of the caliph Ali retain similar views about him, but they also mark various Christian and Zoroastrian feasts, as well. Nation of Islam (also known as the Muslim Brotherhood): This Sunni sect with a majority of African-American members was created in Detroit, Michigan, in the 1930s. A disagreement over the method of selecting a new leader caused this group to split from the Shiites. They are well-known for their hardline fundamentalism, and they are now referred to as Ibadis.
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Quran

The Holy Quran. Nazaruddin Abdul Hamed/EyeEm/Getty Images Nazaruddin Abdul Hamed For Muslims, the Quran (also known as the Koran or the Qur’an) is regarded to be the most significant sacred book in existence. In addition to certain essential material that can be found in the Hebrew Bible, it also contains revelations that were delivered to Muhammad. The text is regarded to be God’s sacred word, and it supersedes all prior works in this regard. The majority of Muslims believe that Muhammad’s scribes recorded his utterances, which were later compiled into the Quran.

It is divided into 114 chapters, which are referred to as surahs.

Why the Quran Was a Bestseller Among Christians in Eighteenth Century America.

Islamic Calendar

The Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijra calendar, is a lunar calendar used in Islamic religious devotion that is based on the lunar month of Ramadan. The calendar began in the year 622 A.D., commemorating Muhammad’s trip from Mecca to Medina, and has been in use ever since. According to the Islamic calendar, religious festivals and festivities are held on the appropriate days, including the month-long period of fasting and prayer known as Ramadan, which takes place during the ninth month of the calendar.

Islam Symbols

Just as there is no internationally acceptable image or symbol of Islam, there is no single image or symbol of Islam that is universally approved by all Muslims worldwide. Despite the fact that the crescent moon and star picture is considered to have predated Islam and was first used as a sign of the Ottoman Empire, the crescent moon and star image has been embraced as a symbol of Islam in several mostly Muslim nations. In various other contexts, like as the International Red Cross and Red Crescenthumanitarian help movement, a red crescent signifies that Muslims are accepted and treated as such by their fellow citizens.

As a result, the color green is sometimes connected with Islam, as it was supposedly a favorite hue of Muhammad’s, and it is frequently depicted prominently on the flags of nations with a largely Muslim population.

Five Pillars of Islam

Unlike in many faiths, Islam does not have a single picture or symbol recognized by all Muslims across the world, as is true with many others. It is claimed that the crescent moon and star picture dates back to pre-Islamic times, and that it was first used as a sign of the Ottoman Empire before being accepted as a symbol of Islam in several mostly Muslim nations. In various other contexts, like as the International Red Cross and Red Crescenthumanitarian relief movement, a red crescent signifies that Muslims are recognized and treated as such by those in authority.

  • Declaring one’s trust in God and confidence in Muhammad is known as a Shahada. Salat: a five-times-a-day prayer (at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening) that includes the following: Zakat is a religious obligation to contribute to people in need. Sawm: to refrain from eating or drinking during Ramadan
  • It is obligatory for all Muslims to do the Hajj at least once throughout their lifetime (if they are physically able to do so).

Sharia Law

Declaring one’s trust in God and believe in Muhammad is known as a shahada (proclamation). Salat: a five-times-a-day prayer (at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening) that consists of reciting the Quran. In Islam, Zakat is defined as a charitable contribution to people in need. In Ramadan, Sawm is required to fast. Making a journey to Mecca at least once throughout one’s lifetime, if one is able, is known as the Hajj.

Muslim Prayer

Building the first mosque in Medina is attributed to the prophet Muhammad, who did it in the courtyard of his residence in Medina. Some of the precepts he established in 622 A.D. continue to be followed by mosques today. A mosque’s big open area or outdoor courtyard is frequently used for Muslim prayer. When praying in a mosque, a mihrab is a decorative feature or niche that symbolizes the direction to Mecca and, consequently, the direction to face when praying. Separate prayers are offered for men and women, and Muslims are permitted to attend a mosque five times a day for each of the five prayer periods.

Muslim Holidays

The two most important Muslim festivals are as follows: The festival of Eid al-Adha commemorates the Prophet Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son in the service of Allah. Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting, comes to a conclusion on Eid al-Fitr, the feast of the harvest. Muslims also observe other religious festivals, such as the Islamic New Year and the birth of Muhammad, among others.

