Which Of The Following Best Describes The Early Spread Of Islam?

How did the invention of the Arabic language help the caliphates?

  • It spread Arabic throughout Europe and Africa, making it the required language of trade and business. c. It helped create unity and a money economy, and facilitated the spread of ideas and culture. d. It ensured the caliphates had monopolies in agricultural and textile products.


How did Islam spread early on?

Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries. Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time. The caliphate—a new Islamic political structure—evolved and became more sophisticated during the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates.

What contributed most to the early spread of Islam?

The spread of Islam spans about 1,400 years. Muslim conquests following Muhammad’s death led to the creation of the caliphates, occupying a vast geographical area; conversion to Islam was boosted by Arab Muslim forces conquering vast territories and building imperial structures over time.

When did Islam start spread?

The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula.

What did Islam spread?

First, Arab traders came from Asia into North Africa. They moved across the Sahara into West Africa. Later on, other merchant traders came by boat to the east coast. Islam spread as ivory, salt, slaves, gold, and many other items were traded and sold.

Why did Islam spread so quickly quizlet?

Islam spread quickly because its leaders conquered surrounding territories. As Muhammad and the Muslim leaders that came after him conquered lands in the Middle East and beyond they spread the teachings of Islam. Islam spread quickly because its leaders treated newly conquered people well.

How did Islam spread through trade?

After the advent of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century, Islam started its expansion towards eastern regions through trade encouraged by the development of the maritime Silk Roads. It is believed that Islam first arrived in these South-eastern regions by the 7th century.

What caused the spread of Islam in North Africa?

Islam was spread to North Africa as a result of conquest over African tribes, missionary efforts by the Muslim people, and traders spreading the religion by ear. The Muslim people would also spread the religion through trade because it would help the trade and economy of the country.

Which of the following describes the process by which Islam spread widely throughout the Middle East after Muhammad’s death?

Which of the following describes the process by which Islam spread widely throughout the Middle East after Muhammad’s death? Muslim military and political leaders contributed most directly to the spread of Islam.

How did the spread of Islam help spread the Arabic language?

The primary way in which Islam helped to spread Arabic culture was to make Arabic the everyday language of the people in the lands to which it spread.

What is the origin of Islam?

Arrival of Islam and Medieval period The Battle of Talas in 751 between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang dynasty for control of Central Asia was the turning point, initiating mass conversion into Islam in the region. Most of the Turkic khanates converted to Islam in the 10th century.

How did Islam spread to India?

Islam arrived in the inland of Indian subcontinent in the 7th century when the Arabs conquered Sindh and later arrived in North India in the 12th century via the Ghurids conquest and has since become a part of India’s religious and cultural heritage.

How did Islam spread to Europe?

Islam spread in Eastern Europe via the conversion of the Volga Bulgars, Cuman-Kipchaks, and later the Golden Horde and its successor khanates, with its various Muslim populations called “Tatars” by the Russians. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, large numbers of Muslims immigrated to Western Europe.

How did Islam spread through military conquest?

The military conquest was inspired by religion, but it was also motivated by greed and politics. But this mixture of motives combined to form a process that forged Islamic and Arab ideals and communities into a fast-growing religious and political identity.

How did the spread of Islam affect the world?

Another effect of the spread of Islam was an increase in trade. Unlike early Christianity, Muslims were not reluctant to engage in trade and profit; Muhammad himself was a merchant. As new areas were drawn into the orbit of Islamic civilization, the new religion provided merchants with a safe context for trade.

1. Which of the following statements best describes the spread of Islam during the Arab

In your opinion, which of the following assertions most accurately reflects the spread of Islam during the Arab conquests? A.Islam only expanded inside the borders of the territories conquered by Arabs. *Everyone in conquered territories was coerced into becoming Muslims, and this included children. C.Only a handful of non-Arabs have ever converted to Islam. d.Islam expanded both within and outside of the newly formed Arab Muslim empire. Consider the dynastic table in the next section. Dynasty Accomplishment The Sasanian Empire preserved Mesopotamian culture.

Baghdad was elevated to the status of cultural capital during the Abbasids.

Which of the following descriptions may take the place of the question mark?

The Quran has been translated into the most foreign languages possible.

  • who finished the conquest of the Byzantine empire, and D.
  • 3.
  • A.He was instrumental in establishing the Sultanate of Delhi.
  • C.**He was instrumental in the propagation of Buddhism in China.
  • 4.
  • A.It was the Mongol administration in India that was responsible.
  • C.It belonged to the Chola empire’s administration.

which of the following best describes how european powers responded to islamic expansion?

Overview. