How has Islam diffused through diffusion?
- Islam has diffused through both expansion diffusion and relocation diffusion to become the second most followed religion in the world. Since the death of Muhammad, Islam has divided into a number of different factions.
- 1 Which city in the Middle East was described by your text as an example of a forward capital?
- 2 What is the dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia quizlet?
- 3 Which upstream country would control the flow of the Nile River into Egypt?
- 4 Which European country was the last to give up its African colonies?
- 5 Which country has no capital city?
- 6 Why do states have capitals?
- 7 Which country has the highest number of Muslims today?
- 8 What is the dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia?
- 9 Which country is the most important Shiite state?
- 10 Which of the following rivers flow through Iraq quizlet?
- 11 What two countries occupy strategic positions on the Hormuz Strait?
- 12 What is the difference between expansion diffusion and relocation diffusion quizlet?
- 13 What was Ghana called?
- 14 Are any African countries still colonized?
- 15 Which country is not located in Southern Africa?
- 16 Geography 1300 – Exam 3 Flashcards
- 17 Did you know?: The Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia through the Trade Routes
- 18 The Spread of Islam in West Africa: Containment, Mixing, and Reform
- 19 Containment: Ghana and the Takrur
- 20 Mixing: The Empires of Mali and Songhay
- 21 Reform in the Nineteenth Century: Umarian Jihad in Senegambia and the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland
- 22 Islamic world
- 23 Prehistory (c.3000bce –500ce)
- 24 The rise of agrarian-based citied societies
- 25 Culture & Art
- 26 The Crossroads of the World
- 27 Arab and Islamic Traditions
- 28 Archeological Heritage
- 29 Architecture
- 30 The Spiriual Architecture of Minarets
- 31 Calligraphy
- 32 Cultural Institutions
- 33 Folk MusicDancing
- 34 Poetry
- 35 Jenadrivah HeritageCulture
- 36 Traditional DressJewelry
- 37 Jewelry
Which city in the Middle East was described by your text as an example of a forward capital?
Astana is example of a forward-capital.
What is the dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia quizlet?
Rather, they often refer to themselves as Salafis, “followers of the forefathers,” or al-Muwahhidun, “the monotheists.” The Wahhabi movement is the dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia.
Which upstream country would control the flow of the Nile River into Egypt?
Egypt entirely controls the river’s flow from the moment it crosses the border from Sudan and is captured by the High Aswan dam, built by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser with Russian help in the 1960s.
Which European country was the last to give up its African colonies?
Portugal, in the 20th century the poorest and least developed of the western European powers, was the first nation (with Spain) to establish itself as a colonial power and the last to give up its colonial possessions.
Which country has no capital city?
Nauru, an island in the Pacific Ocean, is the second-smallest republic in the world—but it doesn’t even have a capital city. Jeopardy champ Ken Jennings explains why.
Why do states have capitals?
Officials believe that having different capitals can help in spreading economic growth through different and diverse channels. Having more than one capital for a state or union territory helps cover developmental gaps in cities and villages surrounding the capital.
Which country has the highest number of Muslims today?
The largest Muslim population in a country is in Indonesia, a country home to 12.7% of the world’s Muslims, followed by Pakistan (11.1%), India (10.9%) and Bangladesh (9.2%). About 20% of Muslims live in the Arab world.
What is the dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia?
For more than two centuries, Wahhabism has been Saudi Arabia’s dominant faith. It is an austere form of Islam that insists on a literal interpretation of the Koran. Strict Wahhabis believe that all those who don’t practice their form of Islam are heathens and enemies.
Which country is the most important Shiite state?
Iran is today the most important Shi’ite state.
Which of the following rivers flow through Iraq quizlet?
The Euphrates River and the Tigris River flows through modern-day Iraq and provides water for the region.
What two countries occupy strategic positions on the Hormuz Strait?
Figure 6-17 shows that these two countries occupy strategic positions on the Hormuz Strait. Oman and Iran.
What is the difference between expansion diffusion and relocation diffusion quizlet?
What is the difference between relocation and expansion diffusion? Relocation diffusion is the spread of an idea or innovation through the physical movement of people, while expansion diffusion does not require movement but is rather the spread of an idea or innovation through a snowballing effect.
What was Ghana called?
Formerly known as the Gold Coast, Ghana gained independence from Britain in 1957, becoming the first sub-Saharan nation to break free from colonial rule.
Are any African countries still colonized?
There are two African countries never colonized: Liberia and Ethiopia. Yes, these African countries never colonized. But we live in 2020; this colonialism is still going on in some African countries. Today, Somalia, one of the African countries colonized by France, is divided among Britain, France, and Italy.
Which country is not located in Southern Africa?
Southern Africa, southernmost region of the African continent, comprising the countries of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The island nation of Madagascar is excluded because of its distinct language and cultural heritage.
