Islam started in Mecca, in modern-day Saudi Arabia, during the time of the prophet Muhammad’s life. Today, the faith is spreading rapidly throughout the world.
- Origin Of Islam Origin of Islam: According to Secular History The origin of Islam can be traced back to 7th century Saudi Arabia. Islam is thus the youngest of the great world religions. The prophet Muhammad (circa 570-632 A.D.) introduced Islam in 610 A.D. after experiencing what he claimed to be an angelic visitation.
- 1 How did Islam begin?
- 2 Where did Islam emerge quizlet?
- 3 Who is founder of Islam?
- 4 Who was the founder of Islam and where was it founded?
- 5 How did Islam originate and spread?
- 6 How was Islam founded quizlet?
- 7 Where is Mecca Madina located?
- 8 Who wrote the Quran?
- 9 Who built the Kaaba?
- 10 How did Muhammad look like?
- 11 How did the city of Mecca affect the origins of Islam?
- 12 Where are Islamic countries located?
- 13 Teachers Guide – Muslims
- 14 Islamic world – Islamic history from 1683 to the present: reform, dependency, and recovery
- 15 Precolonial reform and experimentation from 1683 to 1818
- 16 HISTORY OF ISLAM
- 17 Muhammad and the Faith of Islam [ushistory.org]
- 18 The origins of Islam
- 19 BBC – Religions – Islam: Early rise of Islam (632-700)
- 20 After Muhammad’s death
- 21 How did the Christian Middle East become predominantly Muslim?
- 22 History of the Early Islamic World for Kids: Caliphate
How did Islam begin?
The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula. The angel recites to him the first revelations of the Quran and informs him that he is God’s prophet.
Where did Islam emerge quizlet?
Islam began in Mecca, but was grown in Medina (a city 300 miles north of Mecca).
Who is founder of Islam?
The Prophet Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. The rise of Islam is intrinsically linked with the Prophet Muhammad, believed by Muslims to be the last in a long line of prophets that includes Moses and Jesus.
Who was the founder of Islam and where was it founded?
Muhammad was the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qurʾān, Islam’s sacred scripture. He spent his entire life in what is now the country of Saudi Arabia, from his birth about 570 CE in Mecca to his death in 632 in Medina.
How did Islam originate and spread?
Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries. Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time. The caliphate—a new Islamic political structure—evolved and became more sophisticated during the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates.
How was Islam founded quizlet?
Muhammad, born in 570 in Mecca, is the founder of Islam. He began speaking publicly about his religious ideas after he had received a series of revelations from God. In 622 Muhammad and his followers were forced to leave Mecca. This is called hegira, and marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.
Where is Mecca Madina located?
Mecca, Arabic Makkah, ancient Bakkah, city, western Saudi Arabia, located in the Ṣirāt Mountains, inland from the Red Sea coast.
Who wrote the Quran?
The Prophet Muhammad disseminated the Koran in a piecemeal and gradual manner from AD610 to 632, the year in which he passed away. The evidence indicates that he recited the text and scribes wrote down what they heard.
Who built the Kaaba?
Some say that it was built by the angels. Others say the father of humankind, Adam built the Kaba but over many centuries it fell into disrepair and was lost in the mists of time, to be rebuilt by Prophet Abraham and his son Ishmael. All agree that the Kaba was either built or rebuilt by Prophet Abraham.
How did Muhammad look like?
He had black eyes that were large with long lashes. His joints were rather large. He had little hairs that stood up, extending from his chest down to his navel, but the rest of his body was almost hairless. “He had thick palms and thick fingers and toes.
How did the city of Mecca affect the origins of Islam?
A man meditating alone in a cave near Mecca received a religious vision. This vision laid the foundations for a new religion. The year was 610 and the man’s name was Muhammad. And the belief system that arose from Muhammad’s ideas became the basis of one of the world’s most widely practiced religions: Islam.
Where are Islamic countries located?
The main regions of the world with a predominantly Islamic population are located in Central Asia, the entire Middle East and Western Asia (except Armenia and Israel), all of North Africa, and many countries in West Africa, South Asia, and Maritime Southeast Asia.
Teachers Guide – Muslims
|Discussion and Activities|
|Beliefs and Daily Lives of Muslims|
Following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40, the year 610 is commemorated as the beginning of Islamic history. Muslims all throughout the Arabian peninsula followed Muhammad and his companions in spreading the principles of Islam. Following the death of the prophet Muhammad, military expeditions were launched into what is now Egypt and other regions of North Africa, which were dubbed “futuhat,” which literally translates as “openings.” Islam expanded around the world through trade and business in various regions of the world.
In the year 570 C.E.
He is descended from a noble family and is well-known for his honesty and uprightness of moral character.
- According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad has a visit from the angel Gabriel while on seclusion in a cave in Mecca when he reaches the age of 40.
- Later, Muhammad is instructed to summon his people to the worship of the one God, but they respond with animosity and begin to punish him and his followers as a result of his actions.
