Which Is The Best Correlation Between The Introduction Of Islam And An Increase In Literacy?

Which is the best correlation between the introduction of Islam and an increase in literacy? People needed to know how to read in order to be devout practitioners of Islam. Which of the following is true of Askia the Great? He was a proponent of learning and culture.

What is Islamic reading culture?

  • Islam was a sophisticated religion that embraced cultural arts such as music and reading. Followers of Islam were expected to be well rounded in all aspects of their lives. People needed to know how to read in order to be devout practitioners of Islam. Islam was introduced at a time when art, music, and literacy were already on the rise.

What was the effect of the introduction of Islam in West Africa?

Islam promoted trade between West Africa and the Mediterranean. The religion developed and widened the trans-Saharan Caravan trade. The trade enriched the West African and the Muslim traders. Muslims from North Africa came in their numbers and settled in the commercial centres.

What was Songhai best known for?

Under the rule of Sonni Ali, the Songhai surpassed the Malian Empire in area, wealth, and power, absorbing vast areas of the Mali Empire and reaching its greatest extent. Following Ali’s reign, Askia the Great strengthened the Songhai Empire and made it the largest empire in West Africa’s history.

Which brought an end to the Great Western African empires?

The Kingdom of Songhay came to an end when the Moroccans invaded and conquered them. By 1600 CE, the days of the great kingdoms of West Africa were over.

What impact did the caliphs have on the spread of Islam?

What impact did the caliphs have on the spread of Islam? The caliphs’ rule kept Islam limited to the Arabian Peninsula. The clans’ conflict over the caliphs’ control restricted the growth of Islam. Caliphs came and went too quickly to have any significant impact on Islam.

What was the effect of the introduction of Islam in West Africa quizlet?

What was the impact of Islam’s view toward traditional religious practices in West Africa? The tolerance shown by Muslims towards traditional religious practices helped Islam to spread. covered a large territory of land including part of Europe.

How did Islam influence medieval West Africa?

Following the conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE, Islam spread throughout West Africa via merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries, that is largely through peaceful means whereby African rulers either tolerated the religion or converted to it themselves.

What was the empire of Songhai relationship with Islam?

The Songhai culture became a blend of traditional West African beliefs and the religion of Islam. Daily life was often ruled by traditions and local customs, but the law of the land was based on Islam. The slave trade became an important part of the Songhai Empire.

What are the factors that led to the rise of Songhai Empire?

The Rise of the Songhai Songhai flourished from river commerce centered upon the exchange of agricultural produce, fishing, hunting, and iron-working technology. Songhai’s power and prosperity grew further from its participation in the trans-Saharan trade.

What led to the rise and fall of the Songhai empire essay?

In 1590, al-Mansur took advantage of the recent civil strife in the empire and sent an army under the command of Judar Pasha to conquer the Songhai and to gain control of the Trans-Saharan trade routes. After the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Tondibi (1591), the Songhai Empire collapsed.

What were the most powerful empires in Africa?

The largest and most powerful empire was the Songhai Empire. It is believed to be the largest state in African history. The empire existed between 1000 CE and 1591 CE and came to an end as a result of the Moroccan musketry.

Under which Empire did Islam spread through West Africa?

Mansa Musa spread islam religion and education throughout West Africa. He was part of the Mali empire.

Which of the following religions was introduced into West Africa?

Islam was introduced into the West African region.

How did Islam spread so fast?

Islam spread quickly because its leaders conquered surrounding territories. As Muhammad and the Muslim leaders that came after him conquered lands in the Middle East and beyond they spread the teachings of Islam. Islam spread quickly because its lands were well governed and orderly.

How did Islam spread so quickly essay?

Islam spread quickly because of the military. During this time, on numerous accounts there were military raids. Trade and conflict were also apparent between different empires, all of which resulted in the spreading of Islam. According to document C, Mecca had been taken under Muslim rule between 622-632.

How did Islam help spread Arabic culture?

How did Islam help spread Arabic culture? Islam helped spread Arabic culture by joining Arabs and Jews of medina into a single community, accepted Muhammad as a political leader. Religiously he drew more people to convert.