Geography 1300 – Exam 3 Flashcards
What is the name of the ethnic group that constitutes the majority of Niger’s land area? Where does coltan come from, and how is it used in the production of electronics such as cell phones? Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Coltan ores are mined in the eastern section of the country.Which of the following countries in the Subsaharan African region has the most ethnic diversity? When it comes to areas around the city of La, which ethnic group is the most numerous? Which East African country has the highest level of ethnic homogeneity?
The people of the drylands were able to trade with their counterparts in the forest for a highly coveted product.
In establishing coastal stations and forts along the coast of Africa, various European countries reaped a slew of benefits.
was the name given by the British for the system they built throughout most of their colonial dominion, which left indigenous power structures in place while designating local rulers as agents of the British crown Term Users of agricultural land in Sub-Saharan Africa have only transitory, custodial rights to the land, according to local custom.
- Term The term “_” refers to the process of developing more productive, drought-tolerant, pest-resistant, and better yielding varieties of grain to replace older varieties.
- Geographical research on the spatial elements of illness is known as ?
- At least 60 African languages are estimated to be on the verge of extinction, according to current estimates.
- The approximately 3,500-mile distance between New York City and London (UK) is equal to the distance between which two city pairs in the United States?
- Niger, Rwanda, Chad, and Central Africa are among the countries involved.
- What is the approximate distance between the cities of Dakar (Senegal) and Maputo (Mozambique) in terms of kilometers?
- The percentage of urban people in the Subsaharan Africa realm has not changed since the year 2000 since there are minimal work possibilities to stimulate urban migration.
Term Affluence from the BRIC countries has an impact on the economic growth of Africa.
The fifth and final region is Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa.
In 2002, a jihadist Islamic organization known as Boko Haram (which literally translates as “western education is immoral”) developed in the northeasternmost state of Borno, where it continues to operate today.
Which nation in the West African area is considered to be the demographic behemoth of the entire world?
Term What changes have occurred in Africa as a result of cell phones?
Is it possible to estimate how many other nations make up the East Africa area, in addition to Ethiopia’s highland component?
The majority of Tanzania’s Muslim population is centered in the African Transition Zone.
A country in which the Kalahari Desert is located is known as the Kalahari Desert State.
The Spanish and the French were the first Europeans to establish commercial links with West Africa, and they were the first Europeans to do so.
Portuguese is a language spoken in Portugal.
The maps in Figure 7-7 reveal that one country came close to establishing a whole north-south (“Cape to Cairo”) axis of power across colonial Sub-Saharan Africa.
The United Kingdom C.
Spain; I E.
A(n) is the name given to a sickness that has spread over the world.
endemic The most deadly illness in Sub-Saharan Africa is _, according to E.
The Republic of South Africa In South Africa, people with Dutch descent are referred to as .
Highveld Hollanders is a company based in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Afrikaners are a group of people who originated in Africa.
Great Trekkers E.
The majority of African families still rely on subsistence agriculture for their livelihood.
This is correct.
FalseTerm_ is the term for the “land between the rivers” that is located between the rivers.
Levant is a euphemism for Mesopotamia is the second most populous country in the world.
C The Fertile Crescent, by D.
Which modern-day state has been the least impacted by Islam’s spread around the world?
Identify which of the following assertions is NOT TRUE.
The Egyptian capital of Cairo, which is located on the shores of Lake Nasser in Upper Egypt, is the country’s largest metropolis.
The White Nile begins in East Africa and flows into the Mediterranean Sea.
The name of the upstream nation that has the capacity to regulate the flow of the Nile River into Egypt is .
Turkey When British India was partitioned in 1947, which of the following states developed as a result of the division?
Bhutan and Nepal B.
Bangladesh and Burma are examples of countries in this category.
The middle Gangetic PlainD.
The States that are located at the southernmost tip of the peninsula Figure 8-7 depicts the land known as Aksai Chin, which is now under the governmental jurisdiction of the countries depicted: A.
Afghanistan; and E.
Mongolia, China, and Japan are the countries where the “people of Han” live.
Korea is a country in Asia.
Which nations are referred to as the “Asian Tigers” and why?
Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore are among the countries represented.
The term refers to the countries of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.
Taiwan was formerly a colony of _.A.
The United States at one point in time.
The Netherlands E.
Concerning the following islands located in the East China Sea, there is a dispute between China, Japan, and Taiwan: The Kurile Islands are located in Azerbaijan.
The Islands of Okinawa The Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands are located in the Pacific Ocean.
Ryukyu Islands (Japan) E.
Asian IndiansB JapaneseC SingaporeansD Thais are the ethnic groups that make up a large portion of the business class in Southeast Asia:.A.
Chinese (also spelled chinese) The country with the fourth largest population in the world is _.A.
Cambodia Indonesia is a country in Southeast Asia.
The Republic of Vietnam B.
Borneo is a country in Southeast Asia.
Burma is a country in Southeast Asia.
The first independent state to be established in West Africa, formerly known as the Gold Coast, is referred to as .
The illness that kills the most people in Sub-Saharan Africa is .
Which of the following nations is the home of the Shona and Ndebele tribes, from whom whites have been driven off their lands by government-backed squatters seeking their land?