- After facing persecution in Mecca, Muhammad and his followers flee to the adjacent town of Yathrib (which would eventually become known as Medina), where the locals welcomed Islam.
- Muhammad builds an Islamic kingdom in Medina, which is founded on the rules given in the Quran as well as the inspired direction he receives from the Almighty.
- Muhammad comes to Mecca with a significant number of his supporters in the year 630 CE.
- The prophet orders the removal of all idols and images from the Kaaba, which is thereafter rededicated to the worship of God alone.
- after a lengthy illness.
In 638 C.E., Muslims cross the border into the region north of Arabia known as “Sham,” which encompasses Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, and Iraq.
and rout the Byzantine army in the process.
Islam begins to expand over North Africa in the year 655 C.E.
This also marks the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty’s reign of terror.
The Islamic state eventually gains control over nearly the whole Iberian Peninsula.
by Charles Martel’s forces.
From 1000 C.E.
The European Crusaders capture Jerusalem from the Muslims in 1099 C.E.
Islam continues to spread throughout Asia as of the year 1120 C.E.
Turkey’s Anatolia region becomes the site of the formation of the first Ottoman state in 1299 C.E.
Around the year 1800 C.E., over 30% of Africans who were forced into slavery in the United States were Muslim.
The Ottoman Empire, the last of the Islamic empires, is defeated and destroyed at the end of World War I, marking the end of the war.
Traditional religious ways of life are under attack, and in some cases, have been completely obliterated.
Even while it is founded on some Islamic concepts, it also includes several innovations, like the designation or pronouncement of Elijah Muhammad as a prophet.
Some Palestinian and Lebanese refugees, including Muslims and Christians, have fled to the United States from their home countries.
Muslim students come to the U.S.
The revisions to immigration legislation made in 1965 C.E.
After his father’s death in 1975, C.E.Wallace D.
A few years later, he founds the Muslim American Society, which has a large membership, the majority of whom are African-American.
C.E. 1979 was a year of transition. Eventually, the Iranian Revolution leads to Iran becoming known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, which is the first attempt at an Islamic state in the contemporary age.
Islamic world – Islamic history from 1683 to the present: reform, dependency, and recovery
The historical development of contemporary Islam has frequently been interpreted in terms of the influence of “the West.” According to this viewpoint, the 18th century was a time of deterioration and a precursor to European dominance, which was typified by Napoleon I’s invasion of Egypt in 1798. The time of Western dominance, however, may also be seen as an intermission in the continuous development of indigenous approaches of modernization, rather than an end in itself. As a starting point for answering this topic, it is important to look back to the 18th century, when activity and revival were prevalent throughout the Islamic world.
The inevitable weaknesses of the military-conquest state had resulted in centralizedabsolutism, overdependence on continuous expansion, weakening of training for rule, the difficulty of ensuring efficiency and loyalty in a large and complex royal household and army, and the difficulty of generating sufficient revenues to support an increasingly lavish court life.
- Moreover, as was the case practically elsewhere in the world throughout the 18th century, the population rose at the same time as inflation and expensive reform diminished the income of central governments.
- Muslims could have been able to resurrect if they had maintained parity with all other cultures.
- Those cultures, in contrast to the majority of Islamic territories, were wealthy in natural resources (particularly fossil fuels, which could complement human and animal power) but lacked the space necessary for further growth.
- Centralized absolutism, while a noble goal, had not met with the same degree of success in Europe as it had in Islam.
- The influence of merchants in Islam had been curtailed by imperial overtaxation of local private industry, appropriation of the profits of trade, and the preferential treatment accorded to foreign traders, all of which were accomplished through agreements known as the Capitulations.
- In contrast to earlier inventions in the Oikoumene, Europe’s technology was unable to be readily transferred to cultures that had not experienced the necessary fundamental social and economic transformations prior to the invention.
- An unparalleled and long-lasting imbalance between different portions of the Oikoumene was created as a result of this combination of originality and copying.
- Throughout history, Islam’s influence as a source of public values has risen and fallen several times; it was at its peak in the 18th and 19th centuries, declined in the early twentieth century, and then rose once again after the mid-twentieth century.
The arrival of the first European settlers coincided with an existing process, which they substantially influenced but did not entirely modify.
Precolonial reform and experimentation from 1683 to 1818
A growing number of Muslims, beginning in the mid-17th century and continuing through the 18th and early 19th centuries, voiced an awareness of intrinsic weaknesses in their civilizations. In some locations, Muslims were mostly uninformed of the emergence of Europe; in others, such as India, Sumatra, and Java, the 18th century saw the establishment of European rule for the first time. There were two types of responses to decline: those that were official and those that were not, those that were Islamizing and those that were Europeanizing.
- In certain locations, political leaders tried to restore the status quo of existing political structures.
- A Turk from Khorsun named Nadr Qol Begre created the afavidarmy in the name of the Afavid shah in 1730, and he succeeded him as ruler in 1736, replacing him with himself.
- His efforts to adjacent kingdoms were directed at gaining their respect by attempting to represent Iran’s Shiismas amadhhab (school of Islamic law) alongside the Sunnimadhhab s (school of Islamic law).