Islam Today

Recently, Islam’s alleged relationship with terrorism and mass murder has provoked heated political controversy in a number of nations, particularly in the Middle East. Radical Islam” has become a well-known moniker to define the religion’s association with acts of violence, despite its use being contentious at the time. Surveys recently conducted have revealed that in nations with large Muslim populations, the vast majority of Muslims hold highly unfavorable attitudes about terrorist organizations such as ISIS.

Islam is currently the fastest-growing religion in the world. According to experts, Islam will overtake Christianity as the world’s most popular religion by the end of the century.

Sources

Islam,BBC. Islam is the second most popular religion in the world. Religious Tolerance is increasing in number. Islam in a Nutshell, CNN. The Fundamentals of Islam, and PBS. What is Sharia Law, and how does it work in practice? BBC. ISIS is reviled in countries with large Muslim populations, and this is especially true in Europe. Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan research organization. The Religion Library’s Islam Rituals and Worship: Symbolism section has further information. The Islamic Calendar is available at TimeandDate.com.

When Did Islam Begin?

A long and complicated history has been woven into the fabric of Islam. The history of Islam is vital for Muslims to understand, which is why we’ve put together this essay, which covers the very origins of Islam and how the religion was spread around the world by Prophets who shared the teachings of Allah (SWT).

When Was Islam Founded?

When did Islam begin? is one of the most often asked questions concerning the religion’s history. Its beginnings may be traced back to 610 A.D., when the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) first encountered the Angel Jibril and was inspired to communicate the teachings of Allah with the world (SWT).

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was born in the Arabian city of Mecca in the year 570 A.D. His parents were Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib and Amina bint Wahb, and he was born in the city of Muttalib. He had a total of 13 wives, two of them gave birth to children for him. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is regarded to be the last of the 25 prophets who were chosen by Allah (SWT) to transmit His teachings throughout the world. Muhammad (PBUH) and his first wife, Khadija, lived in Mecca during the year 610 A.D., which was under the control of the Quraysh.

  1. The city was in command of key commercial routes that ran from Arabia to Syria and Yemen, among other places.
  2. In an attempt to get clarity after hearing voices and seeing visions, Muhammad (PBUH) frequented a cave on Mount Hira to meditate in an effort to gain clarity.
  3. Even though Muhammad’s (PBUH) background included being a trader who was unable to read or write, the Angel Jibril directed him to memorize the words of Allah (SWT).
  4. Following the incident, he confessed in his wife, who stood by him and supported him wholeheartedly.
  5. Although some scholars dispute this, others say that it might have occurred on any of the odd-numbered nights of the last 10 days of Ramadan, if not all of them.

He began to share some of the teachings he was receiving and gained a small following, but Arabia was still predominantly polytheistic at the time, and many people became enraged at Muhammad (PBUH), believing that pagan gods protected their trade and were fearful of what might happen to their livelihoods if they accepted Muhammad’s (PBUH) monotheistic teachings.

Hegira

However, when his wife died in 619 A.D., and his uncle, Banu Hashim clan leader Abu Talib, died the next year (the year of mourning), he became exposed to assaults, despite the fact that many people did not agree with Muhammad (PBUH). He and his disciples were subjected to physical attacks, and as a result, they had no choice but to relocate to the city of Medina. Hegira is the name of the movement, which took place in 622 A.D. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was summoned to Medina by city officials in an attempt to heal the divisions that existed between different tribes residing in Medina, namely those belonging to the Arab and Jewish communities.

For his adjudication responsibilities, Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers were granted the ability to practice their faith while also being safeguarded by the government.

Return to Mecca

Muhammad (PBUH) returned to Mecca in 628 A.D. after a three-year absence. In the course of his journey, he was stopped by the Quraysh, who ultimately agreed to a peace known as the Hudaybiyah treaty. Because the Quraysh recognized and revered Muhammad (PBUH) and the religion of Islam, they decided that adherents of Islam would not experience persecution and would be treated on an equal footing with other citizens of the community.