The and the are the two ethnic groups who battled each other throughout the Rwandan civil war.
Hutus and Tutsis are two ethnic groups in Uganda.
Which African country has the biggest population by population? Which African country has the biggest population by population? The contemporary state of the Democratic Republic of the Congo existed before its independence. The Democratic Republic of the Congo was a colony of .
Did you know?: The Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia through the Trade Routes
Is there a name for the ethnic group that constitutes the majority of Niger’s land area? In order to manufacture electronics such as cell phones, coltan must be mined somewhere. East African Coltan Ores in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)Which of the following countries in the Sub-Saharan African realm has the greatest ethnic diversity? When it comes to areas around the city of La, which ethnic group has the most representation? Which East African country is the most ethnically homogenous in terms of ethnic composition?
- The people of the drylands were able to trade with their counterparts from the forest for a highly coveted product.
- In establishing coastal stations and forts along the coast of Africa, several European countries reaped a plethora of benefits.
- With regard to most of their colonial area, they developed a system known as _, which preserved indigenous power structures while designating local rulers as representatives of the British crown.
- Immediately following the withdrawal of colonizers, many newly independent African countries launched programs to restore land ownership and management to more traditional forms.
- Who are the Yoruba and Ashanti people, and where do they come from, exactly?
- A total of 60 African languages are believed to be in danger of extinction, according to current estimates.
- How many miles does it take to travel between New York City and London (UK)?
Cairo, Egypt and Khartoum, Sudan are the two locations where this article was originally published.
Republic Which African country’s railway network has the most direct route to the Mediterranean Sea?
This is equivalent to 1.6 times the distance between Seattle and Miami, or 6990 kilometers in total.
Term As a parallel economy that operates outside of government control, an informal economy can be defined as follows: Term It is believed that the BRIC countries have an impact on the economic development of Africa.
North and Sub-Saharan Africa are the fifth and final regions to be considered.
An Islamic jihadist organization known as Boko Haram (which literally translates as “western education is sinful”) emerged in the northeasternmost state of Borno in 2002, and has since spread throughout the country.
According to popular belief, which country in the West African region is the demographic behemoth of the entire world?
Term What changes have occurred in Africa as a result of mobile phones?
Is it possible to estimate how many additional countries make up the East Africa region, in addition to the highland component of Ethiopia?
A large proportion of Tanzania’s Muslim population is concentrated within the African Transition Zone.
The Kalahari Desert is located in the heart of which of the following countries?
The Spanish and the French were the first Europeans to establish trading relations with West Africa.
Africa and were two of the most important sources of slaves during the time of the slave trade.
North America is the first region to be discussed.
A country in South America called Brazil.
Which country was it?
Spain) is a country located in the eastern part of the European continent.
In this case, A is the vector and B is the globular diffusion.
pandemic and D.
The HIV/AIDS pandemic.
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Nigeria (B).
It is customary in South Africa to refer to people who are descended from Dutch ancestors as_.
Hollanders from the Highveld B.
The Cape Boers and the Great Trekkers are two of the most famous of these.
Transylvania is a region of Romania.
The answer is A.
FalseTerm_ is known, is referred to as “land between the rivers.” A.
Mesopotamia is the second most populous nation in the world.
The following countries are included: A.
Bosnia and Herzegovina The People’s Republic of ChinaNorthern Nigeria Turkestan is an example of a developing country.
The Nile is within 20 kilometers (12 miles) of the majority of Egypt’s population, according to census data.
Located on the shores of Lake Nasser in Upper Egypt is Cairo, Egypt’s capital and largest city.
Located on the shores of Lake Nasser in Upper Egypt is Cairo, Egypt’s capital and largest city.
Iraq is a good example of a country that has a long history of war and violence.
Bhutan and Nepal are two of the most remote countries on the planet.
Kashmir and Afghanistan are the third and fourth places on the list, respectively.
The countries of Bangladesh and Burma are grouped together as E.
The central Gangetic PlainD.
The States of the peninsula that are the furthest to the south Figure 8-7 depicts the territory known as Aksai Chin, which is currently under the political control of the country depicted in this figure: 1.
Mongolia, China, and Japan are the countries where the “people of Han” reside.
The term refers to the countries of Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea.
In the past, Taiwan was a colony of one of the following countries: _A RussiaB the United States D.
Island chain of the Senkaku/Diaoyu The _.A.
Thais are the ethnic groups that make up a significant portion of the commercial class in Southeast Asia.
Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia are the countries that rank fourth in terms of population in the world.
In Malayalam language, the word “B” means “bright.” In Borneo, the letter C stands for “Caveat Emptor.” Thailand is a country in Asia that has a long history of terrorism.
In which of the following countries did the British Empire not have a colony before it gained independence?
Africa’s deadliest disease, _, is the most common in the region.
When it comes to the Shona and Ndebele tribes, which of the following countries is the one where government-backed squatters seeking their land have driven whites from their territory?
It was in the year_ The and the are the two ethnic groups that fought each other during the Rwandan Civil War.
There are two ethnic groups in Uganda: the Hutus and the Tutsis.