- Despite the fact that Karm Khan Zand, a commander from Shrz, reigned in the name of the afavids, he was unable to restore genuine power to the shah.
- In the Ottoman Empire, restoration entailed the careful copying of European art and architecture.
- It was a marriage made in heaven when experiments with European manners and tastes were matched by experiments with European military technology.
- However, despite the fact that the Ottoman army was defeated by Ndir Shah, this initial phase of absolutist restoration came to an end, and the pursuit of European fashion had become a permanent feature of Ottoman society.
In addition to non-Muslim Ottoman subjects, the certificates of protection that had followed the Capitulations agreements were extended to non-Muslim Ottoman subjects, who progressively oriented themselves toward their foreign friends.
During the reign of Sultan Selim III, who took power in the first year of the French Revolution and governed until 1807, a second stage of absolutist restoration took place.
The legendary corps of Janissaries, the elite warriors who had been a source of Ottoman power, was decimated there, as it had done in Egypt under Muammad Al (reigned 1805–48), and they were replaced by men who had been educated in Europe.
With the increasing popularity of Westernization and the declining importance of Islamic public norms, there has been a resurgence of Islamic activity in various regions of the world, ranging from educational reform to jihad, which has served to counterbalance these trends.
Sufism may play a variety of functions in different situations.
They frequently encouraged the study of narratives about the Prophet Muhammad (Hadith), which they used to establish him as a model for spiritual and moral restoration while also invalidating numerous conventional or customary Islamic behaviors that they considered to be inappropriate.
Sufism might also be considered a cause of degeneracy, which would be unacceptable.
Ibn al-Wahhb, influenced by Ibn Taymiyyah (see aboveMigration and renewal), maintained that the Qur’an and Sunnahcould serve as the foundation for the restoration of Islamic society from the corrupt state in which it had become practiced.
Wahhbi scholars maintained that, far from favoring the traditional, the traditional had deviated significantly from the fundamentals, which can always be found in the Qur’an and Sunnah.
Unlike traditional conservative movements, this sort of movement did not exist in an Islamic environment because it sought not to conserve what had been passed down but to rejuvenate what had been neglected.
Despite the fact that the first state formed by this union did not endure, it provided the groundwork for the current Saudi state in Arabia and inspired similar action in other parts of the world that has continued to this day.
As in Arabia, Islamic action was focused less towards non-Muslims than at Muslims who had strayed from the path of righteousness.
Those Muslims were influenced by reformist academics from a variety of periods and places—for example, al-Ghazli, al-Suyi, and al-Maghli—as well as by a doctrine of jihad analogous to that of the Wahhbis and by expectations of amujaddidat the turn of the Islamic century inah1200 (1785ce).
Muhammad al-Jaylin in Ar, Shehuh Ahmadu Lobbo in Macina, al-JjjUmar Tal (a member of the reformist Tijnarqah) in Fouta Djallon, and Samory in the Malinke (Mandingo) states were among many who followed him.
To provide an example, in 1881 the Sudanese leader MuammadAmad announced himself to be the Mahd.
Its most famous representative was Shah Wali Allah of Delhi (1702–62), who served as the spiritual progenitor of all subsequent Indian Muslim reform movements.
He attempted to bring the Muslims of India together, not around Sufism, as Akbarhad attempted, but around the Shariah (Islamic law).
Once again, the study of Hadith supplied a plethora of precedents and sparked a constructive attitude of societal reconstruction analogous to that espoused by Muhammad. Palembang, Sumatra, Indonesia, and the Great Mosque. Richard Allen Thompson is an American businessman and philanthropist.
HISTORY OF ISLAM
|In the 7th century Arabia becomes the cradle of the world’s third great monotheistic religion. All three have begun within a small area of southwest Asia. FirstJudaism, somewhere in the region stretching up from the Red Sea to Palestine; thenChristianityat the northern end of this area; and finally Islam to the south, in Mecca, close to the Red Sea.Each of the later arrivals in this close family of religions claims to build upon the message of its predecessors, bringing a better and more up-to-date version of the truth about the one God – in this case as revealed to the Messenger of God, Muhammad. Islam means ‘surrender’ (to God), and from the same root anyone who follows Islam is a Muslim.|
|It is on Mount Hira, according to tradition, that the archangel Gabriel appears to Muhammad. He describes later how he seemed to be grasped by the throat by a luminous being, who commanded him to repeat the words of God. On other occasions Muhammad often has similar experiences (though there are barren times, and periods of self doubt, when he is sustained only by his wifeKhadija ‘s unswerving faith in him).From about 613 Muhammad preaches inMeccathe message which he has received.|
|Muhammad’s message is essentially the existence of one God, all-powerful but also merciful, and he freely acknowledges that other prophets – in particular Abraham, Moses and Jesus – have preached the same truth in the past.But monotheism is not a popular creed with those whose livelihood depends on idols. Muhammad, once he begins to win converts to the new creed, makes enemies among the traders of Mecca. In 622 there is a plot to assassinate him. He escapes to the town of Yathrib, about 300 kilometres to the north.|
|Muhammad and the Muslim era:from622|
|The people of Yathrib, a prosperous oasis, welcome Muhammad and his followers. As a result, the move from Mecca in 622 comes to seem the beginning of Islam.The Muslim era dates from the Hegira – Arabic for’emigration’, meaning Muhammad’s departure from Mecca. In the Muslimcalendarthis event marks the beginning of year 1.|
|Yathrib is renamed Madinat al Nabi, the ‘city of the prophet’, and thus becomes known as Medina. Here Muhammad steadily acquires a stronger following. He is now essentially a religious, political and even military leader rather than a merchant (Khadijahas died in 619).He continues to preach and recite the words which God reveals to him. It is these passages, together with the earlier revelations at Mecca, which are written down in theArabic scriptby his followers and are collected to become the Qur’an – a word (often transliterated as Koran) with its roots in the idea of ‘recital’, reflecting the oral origin of the text. The final and definitive text of the Qur’an is established under the third caliph, Othman, in about 650.|
|The Muslims and Mecca: 624-630|
|Relations with Mecca deteriorate to the point of pitched battles between the two sides, with Muhammad leading his troops in the field. But in the end it is his diplomacy which wins the day.He persuades the Meccans to allow his followers back into the city, in 629, to make a pilgrimage to the Ka’ba and the Black Stone.|
|On this first Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad’s followers impress the local citizens both by their show of strength and by their self-control, departing peacefully after the agreed three days. But the following year the Meccans break a truce, provoking the Muslims to march on the city.They take Mecca almost without resistance. The inhabitants accept Islam. And Muhammad sweeps the idols out of theKa’ba, leaving only the sacred Black Stone.|
|An important element in Mecca’s peaceful acceptance of the change has been Muhammad’s promise that pilgrimage to the Ka’ba will remain a central feature of the new religion.So Mecca becomes, as it has remained ever since, the holy city of Islam. But Medina is by now where Muhammad and his most trusted followers live. And for the next few decades Medina will be the political centre of the developing Muslim state.|
|Muhammad lives only two years after the peaceful reconciliation with Mecca. He has no son. His only surviving children are daughters by Khadija, though since her death he has married several younger women, among whom his favourite is A’isha.|
|Muhammad and the caliphate:from632-656|
|There is no clear successor to Muhammad among his followers. The likely candidates include Abu Bakr (the father of Muhammad’s wifeA’isha) andAli(a cousin of Muhammad and the husband of Muhammad’s daughter Fatima). Abu Bakr is elected, and takes the title ‘khalifat rasul-Allah’.The Arabic phrase means ‘successor of the Messenger of God’. It will introduce a new word, caliph, to the other languages of the world.|
|Abu Bakr, the first caliph, lives no more than two years after the death of Muhammad. Even so, within this brief time Muslim armies have begun their astonishing expansion, subduing the whole of Arabia and striking as far north as Palestine.Abu Bakr is succeeded in 634 by Omar (another father-in-law of Muhammad), who in 638 capturesJerusalem. Six years later Omar is stabbed and killed in the mosque at Medina – for personal reasons, it seems, by a Persian craftsman living in Kufa.|
|Othman, chosen as the third caliph, is a son-in-law of Muhammad. By the end of his reign, in 656, Arabs have conquered as far afield as north Africa, Turkey and Afghanistan.Othman, like his predecessor, is assassinated -but this time by rebellious Muslims. They chooseali, another son-in-law of Muhammad, as the fourth caliph. For the first time within the Muslim community the selected caliph is the choice of just one faction. Ali’s caliphate eventually provokes the only major sectarian split in the history of Islam, betweenSunni and Shi’a(seeThe Shi’as).|
|Raised to the position of caliph by rebels, Ali spends most of his reign in conflict with other Muslims. He wins the first battle, near Basra in 656, against an army fighting in support of Muhammad’s widow,A’isha. She is herself in the fray, riding a camel, with the result that the event is remembered as the ‘battle of the camel’.But it is Ali’s last success. The governor of Syria, Mu’awiya, wages a prolonged campaign against him to avenge the murder of the caliphOthman, his kinsman. Other opponents succeed in assassinating Ali, in 661, outside the mosque in Kufa – a Muslim garrison town to which he has moved the capital fromMedina.|
Muhammad and the Faith of Islam [ushistory.org]
A growing number of Muslims, beginning in the mid-17th century and continuing through the 18th and early 19th centuries, voiced an awareness of intrinsic weaknesses in their own civilizations. The development of Europe was virtually unknown to Muslims in certain countries, whilst in others, such as India, Sumatra, and Java, the 18th century saw the establishment of European rule. Historically, responses to decline have fallen into two groups: those that were official and those that were unofficial, those that were Islamizations and those that were Europeanizations.
- Leadership in certain places sought to resurrect previously-established political structures.
- A Turk from Khorsun named Nadr Qol Begre created the afavidarmy in the name of the Afavid shah in 1730, and he succeeded him as ruler in 1736, replacing the Afavids with himself.
- His efforts to adjacent kingdoms were directed at gaining their respect by attempting to represent Iran’s Shiismas amadhhab (school of Islamic law) alongside the Sunnimadhhab s But once he was assassinated in 1747, his reforms were unable to hold, and his mansion fell into disarray.
- Iran’s frontiers had already been secured by the Qajars (1779–1925), and restoring afavid legitimacy was unachievable by the time they had completed their mission.
- This period, which spans from 1718 to 1730, is known as the Tulip Period, in honor of the cultivation of a Perso-Turkish tulip that was then popular throughout Europe by the rich during this time period.
- The military’s resurgence, which had been critical to past Ottoman victories, was essential to the restoration effort, and Christian Europeans were recruited to carry out the mission.
- Between then and now, central power has continued to wane, particularly in the field of foreign trade.
After the unfortunate Treaty of Küük Kaynarca (1774) recognized the Russian emperor as protector of the Ottoman Greek Orthodox millet, the integration of such people into the Ottoman state was further hampered and eventually failed.
Its military and political reforms, known to as the “new order” (nizam-cedid), went beyond those of the Tulip Period in that they made use of European ideas; for example, the enlightened monarch, as personified by Napoleon himself, became an Ottoman national myth.
On the other hand, in some locations, leaders imagined or established new social structures that were explicitly Islamic in their orientation.
Islamic politics was frequently characterized by an oppositional nature that drew on long-standing traditions of distrust against the government of the day.
It might take the shape of refurbished arqahs, or fellowships centered on certain Islamic masters, to aid reform and create a consciousness characterized by Pan-Islamism (the idea that Islam can be the basis of a unified political and cultural order).
It was via sufiarqahs that interregional communication and interaction could be established, as well as an indigenous type of social structure that, in certain situations, such as Libya’s monarchy, could be established.
It was on the Arabian Peninsula that the most renowned and important militant anti-Sufi movement formed, initially known as al-Muwaidn (“the Monotheists”), but afterwards known as Wahhbiyyah, after its founder, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhb (1703–92).
Traditional Islam, on the other hand, was an impediment to progress.
They equated tradition with mindless imitation (taqld), whereas reform was associated with the devout personal effort (ijtihd) required to grasp the essence of the religion.
An Arab tribe in the Najd, commanded by Muammad ibn Sa’d, came out in favor of the Wahhba movement.
From the 18th century through the 19th century, a number of activist groups arose in West Africa.
Emerging communities of indigenous educated, devout Muslims, such as the Tukulor, were finding the casual, syncretistic, and opportunistic nature of official Islam to be more unbearable, as was the case in many of Islam’s outlying territories.
As a result of the dissatisfaction in the 1780s and 1790s in what is now northernNigeria, in 1804, Usman dan Fodiodecided to wage war against the Hausa monarchs and was executed.
As the necessity to oppose European colonization grew increasingly pressing, Jihad activity lasted for another century, reaching millennial proportions towards the turn of the next Muslim century, inah1300 (1882ce).
Islamic engagement in the Indian Ocean region was mostly intellectual and pedagogical in nature.
A painfully obvious sign of Muslim political power’s demise occurred during his lifetime.
His understanding of Shariah was similar to that of Ibn Taymiyyah, who believed that it was founded on strong sources—the Qur’an and Sunnah—and that it could be applied to current conditions with diligence.
In this case, the study of Hadith provided a vast variety of precedents and instilled a constructive spirit of societal reconstruction comparable to that embodied by the Prophet Mohammed. Palembang, Sumatra, Indonesia, and the Great Mosque there. Thompson, Richard Allen
A Revelation of Faith
Muhammad received a revelation while meditating in a cave on the mountain of Hira. Eventually, Muhammad came to think that he had been chosen by God to serve as a prophet and teacher of a new religion, Islam, which literally translates as “submission.” The elements of Judaism and Christianity were merged into this new religion. Religions’ sacred texts, as well as their famous prophets and leaders – Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others — were held in high regard. Muhammad addressed Abraham as “Khalil,” which means “God’s companion,” and designated him as the ancient patriarch of Islam.
Muhammad thought that he was God’s ultimate prophet and that he himself was the final prophet.
- There is just one worldwide God, and his name is Allah. Muslims are obliged to pray five times a day with their backs to Mecca, according to Islamic tradition. All Muslims are required to pay an annual tax, which is mostly used to assist the poor and needy. Muslims are prohibited from eating, smoking, drinking, or engaging in sexual intercourse from sunrise to sunset during the whole month of Ramadan. All capable Muslims are required to do the Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) at least once in their lives.
The Kaaba, Islam’s holiest location, is located in Mecca and is believed to have been erected by Abraham and his son Ishmael for the worship of Yahweh. Islam grew at a breakneck pace, engulfing most of what was formerly the ancient Near East, North Africa, and Spain, and eventually enveloping the whole world. The impoverished and slaves, in particular, responded favorably to Muhammad’s message. However, his message was met with strong opposition from many quarters. As a result of the pushback, he appeared to become even more determined.
From Mecca to Medina and Back
Muhammad escaped to the town of Medina in 622 because he was afraid for his life. The Hegira, which is Arabic for “flight,” was the name given to this flight from Mecca to Medina. This year marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. When Muhammad and his entourage arrived in Medina, the locals greeted them warmly. Muhammad established the first mosque, also known as the Islamic temple, at Mecca and began the process of separating Islam from the religions of Judaism and Christianity, which had first inspired him.
Allah’s revelations to Muhammad lasted throughout his life.
During his time in Mecca, Muhammad was involved in a number of fights with the locals.
Before his death two years later, he had forced the conversion of the majority of the Arabian Peninsula to his new faith and established a tiny kingdom on the peninsula’s southern tip.
Many Islamic sects have a belief in jihad, which is a common thread running through them. Despite the fact that the actual meaning of the Arabic word is difficult to convey in English, the word jihad is most appropriately translated as “fight.” For the vast majority of Muslims, jihad is a personal battle against evil. The sacred wars of this spiritual conflict are fought within the minds and hearts of Muslims. Sometimes the fight takes the shape of a physical battle against those who do not believe in God.
- A small but vocal minority of Muslims, on the other hand, places a high value on holy war jihads.
- It is this idea of jihad that serves as an inspiration for Islamic extremist terrorist activity.
- It should be emphasized that mainstream Islam is a peaceful religion that opposes the concept of unjustified violence.
- The unfortunate thing is that Muhammad had not named a successor.
Despite these difficulties, a huge Islamic empire was established over the course of the following 12 centuries, resulting in a worshiper base that was unsurpassed by any other religion.
The origins of Islam
What is the size of Islam? The Koran is the most memorized book on the planet, and Islam is the second most popular religion in the world. In terms of numbers, Muslims account for one-sixth of the human race (or around 1 billion people), and they are the majority in 36 nations, ranging from Indonesian islands to African plains. They may be divided into two groups: the Shias, who are mostly located in Iran and Iraq, and the Sunnis, who account for 90 percent of the Muslim world’s population. What do Muslims hold as their beliefs?
- Muslim scholars believe that the Koran contains God’s words, which were written down and preserved by the prophet Muhammad.
- Islam has several characteristics with the other monotheistic religions, including Judaism and Christianity.
- The Koran also includes the tale of Christ’s birth to the Virgin Mary, according to certain scholars.
- The prophet Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was born in the year 570 A.D.
- Muhammad’s parents died while he was a child, and he was reared by his uncle Abu Talib, who educated him as a trader throughout his life.
- He was also spiritually inclined, having studied a great deal about many religions during his travels.
- His visit with the archangel Gabriel took place there, at the age of 42, and he was informed that he was to be the ultimate prophet of Allah, the one true God.
She became the world’s first Muslim convert.
How did Islam come to be recognized as a legitimate religion?
The Koran was composed of the 114 surahs (or chapters) that were produced as a consequence of this process.
During his time in Mecca, he was vilified by the governing Quraish tribes, who assaulted his followers and offered him rewards in exchange for abandoning his beliefs.
Muhammad marched into Mecca with an army of 10,000 Muslims in 622 A.D.
The city was taken over, and it quickly rose to become the spiritual center of the Islamic world.
He died two months later, at the age of 62, and was survived by his wife.
‘The real Muslim,’ the prophet declared, “is the one who does no harm to anybody, whether by speech or deed.” War is only tolerated in self-defense, and warriors are advised to engage in face-to-face battle and avoid injuring or killing civilians.
In addition, Islam has a long and illustrious military history.
As conquerors, they were significantly more tolerant of religious minorities than any Christian monarch had ever been in the history of mankind.
What is it about Islam that gives it such a bad image for intolerance?
It was by the end of the ninth century that the behavioral guidelines put down in the Koran had been codified in legal texts known as the Shariah, and these guidelines have remained mostly unchanged ever since.
The emergence of Wahhabi puritanism has made it nearly hard for certain academics to rewrite the Koran in a more modern perspective.
What exactly is jihad?
However, following the establishment of the Muslim kingdom, the notion of jihad took on a greater spiritual significance, and it was transformed into an inward moral fight against temptation.
Fundamentalists within Islam The Wahhabi sect was created in the 18th century by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, who taught a strict style of puritan Islam that was considered extremist at the time.
Mosques were stripped of their decorations, and tombstones were thrown to the ground (on the grounds that they inspired idolatry).
Saudi sheiks then launched a brutal religious and territorial war against their Muslim neighbors for more than a century, until the foundation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, when the country became independent. Wahhabism continues to be the official religion of the country.
BBC – Religions – Islam: Early rise of Islam (632-700)
The Muslim community grew throughout the Middle East as a consequence of conquest, and the expansion of the Muslim state that resulted offered a fertile environment for the newly revealed faith to take root and flourish. The religious inspiration for the military conquest was strong, but it was also fueled by wealth and politics. Men fought for the sake of their faith, the promise of loot, and the fact that their friends and other tribesmen were also engaged in combat. Hugh Kennedy’s 2001 book, The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State, is a good example of this.
The history problem
It is possible to find many narratives from this time period regarding the early Muslim conquests, although most of the material is inaccurate and written in a style that glorifies the conquerors and their god. Although they provide some insight into the big events of the seventh century, they are just incomplete explanations. However, this is not to suggest that the Muslims were not courageous or that their belief that they were carrying out Allah’s will was not significant: it was unquestionably.
Despite the massive amount of words written, we have yet to discover the complete explanation for Muslim success.
Conversion by conquest?
Although it is impossible to determine if Islam was the driving force behind Muslim military development, one new book shows that Islam undoubtedly aided the rise of Muslim power.only one viable explanation exists for Arab success—and that is the spirit of Islam. The generous terms that the conquering troops frequently presented enabled their faith to be accepted by the subjugated inhabitants. Moreover, even though it was a young and upstart religion, its administration by simple and honest individuals was better to the corruption and persecution that were the norm in more sophisticated civilizations at the time.
- Nafziger and Mark W.
- And Islam reaped enormous benefits from the improbable military victories of the troops of Arabian Arabia.
- Simply said, Islam may have accelerated the conquests, but it also shown far more long-term viability.
- Islam at War: A History, edited by George F.
- Walton, published in 2003.
- Following the Ridda wars and the Arabs’ quick conquest of the majority of the Near East, the new religion was more clearly characterized as a monotheistic religion for the Arab people than it had been previously.
As is generally known, the Arabs made no attempt to force their religion on their new subjects, and in fact actively discouraged non-Arabs from converting to Islam at first. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800, by Jonathan P. Berkey, published in 2003.
The justification of conquest
Whether Islam was the driving force behind early Muslim imperialism or not, it could be used to offer justification for it in the same way that it had previously been used to defend Muhammad’s own actions against his adversaries. The Qur’an contains a number of passages that support military action against non-Muslims, such as:But when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem; but when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them (of war).
Qur’an 9:5 (from the Qur’an) You must fight all of those who deny the existence of Allah and the Last Day, as well as those who adhere to that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and who refuse to recognize the religion of Truth (even though they are) of the People of the Book.
Considering that the armies of those days were not like contemporary armies – rather, they were more like an association of tribal mercenary groups that received no compensation and received their sole material benefit from the spoils of war – this is hardly unexpected.
After Muhammad’s death
Whether Islam was the driving force behind early Muslim imperialism or not, it could be used to offer justification for it in the same way that it had previously been used to support Muhammad’s own activities against his adversaries on the Arabian Peninsula. Several passages in the Qur’an advocate for military action against non-Muslims, such as:But when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them using every stratagem; but when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them using every (of war).
Qur’an 9:5 is the source of this quote.
9:29 of the Qur’an A number of other texts reaffirmed that the old military custom of robbing the vanquished was correct, and also outlined how the wealth should be shared.
The conquest of Arabia
Following Muhammad’s death in 632 CE, the new Muslim commonwealth began to experience difficulties. Some tribes came to the conclusion that, because their commitment to Islam had been largely to Muhammad himself, Muhammad’s death gave them the opportunity to renounce their allegiance to Mecca and to Islam. Furthermore, the Prophet had not given clear instructions as to who would be in charge of the community following his death, which made matters much more complicated. Fortunately, the community picked Abu Bakr, the Prophet’s close associate and father-in-law, to be his successor very soon after his death.
Abu Bakr took rapid military action against the villages that were attempting to secede from the government. These operations, known as the apostasy orriddawars, were successful in uniting Arabia into a single realm under Muslim authority within two years of their commencement.
Expansion in the Middle East
The caliph Abu Bakr died in 634, and his successor was Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph, who governed until his death in 644. After becoming the ruler of a vast, cohesive kingdom with a well-organized army, Umar utilized this position as a vehicle to advance Islam’s expansion throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Umar’s first operations were against the Byzantine Empire, which he defeated. Following the crucial Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the Muslim troops seized the erstwhile Byzantine realms of Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, bringing them under their control.
It was made considerably simpler by the weakness of the Sassanid Empire, which had been devastated by internal disputes and a protracted battle with the Byzantine Empire when this conquest took place.
Is proselytism still appropriate?
How did the Christian Middle East become predominantly Muslim?
What factors contributed to the ancient Middle East’s transformation from a mostly Christian civilization to the predominantly Muslim one we know today, and what role did violence play in this transformation? Christian C. Sahner, associate professor of Islamic history at Princeton University, has written a new book, Christian Martyrs under Islam: Religious Violence and the Making of the Muslim World (Princeton University Press), which explores these and other themes. Professor Sahner of the Faculty of Oriental Studies at the University of Oxford discusses his results in a guest article for Arts Blog.
According to historical records and popular culture, despite depictions of “conversion by the sword” circulating widely, the process of Islamisation in the early era was gradual, difficult, and frequently nonviolent.
For the most part, non-Muslims were permitted to continue practicing their religions as long as they complied with the rules of their rulers and paid specific levies.