The Evolution of Islam

In the years leading up to his death in 632 A.D., Muhammad (PBUH) continued to receive visits from the Angel Jibril, who brought him new lessons from Allah (SWT). There are five fundamental practices that underpin the Islamic religion, and they are as follows:

  • Shahada — the act of publicly professing your loyalty to and believe in Allah (SWT) and the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Salat is the act of praying five times a day, seven days a week. Zakat is the act of donating to a charitable cause. In Islam, sawm is the practice of fasting throughout the holy month of Ramadan. It is obligatory to make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca, which is known as Hajj.
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Currently, there are several diverse sects within the religion of Islam, each of which adheres to a different school of thought. However, all of them are founded on the five foundations established by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and the teachings he and the other twenty-four prophets shared.

Islam Now

Islam has increased in popularity since its founding in 610 A.D., and it is today the second most prevalent religion in the world. Muslims may be found in every corner of the world, and they are well appreciated by people of all religions and cultural backgrounds.

Islam

Muslims believe that the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7th century CE propagated Islam, which is a prominent international religion. The Arabic termislam, which literally translates as “submission,” illustrates the essential theological notion of Islam: that the believer (also known as a Muslim, from the active component ofislam) accepts surrender to the will ofAllah (in Arabic, Allah is translated as “God”). According to Islam, Allah is the one God, who is the creator, sustainer, and restorer of the universe.

  1. In Islam, Muhammad is regarded as the final prophet in a line of prophets that includes Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Solomon, and Jesus, and his teaching both summarizes and completes the “revelations” credited to preceding prophets, according to Islamic tradition.
  2. By the beginning of the twenty-first century, there were more than 1.5 billion Muslims in the globe.
  3. Britannica QuizIslam What is your level of knowledge about the Prophet Muhammad?
  4. With this quiz, you may see how well you know about Islam.

The essential ideas and practices of Islam, as well as the relationship between religion and society in the Islamic world, are discussed in the article Islamic world. The history of the numerous peoples who have adopted Islam is also discussed in the article Islamic world.

The foundations of Islam

When Islam was first introduced to the world, Muhammad instilled in his followers an understanding of brotherhood as well as a shared commitment to their faith. These qualities contributed to the development among his followers of a strong sense of closeness that was heightened by their experiences of persecution as a fledgling community in Mecca. It was only through a deep devotion to the teachings of the Qur’anic revelation and the evident socioeconomic substance of Islamic religious activities that this bond of faith could be strengthened.

The religion of Islam developed its distinctive ethos during this early period, as a religion that encompassed both the spiritual and temporal aspects of life, and that sought to regulate not only the individual’s relationship with God (through conscience), but also human relationships in a social setting.

Select Muslim intellectuals did not differentiate between the religious (private) and the secular (public) until the twentieth century, and only in some countries, such as Turkey, was the distinction formalized.

This dual religious and social character of Islam, which manifests itself in one way as a religious community commissioned by God to bring its own value system to the world through theji After the Prophet’s death in 632ce, they had placed a huge portion of the world under the control of a new ArabMuslim empire, stretching from Spain to Central Asia and India.

  1. Islam’s fundamental equality within the community of the faithful, as well as its explicit discrimination against adherents of other religions, attracted a large number of recruits quickly.
  2. They were, however, obligated to pay a per capita tax known as jizyah, as contrast to pagans, who were forced to either adopt Islam or die as a result of their refusal.
  3. During the period after the 12th century, the Sufis (Muslim mystics) were largely responsible for the spread of Islam in India, Central Asia, Turkey, and sub-Saharan Africa, as well as other parts of the world (see below).
  4. Islam was brought to Indonesia in the 14th century, but it had little time to establish a political foothold in the country before the region fell under the control of the Dutch.
  5. All elements of Muslim society, on the other hand, are united by a shared religious belief and a sense of belonging to a single community of believers.

In the mid-20th century, the religion of Islam aided many Muslim peoples across their quest for political independence, and the oneness of Islam led to subsequent political solidarity in the world.

Sources of Islamic doctrinal and social views

In Islamic theology, law, and thinking in general, four sources, or essential principles (ul), are relied upon: (1) the Qur’an, (2) the Sunnah (or “Traditions”), (3) the Ijma (or “consensus”), and (4) the Ijtihd (or “individual thought”). Known as the Qur’an (literally, “reading” or “recitation”), it is said to be the verbatimword, or speech, of God, as given to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel. It is the most important source of Islamic doctrine since it is divided into 114 suras (chapters) of varying length.