Africa’s most populous country is located in which country? Africa’s most populous country is located in which country? The modern state of Dominican Republic existed prior to its independence. The Democratic Republic of the Congo was a colony of the United Nations.
The Spread of Islam in West Africa: Containment, Mixing, and Reform
Margari Hill is a professor at Stanford University. accessible in PDF format as of January 2009 (1.14 MB) While Islam has been present in West Africa since the seventh century, the expansion of the faith in the territories that are now the modern republics of Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, and Nigeria was a lengthy and difficult process that began in the Middle East and ended in the Middle East. Much of what we know about the early history of West Africa comes from medieval records written by Arab and North African geographers and historians, who were primarily concerned with the region’s geography and history.
- The economic objectives of some are emphasized, while the spiritual message of Islam is emphasized by others, and a number of others emphasize the prestige and impact of Arabic literacy in the process of state creation.
- Despite the fact that commerce between West Africa and the Mediterranean predates Islam, North African Muslims were responsible for the expansion of the Trans-Saharan trade.
- The trade routes Sijilmasa to Awdaghust and Ghadames to Gao, for example, connected Africa below the Sahara with the Mediterranean Middle East and were important commercial routes.
- The Sahel region of West Africa was the site of the development of the three major medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and the Songhay.
- Containment is the first stage.
- The historical evolution of the medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay, as well as the 19th century jihads that resulted in the foundation of the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland and the Umarian kingdom in Senegambia, are illuminated by this three-phase paradigm.
Containment: Ghana and the Takrur
Islamic settlements tied to the trans-Saharan commerce were the only places where Islam could be found in the early days of civilization. Al-Bakri, an Andalusian geographer who lived in the 11th century, recorded details of Arab and North African Berber communities in the region during his time. A number of causes contributed to the expansion of the Muslim merchant-scholar class in non-Muslim nations, including: Islam encouraged long-distance trade by providing merchants with a helpful set of instruments, including as contract law, credit, and communication networks.
- In addition to having created script, they possessed other important abilities that aided in the administration of kingdoms.
- Merchant-scholars also had a big influence in the propagation of Islam into the forest zones.
- Muslim populations in the forest zones were minorities that were frequently related to trading diasporas, according to historians.
- Al-Hajj Salim Suwari was a Soninke scholar who focused on the responsibilities of Muslims in non-Muslim societies.
- This practice has been in place for generations in the forest zone, and it continues to be effective today in areas where there are active Muslim minorities.
- Ghana The name was chosen as a means to pay homage to early African history.
- Peoples such as the Soninken Malinke, the Wa’kuri, and the Wangari have lived in this region for thousands of years.
Around the year 300 A.D., large settlements began to appear in the Niger Delta region.
Merchants trading in salt, horses, dates, and camels from northern Africa and the Sahara exchanged them for gold, lumber, and food from the countries south of the Sahara, according to historians.
This gave rise to one of Ghana’s most distinctive characteristics: the dual city; Ghana’s Kings benefitted from Muslim commerce while keeping them outside the country’s political centre.
African kingdoms eventually began to enable Muslims to enter into their societies.
Around this time, the Almoravid reform movement began in the Western Sahara and spread over modern-day Mauritania, North Africa, and Southern Spain, among other places.
Muslims in West Africa benefited from the Almoravid revolution, which brought greater consistency of practice and Islamic law to their communities.
The Takruri realm was weakened as a result of the Almoravids’ conquest of trade routes and fortified fortifications. It would take more than a hundred years for the empire to disintegrate into a collection of minor kingdoms.
Mixing: The Empires of Mali and Songhay
Over the next several decades, African kings came to embrace Islam despite reigning over populations of varying religious and cultural beliefs and practices. The mixing phase, as specialists refer to it, was a period in which many of these kings combined Islam with conventional and local rituals. After a period of time, the populace began to embrace Islam, typically just adopting components of the faith that they found appealing. The Mali Empire (1215-1450) arose out of a series of fighting kingdoms in West Africa.
- It was a multi-ethnic state with a diverse range of religious and cultural organizations.
- However, while the empire’s founder, Sunjiata Keita, was not himself a Muslim, Mali’s rulers converted to Islam by 1300.
- He established Islam as the official religion of the country and traveled on a pilgrimage from Mali to Mecca in 1324.
- According to reports, his spending depreciated the value of gold in Egypt for a number of years.
- By the fifteenth century, however, Mali had essentially disintegrated as a result of internal dissension and warfare with the Saharan Tuareg.
- Hausaland was made up of a series of city-states that were connected by a network of roads (Gobir, Katsina, Kano, Zamfara, Kebbi and Zazzau).
- During the ninth century, the state adopted Islam as its religion.
Northern Nigeria today includes most of Hausaland and Bornu in the east, as well as the rest of the country.
The kings of Hausaland followed in the footsteps of the rulers of prior Muslim republics in blending indigenous traditions with Islam.
Despite the fact that Islam was the official state religion, the vast majority of the populace continued to adhere to their traditional religious beliefs.
In the period 1465-1492, Sonni Ali, the ruler of the country, punished Muslim academics, particularly those who denounced pagan rites and practices.
Two centuries later, the kingdom of Gao re-emerged as the Songhay Empire, bringing the kingdom back to life.
Under the reign of King Songhay (1493-1529), the Songhay’s territory grew well beyond the bounds of any previous West African empire.
One famous example is the Great Mosque of Jenne, which was constructed in the 12th or 13th centuries and is still standing today.
By the 16th century, the Niger Bend area was home to various centers of commerce and Islamic study, the most famous of which was the fabled city of Timbuktu.
Timbuktu was established as a trade station by the Tuareg.
In 1325, the city had a population of around 10,000 people.
Timbuktu drew academics from all across the Muslim world to attend its conferences.
The Songhay Empire came to an end in 1591, when Morocco captured the realm.
As a result of the dispersal of merchant scholars from Timbuktu and other major learning centers, learning institutions were transferred from urban-based merchant families to rural pastoralists throughout the Sahara.
A mystical Sufi brotherhood organization began to expand over this region somewhere during the 12th and 13th centuries.
In African Muslim civilizations, Sufi organizations played an important role in the social order and the propagation of Islam throughout the continent, and this continued far into the twentieth century.
Reform in the Nineteenth Century: Umarian Jihad in Senegambia and the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland
The jihad activities of the nineteenth century are the clearest example of the third phase in the growth of Islam in West Africa. During this time period, experts have emphasized the manner in which literate Muslims grew increasingly aware of Islamic theology and began to seek reforms on the part of the leadership. Historically significance because it symbolizes the transition from Muslim communities that practiced Islam in conjunction with “pagan” ceremonies and customs to cultures that fully embraced Islamic ideals and created Shariah (Islamic Law).
- Mauritania was the site of the first known jihad in West Africa, which occurred around the 17th century.
- Nasir al-Din, a scholar, was the leader of an unsuccessful jihad known as Sharr Bubba.
- In 1802, a Fulani scholar named Uthman Dan Fodio took the initiative and launched a massive jihad.
- Because of this movement, there has been a consolidation of power within the Muslim community, as well as educational and legal changes.
- His progeny carried on his legacy of literary creativity and educational reform into the modern day.
- One famous example was the jihad of al Hajj Umar Tal, a Tukulor from the Senegambia area, who was killed in the course of his mission.
- His conquests of three Bambara kingdoms took place during the 1850s and the 1860s.
Despite the fact that the French were in charge of the territory, colonial authorities faced a powerful adversary.
Following his death, French soldiers beat Toure’s son in a battle that took place in 1901.
Despite the fact that European forces were responsible for the fall of the Umarian state and the Sokoto Caliphate, colonial domination did little to prevent Islam from spreading over West Africa.
Sokoto Caliphate came to an end in 1903 when British soldiers invaded and annexed the region.
Contrary to colonial officials’ hopes and dreams, colonialism had far-reaching consequences for the Muslim society of Northern Nigeria.
Thus, Islam began to grow swiftly in new urban centers and regions, such as Yoruba land, as a result of this.
Despite the fact that Muslims lost political authority, Muslim communities made great strides throughout West Africa during the first decades of the twentieth century.
The trans-Saharan commerce route served as a key conduit for the spread of Islam throughout Africa.
Muslim communities have flourished in West Africa for more than a millennium, demonstrating that Islam is a substantial component of the continent’s cultural and religious environment.
- InTimeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. 2001), “Western Sudan, 500–1000 AD.”
- “Western and Central Sudan, 1000–1400 AD.”
- “Western and Central Sudan, 1600–1800 AD.”
- “Western and Central Sudan, 1600–1800 A.D.”
- “Western and Central Muslim Societies in the History of Africa. Nehemia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels’ book, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2004, is a classic (eds). The History of Islam in Africa is a fascinating subject. Spencer Trimingham’s History of Islam in West Africa was published by Ohio University Press in Athens, Ohio, in 2000. Oxford University Press, 1962
- New York: Oxford University Press, 1962
It is also known as Islamdom, the complex of communities and cultures in which Muslims and their faith have long been widespread and socially powerful, also known as the Islamic world. The practice of Islam is a worldwide phenomenon: Muslims predominate in approximately 30 to 40 countries, spanning the Atlantic Ocean east to the Pacific Ocean and along a belt that stretches from northern Africa into Central Asia and south to the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent. Muslims are the majority religion in the United States and Canada.
- Although there are no large-scale Islamic governmental structures, the Islamic faith continues to grow, according to some estimations at a higher rate than any other major religion on the planet.
- What about sacred places of worship?
- The Islamic faith as well as the life of the Prophet Muhammad are discussed in detail in the article Islam.
- Islam is also mentioned in entries about certain nations or areas in which the religion is a factor, such as Egypt, Iran, Arabia, and North Africa, among others.
- To understand the history of today’s Islamic world, it is necessary to have a very broad viewpoint.
In general, the events discussed in this article are dated according to theGregorian calendar, and eras are designated asbce (before the Common Era or Christian Era) andce (Common Era or Christian Era), terms that are equivalent tobc (before Christ) andad (after Christ) in the Gregorian calendar respectively (Latin:anno Domini).
It is generally agreed that the Islamic period began with Muhammad’s journey (Hijrah) to Medina in 622CE, which corresponds to July 16, 622CE in the Gregorian calendar.
Muslim as an adjective defines elements of Islam as a religion, whereas Islamic as a noun discusses aspects of Islam’s believers.
The term “Islamicate” refers to the social and cultural complex that has historically been associated with Islam and Muslims, as well as the role and participation of non-Islamic and non-Muslim individuals and groups within that complex.
The term “Islamicate” is used to refer to the complex as a whole.
Prehistory (c.3000bce –500ce)
FromHammurabiof Babylon to the AchaemenidCyrus IIin Persia to Alexander the Greatto the Sassinian emperorAnshirvanto Muhammad in Arabia; or, fromAdamtoNoahtoAbrahamtoMosestoJesusto Muhammad according to a Muslim perspective, fromAdam to Noah, to Abraham, to Moses, to Jesus, to Muhammad. With the establishment of the first civilizations in western Asia, the possibility for Muslim empire building was formed. As a result of the emergence and spread of what have been referred to as the region’s Axial Age religions—Abrahamic, which was centered on the Hebrew patriarch Abraham, and Mazdean, which was centered on the Iranian deityAhura Mazd—as well as their later relative, Christianity—the region’s Axial Age religions were refined.
In many ways, the Muslims were the successors of ancient Egypt, Babylonian civilisation, Persian civilization, Hebrew civilization, even Greek and Indian civilisation; the civilizations they built crossed time and space, from antiquity to modernity and from the east to the west.
The rise of agrarian-based citied societies
The Arab coalition of the 7th century, which included sedentary and migratory groups from both inside and outside the Arabian Peninsula, seized political and fiscal control of western Asia, specifically the lands between the Nile and the Oxus (Amu Darya) rivers, territory that had previously been controlled by the Byzantines in the west and the Ssanianians in the east. In the 4th millennium BC, the rise of agrarian-based citied communities in western Asia signaled the beginning of a protracted period of consolidation of the variables that surrounded and controlled their accomplishment.
- This sort of social structure opened the door to a whole new world of possibilities.
- Some individuals were able to gain enough riches to patronize a wide range of arts and crafts by taking advantage of the physical labor of others; a few of these persons were able to build territorial monarchies and support religious organizations that had a broader appeal.
- The new governing groups developed expertise in managing and integrating non-kin-related groups into their societies.
- Several new institutions, like as money, territorial deities, royal priesthoods, and permanent armies, aided in the consolidation of their authority.
- The religious beliefs of these new social entities mirrored and supported the new social circumstances in which they existed.
- As indicated by the intricate funeral ceremonies of pharaonic Egypt, the link between worldly existence and the afterlife became increasingly complicated.
- But large-scale organization had resulted in social and economic inequities that rulers and religions were able to confront but were unable to eliminate.
Many people believed that an absolute monarch who could unite a diverse range of ethnic, religious, and interest groups was their greatest hope for justice.
Culture & Art
The Arab coalition of the 7th century, which included sedentary and migratory groups from both inside and outside the Arabian Peninsula, seized political and fiscal control of western Asia, specifically the lands between the Nile and the Oxus (Amu Darya) rivers, territory that had previously been controlled by the Byzantines in the west and the Ssanianes in the east. In the 4th millennium BC, the rise of agrarian-based citied communities in western Asia signaled the beginning of a period of consolidation of the variables that surrounded and guided their accomplishment.
There were new options available because of this sort of social structure.
It was possible for certain people to accumulate enough riches to patronize a wide range of arts and crafts by taking advantage of the physical labor of others; a few of these individuals went on to build territorial monarchies and promote religious organizations with a broader appeal as well.
- Administration and integration of non-kin groups were encouraged by the new governing families and clans.
- New institutions, including as money, territorial deities, royal priesthoods, and permanent armies, contributed to the expansion of their political authority and influence.
- The religions of these new social entities reflected and supported the new social conditions in which they existed and functioned.
- Because of the intricate funeral ceremonies of pharaonic Egypt, the link between worldly existence and the afterlife grew increasingly complicated.
- The result was social and economic inequities that were addressed but not resolved by governments and religious organizations on a massive scale.
The total authority of a single ethnic, religious, and interest group represented the best chance for justice in the eyes of many people in the world today.
The Crossroads of the World
The Arabian people, who lived at the crossroads of vital historical trade routes, were enhanced by the contributions of many other civilizations. Arab traders were involved in a vast commercial network that stretched as far as south Asia, the Mediterranean, and Egypt as early as 3,000 BC. They functioned as an important link between India and the Far East on one side, and Byzantium and the Mediterranean nations on the other. The advent of Islam into the region in the 7th century AD significantly shaped the culture of the region.
It created a vibrant time of tremendous learning in culture, science, philosophy and the arts known as the Islamic “Golden Age.” And every year for the last 14 centuries, Muslim pilgrims from throughout the world visit to sacred sites in Makkah and Madinah, significantly enhancing the region’s culture.
When the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was established in 1932, King Abdulaziz bin Abdulrahman committed himself to the preservation of Arab customs and culture, and his sons and successors have continued this legacy to this day.
Arab and Islamic Traditions
Traditions in Saudi Arabia are based on Islamic teachings and Arab practices, which Saudis learn about via their families and at school from an early age, according to the country’s official website. The holy month of Ramadan and the Hajj (pilgrimage) season, as well as the national festivals that follow them, are the highlights of the year in Saudi Arabia. This holiday season concludes with the holy month of Ramadan, during which Muslims fast from dawn to nightfall. It is common to buy gifts and clothes for children as well as visit friends and family during this time.
- With the feast of Eid Al-Adha, the Hajj season comes to a close, with families traditionally slaughtering a sheep in commemoration of Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son.
- These millennia-old traditions have developed and become highly recognized around the world.
- Despite its simplicity, coffee is the ultimate expression of hospitality.
- In addition to the burning of incense (oud) to greet guests, there are additional forms of hospitality.
Saudi Arabia places a high value on the preservation of its historical heritage. A large number of restoration projects have been carried out to preserve the Kingdom’s architectural legacy, including the restoration of historic buildings and neighborhood structures. Pre-historic and historic sites are excavated, catalogued, and preserved by the Department of Museums and Antiquities, which is responsible for these projects. The Department of Tourism was transferred from the Ministry of Education to the Supreme Commission for Tourism (SCT), which was established in 2000.
- The Department of Archaeology at King Saud University in Riyadh is also responsible for some of the most important archaeological work in the country.
- Projects at sites such as Fau and Madain Saleh as well as Al-Ula, Tayma, and Duma and along the Darb Zubaydah (Pilgrimage Road to Makkah) are among those currently underway.
- Untold numbers of mosques throughout Saudi Arabia have undergone meticulous restoration, including the Holy Mosque in Makkah, the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah, and mosques constructed by the first caliphs after Muhammad’s death.
- In addition to the old Qasr Al-Hokm neighborhood in Riyadh, restoration work has been completed in the ancient quarters of Jeddah, Hail, and other Saudi cities.
The results of this restoration work were on display during the hijrah centennial celebrations of the capture of the Masmak Fortress in 1902, which took place in 1999.
It has grown over the ages, yet Saudi Arabia has a distinctive architectural legacy. Historically, building styles and materials in Saudi Arabia were governed by factors such as climate, topography, and the availability of materials. In the central areas, for example, adobe was favoured over other building materials because of its malleability, availability, and insulating properties. Stone and red brick were commonly used in the construction of buildings in western Saudi Arabia, while coral from the Red Sea was used in the construction of buildings in Jeddah.
Traditional Islamic design and ultra-modern structure can be combined successfully in places like King Saud University and the King Khalid International Airport, which serve as striking examples of how well traditional Islamic design and ultra-modern structure can be combined in places like King Saud University and the King Khalid International Airport.
The Spiriual Architecture of Minarets
Minarets are the most conspicuous man-made buildings in Saudi Arabia, and they are also the tallest. They protrude from the skylines of every Saudi metropolitan center, from the tiniest town to the greatest city, serving as a monument to the tie that exists between a Muslim community and God. In order for the call to prayer to be heard by residents of all residences in a mosque’s neighborhood, minarets are built high enough above all surrounding structures. Tradition had it that muezzins would ascend the stairwell to the top of the minaret and summon the faithful to prayer five times a day, starting at sunrise.
Nowadays, most minarets are equipped with sound systems, so that the muezzin is no longer necessary to undertake the strenuous climb up to the top of the minaret.
In small village mosques, they might measure as little as 20 feet in length, whereas the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah is 360 feet.
Calligraphy is a treasured art form in Saudi Arabia, with roots dating back 1,400 years to the first century of Islam. Since the Holy Qur’an has traditionally served as the principal subject matter for calligraphy, it is often regarded as the definitive Islamic artistic expression. Rare manuscripts are collected and shown at Saudi museums. Other organizations commission works of calligraphy, give instruction in the art form, and host contests to inspire the next generation of calligraphers to pursue their dreams.
It is also a dominant theme in Islamic art. Moschees, government buildings, and private residences all include inscriptions on the inner walls, which are typically in Arabic.
The cultural legacy of Saudi Arabia has been preserved via the establishment of a number of institutions around the country. In the Ministry of Culture and Information, the Department of Culture sponsors a wide range of cultural programs, including literary and drama clubs as well as folklore classes and library events, as well as arts and crafts projects and science projects. One of the largest is the Department of Culture, which is housed in the Ministry of Culture and Information. These clubs are involved in a wide variety of cultural activities.
- Other groups provide Saudis with the opportunity to develop a wide range of artistic abilities.