The Spread of Islam in West Africa: Containment, Mixing, and Reform

Margari Hill is a professor at Stanford University. accessible in PDF format as of January 2009 (1.14 MB) While Islam has been present in West Africa since the seventh century, the expansion of the faith in the territories that are now the modern republics of Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, and Nigeria was a lengthy and difficult process that began in the Middle East and ended in the Middle East. Much of what we know about the early history of West Africa comes from medieval records written by Arab and North African geographers and historians, who were primarily concerned with the region’s geography and history.

The economic objectives of some are emphasized, while the spiritual message of Islam is emphasized by others, and a number of others emphasize the prestige and impact of Arabic literacy in the process of state creation.

Despite the fact that commerce between West Africa and the Mediterranean predates Islam, North African Muslims were responsible for the expansion of the Trans-Saharan trade.

The trade routes Sijilmasa to Awdaghust and Ghadames to Gao, for example, connected Africa below the Sahara with the Mediterranean Middle East and were important commercial routes.

The Sahel region of West Africa was the site of the development of the three major medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and the Songhay.

Containment is the first stage.

The historical evolution of the medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay, as well as the 19th century jihads that resulted in the foundation of the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland and the Umarian kingdom in Senegambia, are illuminated by this three-phase paradigm.

Containment: Ghana and the Takrur

Islamic settlements tied to the trans-Saharan commerce were the only places where Islam could be found in the early days of civilization. Al-Bakri, an Andalusian geographer who lived in the 11th century, recorded details of Arab and North African Berber communities in the region during his time. A number of causes contributed to the expansion of the Muslim merchant-scholar class in non-Muslim nations, including: Islam encouraged long-distance trade by providing merchants with a helpful set of instruments, including as contract law, credit, and communication networks.

  • In addition to having created script, they possessed other important abilities that aided in the administration of kingdoms.
  • Additionally, merchant-scholars played a significant role in the expansion of Islam into the forest zones.
  • Muslim populations in the forest zones were minorities that were frequently related to trading diasporas, according to historians.
  • Al-Hajj Salim Suwari was a Soninke scholar who focused on the responsibilities of Muslims in non-Muslim societies.
  • This practice has been in place for generations in the forest zone, and it continues to be effective today in areas where there are active Muslim minorities.
  • Ghana The name was chosen as a means to pay homage to early African history.
  • Peoples such as the Soninken Malinke, the Wa’kuri, and the Wangari have lived in this region for thousands of years.

Around the year 300 A.D., large settlements began to appear in the Niger Delta region.

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Merchants trading in salt, horses, dates, and camels from northern Africa and the Sahara exchanged them for gold, lumber, and food from the countries south of the Sahara, according to historians.

This gave rise to one of Ghana’s most distinctive characteristics: the dual city; Ghana’s Kings benefitted from Muslim commerce while keeping them outside the country’s political centre.

African kingdoms eventually began to enable Muslims to enter into their societies.

Around this time, the Almoravid reform movement began in the Western Sahara and spread over modern-day Mauritania, North Africa, and Southern Spain, among other places.

Muslims in West Africa benefited from the Almoravid revolution, which brought greater consistency of practice and Islamic law to their communities.

The Takruri realm was weakened as a result of the Almoravids’ conquest of trade routes and fortified fortifications. It would take more than a hundred years for the empire to disintegrate into a collection of minor kingdoms.

Mixing: The Empires of Mali and Songhay

Over the next several decades, African kings came to embrace Islam despite reigning over populations of varying religious and cultural beliefs and practices. The mixing phase, as specialists refer to it, was a period in which many of these kings combined Islam with conventional and local rituals. After a period of time, the populace began to embrace Islam, typically just adopting components of the faith that they found appealing. The Mali Empire (1215-1450) arose out of a series of fighting kingdoms in West Africa.

  1. It was a multi-ethnic state with a diverse range of religious and cultural organizations.
  2. However, while the empire’s founder, Sunjiata Keita, was not himself a Muslim, Mali’s rulers converted to Islam by 1300.
  3. He established Islam as the official religion of the country and traveled on a pilgrimage from Mali to Mecca in 1324.
  4. According to reports, his spending depreciated the value of gold in Egypt for a number of years.
  5. By the fifteenth century, however, Mali had essentially disintegrated as a result of internal dissension and warfare with the Saharan Tuareg.
  6. Hausaland was made up of a series of city-states that were connected by a network of roads (Gobir, Katsina, Kano, Zamfara, Kebbi and Zazzau).
  7. During the ninth century, the state adopted Islam as its religion.