  1. The suras revealed at Medina at a later stage in the Prophet’s life are primarily concerned with social law and the political-moral principles that should guide the formation and organization of the community.
  2. Photograph by Orhan Am/Fotolia Pre-Islamic Arabs used the term sunnah (which means “a well-trodden road”) to refer to their tribe or common law systems.
  3. Six of these compilations, which were collected in the 3rd centuryah (9th centuryce), came to be considered as particularly authoritative by the Sunnis, who constitute the majority of Islam’s population.
  4. To unify legal theory and practice, as well as to remove individual and regional variations of opinion, the doctrine ofijm, also known as orconsensus, was established in the 2nd centuryah (eighth centuryce).
  5. The concept of Ahijm has existed since the 3rd century and has come to represent a principle of stability in thought; topics on which consensus had been established in practice were deemed closed, and any further meaningful questioning of them was forbidden.

Finding the legal or doctrinal answer to a new situation necessitated the use of the word ijtihd, which means “to endeavor” or “to exert effort.” During the early period of Islamic history, becauseijtihd took the form of individual opinion (ray), there was an abundance of contradictory and chaotic viewpoints to choose from.

While the “gate ofijtihd” in Sunni Islam was effectively closed by the turning of Ijm into a conservative mechanism and the adoption of a final collection of Hadith, the “gate ofijtihd” remained open in Shi’ism.

The Qur’an and Hadith are studied in further detail below. It will be addressed below in the frameworks of Islamictheology, philosophy, and law what the importance of Ijm and Ijtih is.

HISTORY OF ISLAM

Islam:7th century
In the 7th century Arabia becomes the cradle of the world’s third great monotheistic religion. All three have begun within a small area of southwest Asia. FirstJudaism, somewhere in the region stretching up from the Red Sea to Palestine; thenChristianityat the northern end of this area; and finally Islam to the south, in Mecca, close to the Red Sea.Each of the later arrivals in this close family of religions claims to build upon the message of its predecessors, bringing a better and more up-to-date version of the truth about the one God – in this case as revealed to the Messenger of God, Muhammad. Islam means ‘surrender’ (to God), and from the same root anyone who follows Islam is a Muslim.
It is on Mount Hira, according to tradition, that the archangel Gabriel appears to Muhammad. He describes later how he seemed to be grasped by the throat by a luminous being, who commanded him to repeat the words of God. On other occasions Muhammad often has similar experiences (though there are barren times, and periods of self doubt, when he is sustained only by his wifeKhadija ‘s unswerving faith in him).From about 613 Muhammad preaches inMeccathe message which he has received.
Muhammad’s message is essentially the existence of one God, all-powerful but also merciful, and he freely acknowledges that other prophets – in particular Abraham, Moses and Jesus – have preached the same truth in the past.But monotheism is not a popular creed with those whose livelihood depends on idols. Muhammad, once he begins to win converts to the new creed, makes enemies among the traders of Mecca. In 622 there is a plot to assassinate him. He escapes to the town of Yathrib, about 300 kilometres to the north.
Muhammad and the Muslim era:from622
The people of Yathrib, a prosperous oasis, welcome Muhammad and his followers. As a result, the move from Mecca in 622 comes to seem the beginning of Islam.The Muslim era dates from the Hegira – Arabic for’emigration’, meaning Muhammad’s departure from Mecca. In the Muslimcalendarthis event marks the beginning of year 1.
Yathrib is renamed Madinat al Nabi, the ‘city of the prophet’, and thus becomes known as Medina. Here Muhammad steadily acquires a stronger following. He is now essentially a religious, political and even military leader rather than a merchant (Khadijahas died in 619).He continues to preach and recite the words which God reveals to him. It is these passages, together with the earlier revelations at Mecca, which are written down in theArabic scriptby his followers and are collected to become the Qur’an – a word (often transliterated as Koran) with its roots in the idea of ‘recital’, reflecting the oral origin of the text. The final and definitive text of the Qur’an is established under the third caliph, Othman, in about 650.
The Muslims and Mecca: 624-630
Relations with Mecca deteriorate to the point of pitched battles between the two sides, with Muhammad leading his troops in the field. But in the end it is his diplomacy which wins the day.He persuades the Meccans to allow his followers back into the city, in 629, to make a pilgrimage to the Ka’ba and the Black Stone.
On this first Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad’s followers impress the local citizens both by their show of strength and by their self-control, departing peacefully after the agreed three days. But the following year the Meccans break a truce, provoking the Muslims to march on the city.They take Mecca almost without resistance. The inhabitants accept Islam. And Muhammad sweeps the idols out of theKa’ba, leaving only the sacred Black Stone.
An important element in Mecca’s peaceful acceptance of the change has been Muhammad’s promise that pilgrimage to the Ka’ba will remain a central feature of the new religion.So Mecca becomes, as it has remained ever since, the holy city of Islam. But Medina is by now where Muhammad and his most trusted followers live. And for the next few decades Medina will be the political centre of the developing Muslim state.
Muhammad lives only two years after the peaceful reconciliation with Mecca. He has no son. His only surviving children are daughters by Khadija, though since her death he has married several younger women, among whom his favourite is A’isha.
Muhammad and the caliphate:from632-656
There is no clear successor to Muhammad among his followers. The likely candidates include Abu Bakr (the father of Muhammad’s wifeA’isha) andAli(a cousin of Muhammad and the husband of Muhammad’s daughter Fatima). Abu Bakr is elected, and takes the title ‘khalifat rasul-Allah’.The Arabic phrase means ‘successor of the Messenger of God’. It will introduce a new word, caliph, to the other languages of the world.
Abu Bakr, the first caliph, lives no more than two years after the death of Muhammad. Even so, within this brief time Muslim armies have begun their astonishing expansion, subduing the whole of Arabia and striking as far north as Palestine.Abu Bakr is succeeded in 634 by Omar (another father-in-law of Muhammad), who in 638 capturesJerusalem. Six years later Omar is stabbed and killed in the mosque at Medina – for personal reasons, it seems, by a Persian craftsman living in Kufa.
Othman, chosen as the third caliph, is a son-in-law of Muhammad. By the end of his reign, in 656, Arabs have conquered as far afield as north Africa, Turkey and Afghanistan.Othman, like his predecessor, is assassinated -but this time by rebellious Muslims. They chooseali, another son-in-law of Muhammad, as the fourth caliph. For the first time within the Muslim community the selected caliph is the choice of just one faction. Ali’s caliphate eventually provokes the only major sectarian split in the history of Islam, betweenSunni and Shi’a(seeThe Shi’as).
Ali: 656-661
Raised to the position of caliph by rebels, Ali spends most of his reign in conflict with other Muslims. He wins the first battle, near Basra in 656, against an army fighting in support of Muhammad’s widow,A’isha. She is herself in the fray, riding a camel, with the result that the event is remembered as the ‘battle of the camel’.But it is Ali’s last success. The governor of Syria, Mu’awiya, wages a prolonged campaign against him to avenge the murder of the caliphOthman, his kinsman. Other opponents succeed in assassinating Ali, in 661, outside the mosque in Kufa – a Muslim garrison town to which he has moved the capital fromMedina.
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Islam – a brief overview – CNN.com

(CNN) – The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is urging farmers to plant more than a million acres of crops this year. Muslim religion, along with Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, and Christianity, is considered to be one of the world’s main faiths. Since its inception in Arabia more than 1,400 years ago, it has grown at a breakneck pace, having a significant effect on philosophy, literature, the arts, science, and medicine all around the world. Today, an estimated 1.1 billion people living in the world who identify as Muslims, and the Islamic traditions that they adhere to are as diverse as the countries in which they live.

  • Islam literally translates as “surrender” or “submission” to the will of God in Arabic.
  • and resided in Medina around the year 622.
  • The Koran, which literally translates as “the eternal words of God,” is the sacred book of Islam.
  • The Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam, and it is mandatory for all Muslims.
  • Every Muslim is required to travel to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime, according to Islamic law.
  • Sunnism and Shi’ism are the two most important sects of Islam.