This was exacerbated by the view held by some that Islam was an unique dispensation reserved just for the Arab people.
However, because there are no reliable demographic data from the pre-modern period with which to make precise estimates (such as censuses or tax registers), historians believe that Syria-Palestine crossed the threshold of a Muslim demographic majority in the 12th century, and that Egypt may have done so even later, possibly in the 14th century.
- As a result of this historical context, the phenomenon of Christian martyrdom came into being.
- They are set in a variety of locations, including Córdoba, the Nile Delta, Jerusalem, and the South Caucasus, and chronicle the stories of Christians who fell foul of Muslim rulers, were executed, and were afterwards venerated as saints by the Muslim community.
- The earliest and most significant group comprised of Christians who had converted to Islam but had later renounced their conversion and returned to Christianity.
- The second group consisted of Muslim converts to Christianity who had had no prior exposure to their new religion before being placed in this group.
- At the time, the victims were few in number – no more than 270 distinct individuals between Spain and Iraq – which was a testimonial to the absence of organized persecution in the region.
- These sources, on the other hand, must be handled with extreme caution.
- Following an examination of the sources in conjunction with modern Islamic writings, the book contends that many biographies have a solid foundation in truth.
Muslim officials executed the most egregious boundary-crossers in order to ensure that conversion and assimilation went exclusively in the direction of Islam, and Christians, in turn, revered some of these individuals as saints in order to ensure that conversion and assimilation went exclusively in the direction of Islam.
History of the Early Islamic World for Kids: Caliphate
History Lessons for Children The Islamic World in the Early Period What is the Caliphate, and why is it important? It was known as the Caliphate in medieval times, and it was a Muslim authority that controlled the Islamic Empire during that time period. In ancient times, the Caliphate ruled over areas of Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe for a lengthy period of time. Much of the civilized world was impacted by its culture and trade, which contributed to the expansion of Islam as well as the introduction of advancements in science, education, and technology.
- The Caliphate was ruled by a monarch known as the “caliph,” which literally translates as “successor.” The caliph was widely regarded as Muhammad’s spiritual successor, and he served as both the religious and political leader of the Muslims throughout the world.
- The Caliphate was established upon Muhammad’s death in 632 CE.
- The Rashidun Caliphate is the name given today by historians to the first Caliphate.
- Rashidun is Arabic for “properly directed.” They were referred to be “rightly guided” since they were all companions of the Prophet Muhammad and received their instruction in Islamic law straight from Muhammad.
- Abu Bakr, Umar Ibn al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali ibn Abi Talib were the first four caliphs of Islam, and they were succeeded by Umar Ibn al-Khattab.
- A period of fast expansion occurred under the administration of the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750 CE), during which time the Islamic Empire grew to cover most of northern Africa, western India, and Spain. At its height, it was one of the most powerful empires in the history of the world
- Abbasid (750-1258 CE, 1261-1517 CE) – Abbasid Empire (750-1258 CE, 1261-1517 CE) – Abbasid Empire (750-1258 CE, 1261-1517 CE) – Abbasid Empire During the year 750 CE, the Umayyads were defeated and the Abbasid Caliphate was created by the Abbasids. The period of the Abbasids’ early rule was a period of great scientific and cultural success. It has been referred to as the Islamic Golden Age on several occasions. Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, was captured and ravaged by the Mongols in 1258, and the caliph was assassinated. Following this, the Abbasids relocated to Cairo, Egypt, and re-established the Caliphate under their rule. However, from this point on, the Caliphate had little political influence
- The Ottoman Empire was in control (1517-1924) According to historical records, the Ottoman Caliphate began in 1517 CE when the Ottoman Empire seized control of Cairo, Egypt. The Ottomans maintained their claim to be the Islamic Caliphate until the Caliphate was dissolved by Mustafa Ataturk, the first President of Turkey, in 1924.
The Caliphate was defeated. There is disagreement among historians as to when the Islamic Caliphate came to an end. Many historians believe that the Caliphate came to an end in 1258 CE when the Mongols destroyed the Abbasids in Baghdad. Others date the end of the Ottoman Empire to 1924, the year the country of Turkey was created. Muslims of both sects (Shia and Sunni) One of the most significant distinctions in the Islamic religion is that which exists between Shia and Sunni Muslims. This separation may be traced back to the choosing of the first Caliph, which took place relatively early in the history of Islam.
The Caliphate of the Islamic Empire has several interesting facts about it.
- During the Abbasid Caliphate, there were other Caliphs who claimed the Caliphate as well, including the Fatimid Caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba, and the Almohad Caliphate
- Nonetheless, the Fatimid Caliphate was the most powerful. During the Umayyad Caliphate, the post of caliph became hereditary, establishing it as the first Islamic dynasty in history. The title “caliph” comes from the Arabic word “khalifah,” which means “ruler of the people.” One of the Caliph’s obligations was to safeguard the Islamic holy towns of Mecca and Medina, which he did admirably.
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More information about the early Islamic world may be found at: Works CitedHistory for Kids. The Islamic World in the Early Period