Northern Nigeria today includes most of Hausaland and Bornu in the east, as well as the rest of the country.

The kings of Hausaland followed in the footsteps of the rulers of prior Muslim republics in blending indigenous traditions with Islam.

Despite the fact that Islam was the official state religion, the vast majority of the populace continued to adhere to their traditional religious beliefs.

In the period 1465-1492, Sonni Ali, the ruler of the country, punished Muslim academics, particularly those who denounced pagan rites and practices.

Two centuries later, the kingdom of Gao re-emerged as the Songhay Empire, bringing the kingdom back to life.

Under the reign of King Songhay (1493-1529), the Songhay’s territory grew well beyond the bounds of any previous West African empire.

One famous example is the Great Mosque of Jenne, which was constructed in the 12th or 13th centuries and is still standing today.

By the 16th century, the Niger Bend area was home to various centers of commerce and Islamic study, the most famous of which was the fabled city of Timbuktu.

Timbuktu was established as a trade station by the Tuareg.

In 1325, the city had a population of around 10,000 people.

Timbuktu drew academics from all across the Muslim world to attend its conferences.

The Songhay Empire came to an end in 1591, when Morocco captured the realm.

As a result of the dispersal of merchant scholars from Timbuktu and other major learning centers, learning institutions were transferred from urban-based merchant families to rural pastoralists throughout the Sahara.

A mystical Sufi brotherhood organization began to expand over this region somewhere during the 12th and 13th centuries.

In African Muslim civilizations, Sufi organizations played an important role in the social order and the propagation of Islam throughout the continent, and this continued far into the twentieth century.

Reform in the Nineteenth Century: Umarian Jihad in Senegambia and the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland

The jihad activities of the nineteenth century are the clearest example of the third phase in the growth of Islam in West Africa. During this time period, experts have emphasized the manner in which literate Muslims grew increasingly aware of Islamic theology and began to seek reforms on the part of the leadership. Historically significance because it symbolizes the transition from Muslim communities that practiced Islam in conjunction with “pagan” ceremonies and customs to cultures that fully embraced Islamic ideals and created Shariah (Islamic Law).

  • Mauritania was the site of the first known jihad in West Africa, which occurred around the 17th century.
  • Nasir al-Din, a scholar, was the leader of an unsuccessful jihad known as Sharr Bubba.
  • In 1802, a Fulani scholar named Uthman Dan Fodio took the initiative and launched a massive jihad.
  • Because of this movement, there has been a consolidation of power within the Muslim community, as well as educational and legal changes.
  • His progeny carried on his legacy of literary creativity and educational reform into the modern day.
  • One famous example was the jihad of al Hajj Umar Tal, a Tukulor from the Senegambia area, who was killed in the course of his mission.
  • His conquests of three Bambara kingdoms took place during the 1850s and the 1860s.

Despite the fact that the French were in charge of the territory, colonial authorities faced a powerful adversary.

Following his death, French soldiers beat Toure’s son in a battle that took place in 1901.

Despite the fact that European forces were responsible for the fall of the Umarian state and the Sokoto Caliphate, colonial domination did little to prevent Islam from spreading over West Africa.

Sokoto Caliphate came to an end in 1903 when British soldiers invaded and annexed the region.

Contrary to colonial officials’ hopes and dreams, colonialism had far-reaching consequences for the Muslim society of Northern Nigeria.

Thus, Islam began to grow swiftly in new urban centers and regions, such as Yoruba land, as a result of this.

Despite the fact that Muslims lost political authority, Muslim communities made great strides throughout West Africa during the first decades of the twentieth century.

The trans-Saharan commerce route served as a key conduit for the spread of Islam throughout Africa.

Muslim communities have flourished in West Africa for more than a millennium, demonstrating that Islam is a substantial component of the continent’s cultural and religious environment.

  • InTimeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. 2001), “Western Sudan, 500–1000 AD.”
  • “Western and Central Sudan, 1000–1400 AD.”
  • “Western and Central Sudan, 1600–1800 AD.”
  • “Western and Central Sudan, 1600–1800 A.D.”
  • “Western and Central Muslim Societies in the History of Africa. Nehemia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels’ book, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2004, is a classic (eds). The History of Islam in Africa is a fascinating subject. Spencer Trimingham’s History of Islam in West Africa was published by Ohio University Press in Athens, Ohio, in 2000. Oxford University Press, 1962
  • New York: Oxford University Press, 1962

Overcoming Religious Illiteracy

A portion of Diane Moore’s paper, “Overcoming Religious Illiteracy: A Cultural Studies Approach,” is used here with permission. Note from the author: For more than a decade, I’ve had the honor of collaborating with secondary school teachers and teacher educators in a variety of settings throughout the world on topics linked to teaching about religion from a nonsectarian viewpoint. I have gained a great deal from these devoted professionals, and I continue to be impressed by their diverse backgrounds, diverse expertise, and common dedication to educational models that empower students.