- It also funds Saudis who wish to participate in international art and cultural events, such as poetry and essay competitions, as well as displays of calligraphy and original artworks.
- At the Kingdom’s first cultural center, which is located in Riyadh, the organization has created a library and information center as well as a library and information center.
- Many of the winners of the King Faisal Prize have gone on to win other prestigious international honors, including the Nobel Prize.
- Today, there are important museums in each of the Kingdom’s 13 provinces, as well as a large number of small privately held museums scattered around the nation.
- There are also private museums, such as the Humane Heritage Museum in Jeddah, which is dedicated to animal welfare.
Saudi folk music, which is a living component of the country’s past, has been formed by nomadic Bedouins and pilgrims who brought musical influences from all over the world. In the Hijaz, for example, the music of al-sihba is a fusion of poetry and melodies from Arab Andalusia, whilst the folk music of Makkah and Madinah reflects the influences of these two towns from all across the Islamic world, as well as their own traditions. Saudis like a good night of dancing as well. The ardha, a men’s sword dance, is considered the national dance of the country.
It consists of a group of singers, dancers wielding swords, and a poet or narrator who tells the story of the ardha. Performing the traditional dance, men with swords form two lines or a circle around a poet who is singing in their midst.
In Arab cultural life, poetry is very significant, and it has long been regarded as one of the finest manifestations of literary art. Poems were mostly passed down orally during a time when the Bedouin were continually on the move, as they are now. People would congregate around a storyteller, who would weave tales of love, valor, chivalry, conflict, and historical events into their collective consciousness. This served as both a kind of entertainment and a means of preserving oral histories, customs, and societal norms.
It is regarded as the ideal literary model since it shows the flawless usage of the Arabic language.
Each year, they congregate at cultural events such as the Jenadriyah National Culture and Heritage Festival, and they eagerly devour the works of recognized poets that are published in Saudi Arabia by the Ministry of Culture.
The Jenadriyah Heritage and Cultural Festival, which is held by the Saudi National Guard every year, is the most well-known cultural event in Saudi Arabia. The event, which takes place twice a year, provides over a million Saudis with a look into the past. The festival, which has been running since 1985, serves to emphasize the Kingdom’s dedication to preserving the traditional culture and crafts of Saudi Arabia. This year’s celebration, which begins with a traditional camel racing, encompasses practically every facet of Saudi culture.
- Visitors may also take a journey through history at a historical village that has been permanently established in Jenadriyah.
- A wood carver works carefully and methodically to cut a saddle frame out of a piece of wood.
- A potter works with clay on a wheel propelled by his or her feet to create bowls and water jars.
- Massive slabs of wood are chopped and shaped into doors and windows that include exquisite carvings and inlays.
- In the collar of a man’s cloak, a tailor hand-stitches golden threads into place.
- Craftsmen created innovative wooden pulleys that were formerly used to laboriously draw water from wells for the purpose of irrigating fields in the olden days.
Participation in poetry competitions between modern poets reading old rhymes attracts literary figures from all around the country, including celebrities.
Western types of attire are preferred by Saudis over traditional kinds of dress, and they typically dress in modern interpretations of age-old patterns. Despite the fact that the loose, flowing traditional clothing are practical for the Kingdom’s hot, windy environment, they are also in line with the Islamic concept of modesty.
A thawb is an ankle-length shirt made of wool or cotton that is worn by men. It is customary for them to wear a huge square of cotton (ghutra) on their heads, which is folded diagonally over a skullcap (kufiyyah) and secured with a string circlet (igaal). The flowing, full-length outer cloak (bisht), which is often made of wool or camel hair, completes the ensemble. In ancient times, the bisht was also utilized as a blanket for travelers when on the road.
Women are typically attired with a black outer cloak (abaya) over their clothes, which may or may not be of contemporary design. Shaylas are historically worn on the heads of Saudi women. Shaylas are long, black scarves tied around the head and fastened with circlets, caps, or jewelry. Traditional attire is frequently lavishly embellished with coins, sequins, or brilliantly colored fabric appliqués, among other embellishments. Some Saudi women choose to cover their faces with veils made of transparent cloth.
An extremely thin veil provides protection from the sun’s persistent exposure in a harsh desert climate, which can cause skin and eye damage if not worn.
Pendants and earrings have been an important feature of Arabian attire for thousands of years. Jewelry served as more than simply a personal ornament; it also served as a mark of social and economic prestige. Moreover, it was an easily transportable source of money and security for the migrating Bedouin population. Silver was the predominant metal used in traditional jewelry, although gold was occasionally utilized. Pearls and coral from the coastal areas were employed in the jewelry designs, as were stones like as turquoise, garnets, and amber from the Kingdom’s abundant mines.
Intricate geometric patterns, leaves, crescents, and flowers were used to create designs that were predominantly influenced by Islamic calligraphy and themes.
The jewelry worn by modern Saudi women is both traditional and contemporary in style, and it includes diamonds and a range of precious metals, as opposed to their foremothers, who received significant amounts of bracelets, rings, earrings, and necklaces as part of their dowry.