BBC – Religions – Islam: Early rise of Islam (632-700)

The Muslim community grew throughout the Middle East as a consequence of conquest, and the expansion of the Muslim state that resulted offered a fertile environment for the newly revealed faith to take root and flourish. The religious inspiration for the military conquest was strong, but it was also fueled by wealth and politics. Men fought for the sake of their faith, the promise of loot, and the fact that their friends and other tribesmen were also engaged in combat. Hugh Kennedy’s 2001 book, The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State, is a good example of this.

The history problem

It is possible to find many narratives from this time period regarding the early Muslim conquests, although most of the material is inaccurate and written in a style that glorifies the conquerors and their god. Although they provide some insight into the big events of the seventh century, they are just incomplete explanations. However, this is not to suggest that the Muslims were not courageous or that their belief that they were carrying out Allah’s will was not significant: it was unquestionably.

Despite the massive amount of words written, we have yet to discover the complete explanation for Muslim success. Hugh Kennedy’s 2001 book, The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State, is a good example of this.

Conversion by conquest?

Although it is impossible to determine if Islam was the driving force behind Muslim military development, one new book shows that Islam undoubtedly aided the rise of Muslim power.only one viable explanation exists for Arab success—and that is the spirit of Islam. The generous terms that the conquering troops frequently presented enabled their faith to be accepted by the subjugated inhabitants. Moreover, even though it was a young and upstart religion, its administration by simple and honest individuals was better to the corruption and persecution that were the norm in more sophisticated civilizations at the time.

  • Nafziger and Mark W.
  • And Islam reaped enormous benefits from the improbable military victories of the troops of Arabian Arabia.
  • Simply said, Islam may have accelerated the conquests, but it also shown far more long-term viability.
  • Islam at War: A History, edited by George F.
  • Walton, published in 2003.
  • Following the Ridda wars and the Arabs’ quick conquest of the majority of the Near East, the new religion was more clearly characterized as a monotheistic religion for the Arab people than it had been previously.
  • The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800, by Jonathan P.

The justification of conquest

Whether Islam was the driving force behind early Muslim imperialism or not, it could be used to offer justification for it in the same way that it had previously been used to defend Muhammad’s own actions against his adversaries. The Qur’an contains a number of passages that support military action against non-Muslims, such as:But when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem; but when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them (of war).

Qur’an 9:5 (from the Qur’an) You must fight all of those who deny the existence of Allah and the Last Day, as well as those who adhere to that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and who refuse to recognize the religion of Truth (even though they are) of the People of the Book.

Considering that the armies of those days were not like contemporary armies – rather, they were more like an association of tribal mercenary groups that received no compensation and received their sole material benefit from the spoils of war – this is hardly unexpected.

After Muhammad’s death

When Islam was elevated to a political stature and given the function of both a political and a religious force by Muhammad, the military conquests served to solidify this position. For a caliph like Umar, it appears that he considered himself first and foremost as the leader of the Arabs, and that their monotheistic religion served as the religious component of their new political identities. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800, by Jonathan P. Berkey, published in 2003.

The conquest of Arabia

Following Muhammad’s death in 632 CE, the new Muslim commonwealth began to experience difficulties. Some tribes came to the conclusion that, because their commitment to Islam had been largely to Muhammad himself, Muhammad’s death gave them the opportunity to renounce their allegiance to Mecca and to Islam. Furthermore, the Prophet had not given clear instructions as to who would be in charge of the community following his death, which made matters much more complicated. Fortunately, the community picked Abu Bakr, the Prophet’s close associate and father-in-law, to be his successor very soon after his death.

Abu Bakr took rapid military action against the villages that were attempting to secede from the government.

Expansion in the Middle East

The caliph Abu Bakr died in 634, and his successor was Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph, who governed until his death in 644. After becoming the ruler of a vast, cohesive kingdom with a well-organized army, Umar utilized this position as a vehicle to advance Islam’s expansion throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Umar’s first operations were against the Byzantine Empire, which he defeated. Following the crucial Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the Muslim troops seized the erstwhile Byzantine realms of Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, bringing them under their control.

It was made considerably simpler by the weakness of the Sassanid Empire, which had been devastated by internal disputes and a protracted battle with the Byzantine Empire when this conquest took place.

Is proselytism still appropriate?

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For complete instructions, go to BBC Webwise. In this debate, Christians and Muslims compare and contrast their respective histories of mission, conversion, and religious growth around the world. Is there a religion that has a monopoly on the truth?

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