Even though this article is essentially an overview of themes that I will address in greater depth later this year when I publish my forthcoming bookOvercoming Religious Illiteracy: A Multicultural Approach to Teaching About Religion in Secondary Schools (New York: Palgrave, 2007), I have attempted to frame my presentation in a way that I hope will be relevant to colleagues outside of my own United States of America.

There are three main premises to this essay: first, there is widespread illiteracy about religion that exists throughout the world; second, one of the most troubling and urgent consequences of this illiteracy is that it frequently fuels prejudice and antagonism, thereby impeding efforts to promote respect for pluralism and peaceful coexistence in local, national, and international arenas; and third, it is possible to reduce religious illiteracy by teaching about religion.

The term “religious illiteracy” refers to a lack of knowledge about 1) the fundamental principles of the world’s religious traditions; 2) the diversity of expressions and beliefs within religious traditions that emerge and evolve in response to differing social/historical contexts; and 3) the profound role that religion plays in human social, cultural, and political life in both contemporary and historical contexts.

Religious illiteracy is defined as a lack of knowledge about 1) the fundamental principles of the world’s religious traditions; 2) the On the other hand, I define religious literacy in the following manner: Having religious literacy is being able to detect and understand the essential interconnections of religion and social/political/cultural life from a variety of perspectives, which includes many lenses.

To be more specific, a religiously literate person will have 1) a fundamental understanding of the history, central texts (where applicable), beliefs and practices of several world religions as they arose out of and continue to be shaped by specific social, historical, and cultural contexts; and 2) the ability to discern and explore the religious dimensions of political, social, and cultural expressions across time and space.

  • Essentially, these definitions assume that religion is a social/cultural phenomena that is deeply intertwined with the political, social, and cultural lives of human beings.
  • Finally, these definitions presuppose that there is a distinction between religion as understood through the lens of personal devotional practice and religion as understood through the lens of academic religious research.
  • Both are genuine businesses that can achieve goals that are complimentary but separate from one another.
  • My next step is to lay out a theory and technique for teaching about religion that can be used in a variety of different circumstances throughout the world and that can be easily altered to fit those contexts.
  • The first premise is as follows: There is a pervasive lack of knowledge about religion that prevails throughout the world.
  1. Inaccurate representations of religious traditions are frequently made by both religious and non-religious persons who identify as such in their own definitions of what it is to be “religious.” In the case of persons who identify themselves as “religious,” this error frequently reveals itself in their relationships with their own religious traditions, as well as with the religious traditions of others. Rather than being diverse and developing, religious traditions are frequently depicted as internally homogeneous and static. When it comes to religion, sectarianism is strongly and practically solely associated with it, making the study of religion a tough notion to understand and implement. Practitioners of a specific religious tradition are regarded to be the most reliable sources of information about that religion, and thus are frequently referred to as “experts” either formally or informally. Consequently, the gap between an academic study of religion and a religious worldview’s expression in devotional practice is not recognized. In certain settings, religion is regarded as a “private” matter separate from the secular “public” spheres of political, economic, and cultural life
  2. In others, religion is regarded as a “public” issue different from the secular “public” spheres of political, economic, and cultural life
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Educators’ common religious behaviors and conceptions about religion are prevalent, and they are frequently reflective of the beliefs of their fellow citizens. They are expressions of the religious illiteracy that I have defined above, and they should not be regarded as proof of a lack of intellectual competence or knowledge on the part of persons who hold these and similar beliefs about the world. The fact that instruction in or about one’s own religious tradition (or no religious heritage) and the media are the primary sources of knowledge about religion should come as no surprise given the fact that these and other types of religious illiteracy are ubiquitous.

  • Individuals who are not religious are also taught specific worldviews and related values by their families and/or members of their communities.
  • Religion is also covered extensively in the media, which is notoriously unreliable at best and is not a dependable source for portraying the complexity of religious traditions, as well as their different expressions and impacts, in a balanced and accurate manner.
  • In order to achieve such an understanding, an academic approach to the study of religion is required.
  • One of the most troubling and urgent consequences of religious illiteracy is that it frequently fuels prejudice and antagonism, thereby impeding efforts to promote respect for pluralism, peaceful coexistence, and cooperative endeavors on a local, national, and international scale.

Although I do not believe that religious illiteracy is always a contributing factor, I do believe that it can contribute to creating an environment in which certain forms of bigotry and misrepresentation can emerge unchallenged and thus serve as a form of justification for violence and marginalization.

For example, Christian anti-Semitism, which has been promoted both intentionally and unintentionally for centuries and has fueled countless atrocities against the Jewish people, including (but sadly not limited to) the Holocaust, is a well-studied example of the negative consequences of religious illiteracy.

For a third example, consider the animosities that are fostered between various representations of the same tradition (for example, between Protestant and Roman Catholic Christians, as well as between Sunni and Shi’i Muslim communities).

The development of religious literacy skills equips citizens with the knowledge and skills necessary to better understand religion as a complex and sophisticated social/cultural phenomenon, and individual religious traditions as internally diverse and constantly evolving, as opposed to uniformed, absolute, and ahistorical, religious practices.

  1. Finally, persons who have received training in religious literacy learn to challenge the veracity of universal assertions such as “Islam is a religion of peace” or “Judaism and Islam are incompatible,” therefore contributing to the development of a more nuanced public dialogue about religion.
  2. It is feasible to reduce religious illiteracy by educating about religion from a nonsectarian perspective in elementary and secondary schools, according to Premise Number Three.
  3. Sadly, this is not the case in this instance.
  4. The teaching of religion in schools is frequently opposed by conservative religious practitioners from a wide range of faith traditions, who believe that it is the responsibility of faith communities and families to educate children about religion from their own theological viewpoints.

Many others, both religious and non-religious, are concerned that if religion is introduced into schools, some teachers will unavoidably proselytize, either intentionally or by default, as a result of a lack of adequate training and a clear understanding of the difference between an academic and a devotional approach to teaching.

  1. First and first, it is vital to highlight that religion is already being taught in classrooms all across the world, both intentionally and unintentionally, in both purposeful and inadvertent ways.
  2. Before attending training seminars on how to teach about religion, many teachers expressed dissatisfaction with the incorrect and/or harmful beliefs about religion that they had unintentionally propagated and replicated previous to their participation in the seminars.
  3. This is one of the texts that has been accepted for use in the International Baccalaureate (IB) program, and she stated that her whole department had come to the same negative conclusions regarding the text that she had.
  4. Given this fact, I believe it is preferable to directly educate students about religion while also providing teachers with the training they require to do so in a more responsible manner than they are now able to do.
  5. The majority of schools and/or educational systems have defined a statement of purpose or mission statement that reflects the vision of education that they strive to promote and/or support.
  6. When considering the wider educational principles that have been expressed, it is sometimes necessary to make a clear decision on whether or not to include the study of religion from a nonsectarian perspective in the curricula.
  7. Many others, on the other hand, believe that learning about religion in this manner is perfectly compatible with the greater purposes of education.
  8. To provide one example, I argue in my book that teaching about religion in the United States is an important component of education for democratic participation in the context of our own multicultural and multi-religious plurality.
  9. It is good practice for any educator to intentionally connect beliefs with behaviors in this way, but it is especially crucial when dealing with potentially sensitive matters such as teaching about religion, which may be particularly difficult.

When educational institutions are open and honest about their wider aims, it creates a venue for open discussion and conversation about those goals in a way that promotes public dialogue and accountability in the process.

education – Migration and the brain drain

Education systems were also impacted by the large-scale worldwide movement of professionals and skilled workers that typified the Middle East during this time period. Western countries such as Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Egypt, and Jordan have lost a major portion of their skilled labor force to the United States and other countries. The oil-rich states of Bahrain, Kuwait, Libya,Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Algeria, and the United Arab Emirates were all experiencing significant labour shortages at the time of the migration of large numbers of educated people from Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, and notably Egypt and Jordan.

  1. Migration patterns were impacted and influenced by educational advances in a variety of ways throughout this time period.
  2. Because migrants comprised some of the best qualified teachers, particularly those with vocational and technical abilities, the outflows further eroded already-low levels of achievement.
  3. As a result, domestic educational systems began to be directed toward meeting the demands of foreign civilizations, while local employment needs were ignored or marginalized.
  4. Throughout the world, the value of education was recognized, and every state worked hard to make education more relevant to individual and social needs while also striving for greater fairness, lowering high wastage rates, and improving overall educational quality.

Latin America

The word “Latin America” is a simple notion that conceals a wide range of cultural variety. This abstraction encompasses a conglomeration of locations that are defined not just by variances in the Indian and Black population bases, but also by distinctions in the nonindigenous patterns that have been placed on top of them: Spanish, Portuguese, French, Dutch, and Anglo-Saxon. During this brief examination, generalizations will be confined to the most significant trends in Spanish and Portuguese.

The heritage of independence

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Spanish colonies enjoyed a period of prosperity that prompted feelings of optimism, aspirations for independence, and the establishment of republican governance. They were almost completely destroyed during the protracted battle for independence, and the transition from absolute monarchy to popular democracy was anything from simple. Revolutionaries attempted to emulate American institutions, but new institutions clashed with old ones; governmental practice did not follow political theory; and the legal equality of individuals did not match to economic and educational reality in the country.

  1. As a result, they attempted to increase the number of schools and literacy, but were met with two hurdles.
  2. Since the Enlightenment, governmental despotism and the Roman Catholic Church have been held responsible for the plight of the underdeveloped.
  3. The conservatives, on the other hand, wished to maintain established educational practices and regarded Catholicism to be an integral element of the national character of the country.
  4. In some nations, such as Colombia, religious education has become the official form of education as a result of an agreement with the Holy See.
  5. The new administrations lacked the resources necessary to build new educational institutions.
  6. Its most evident benefit was that it could achieve an expansion of education in a very short period of time and at a low cost.
  7. It would continue to be the most generally used system until far into the second part of the nineteenth century.
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A teacher-training school, the Normal Lancasteriana, was founded in Lima by José de San Martn, and elementary schools were established in convents and monasteries by Simón Bolvar, who also founded the Ginecco (1825), which was renamed the Normal Lancasterian School for Women after the death of José de San Martn.

  1. Of the mid-century, Benito Juárez in Mexico championed education as the sole means of defending the country from disorder and tyranny.
  2. Education was stated to be obligatory and free, despite the fact that there were no instructors or teacher training schools available.
  3. Chile funded the educator Domingo Faustino Sarmiento’s travels to the United States and Europe, enabling him to establish the Normal School for Teachers in Santiago, Chile, upon his return there in 1842.
  4. Some countries with more severe educational challenges, like as Ecuador, simply imported the Brothers and Sisters of the Sacred Heart and placed them in charge of organizing their educational system.
  5. The 1860s saw Sarmiento recruit North American instructors to staff his normal schools, while Chile recruited Germans to staff its Pedagogical Institute in the 1880s (1889).

In addition to new pedagogical ideas—particularly those of Friedrich Froebel and Johann Friedrich Herbart—and new ideologies, primary among thempositivism—that spread throughout Latin America, particularly in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico—come with the arrival of foreign teachers.


Following independence, the state and local governments took on the responsibility of managing public teaching. Their inability to perform due to financial hardship and a scarcity of properly trained employees quickly became apparent. Because the majority of existing schools were confessional and private, the necessity for action by the central authority to impose unity became increasingly apparent as time went on. The Venezuelan government established a Subdirectory of Public Instruction in 1827, which was later elevated to the status of a directory in 1838.

  1. A ministry for public education was established in Chile and Peru in 1837, Guatemala in 1876, Venezuela in 1881, and Brazil in 1891 when some nations elected to take on the duty of centralization themselves.
  2. There was no ministry in Mexico until 1905, and it only had authority over the Federal District and territories; even this was obliterated by theMexican Revolutionof 1910, which also claimed the lives of thousands of people.
  3. When the Lainez Law, passed in 1905, was enacted, it gave the National Council of Education the authority to sustain schools in the provinces if it became necessary.
  4. Its responsibilities include school design, construction, and administration, as well as authorizing curriculum and texts for public elementary and secondary schools, as well as monitoring private educational institutions.
  5. However, because of the disparity between urban and rural areas, these federal governments have frequently been forced to bear almost the entire burden of ruralelementary education in order to maintain a sustainable system.

Primary education and literacy

During the American Revolutionary War, primary education consisted mostly of teaching reading and writing, as well as religious and civil catechisms, together with the fundamentals of mathematics and geometry. As early as the second half of the twentieth century, there was a distinction made between “elementary primary” and “superior primary” education, and the curriculum was expanded to include the teaching of national language and history and geography, as well as rudimentary natural sciences such as hygiene and civics, as well as drawing and physical education for boys and needlework for girls.

  • These educational levels absorbed the vast majority of government efforts and served as a means of eliminating illiteracy while also instilling a sense of civic responsibility in the population at large.
  • Special programs and teacher training also helped to improve primary education.
  • Argentina and Chile’s public education systems achieved a high degree of competency as a result of the firm foundations created throughout the nineteenth century.
  • Despite the fact that all governments have proclaimed elementary education to be free and obligatory, the reality is far more complicated in many respects.
  • Furthermore, due to the fact that many Indian nationals do not speak or comprehend Spanish, specific teaching is necessary.
  • In 1923, José Vasconcelos, the Mexican secretary of education, established the world’s first cultural mission in Mexico City.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) assisted in the training of teachers for these specialized areas through the establishment of two regional centers of fundamental education for Latin America (CREFAL), one in Mexico and the other in Venezuela, both of which are located in the country of Venezuela.

Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile were able to increase the number of schools in their respective countries, allowing them to offer facilities for their whole school-age population.

In 1845, just 29,900 children attended school in Peru, but by 1890, the number had increased to 59,000 and by 1965, it had reached 2,054,000.

In 1874, there were 349,000 people in Mexico; in 1895, there were 800,000; and in 1969, there were 7,813,000.

Unfortunately, because of the rapid population expansion, it has become increasingly impossible to meet the ever-increasing demands. Illiteracy was combated in a variety of ways, depending on the political and social climate of the time period.

Secondary education

The colonial institutions that served as the foundation for many modern secondary schools were built in various nations during the nineteenth century. The College of Moral Sciences was established in Argentina in 1821, when the College of San Carlos was transformed into the College of Moral Sciences. Mexico tried a major reform in 1833, but it would not be completed until 1867, with the establishment of the National Preparatory School, which required restructuring the whole system on the basis of positivist philosophy, which was completed in 1867.

  • Latin American countries like as Peru and Venezuela developed national colleges, while Chile and Argentina establishedliceos (modeled after the Frenchlycées) and, subsequently, national colleges.
  • Although the government was in charge, all attempts to make it more formative and practical ended in failure despite the fact that the government took over.
  • Its instructors hailed from the humanities departments of universities as well as the outstanding normal schools in the region (which existed from 1869 in Argentina, 1889 in Chile, and the 20th century in the other countries).
  • It was only with the beginning of industrialization that traditional biases against practical training were overcome.

Higher education

Latin Americans created ten universities between 1821 and 1833, including theUniversityof Buenos Aires, which was infused with a revolutionary spirit in which education was regarded as a critical component (1821). Both Trujillo (1824) and Arequipa (1825) were founded by Bolivar himself in Peru (1828). Because of independence, virtually all theological faculties were no longer in existence, and their status as preeminent institutions was taken up by faculties of law. Chile’s university was one of four established in the 1840s, with a further ten established in the second part of the nineteenth century.

The University of Mexico was closed down in 1865, and it would not reopen until 1910, the year of the revolution in Mexico City.

The intentions to establish a university in Brazil in 1823 were unsuccessful.

The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) was established in 1920.

The fact that Latin American governments, which were themselves unstable, tended to take control of higher education explains, at least in part, why it is in such peril.

During a period of the nineteenth century, for example, the University of the Republic in Montevideo retained its relations with the Catholic Church in Uruguay.

Except for the Catholic University in Chile (1888), the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (1917), and the Javeriana University in Colombia (1931), all religious universities were established in the twentieth century.

Until the twentieth century, universities were mostly technical and vocational schools.

Today, they also undertake research and work to foster the growth of local communities.

They have been active in political conflicts in Argentina since the reform campaign for student representation began at the University of Córdoba in 1918.

It was in 1929 that the Mexican government attempted to extract the National University from political turmoil by granting it autonomy. Student demonstrations in the late 1960s, on the other hand, demonstrated that this tactic was ineffective.

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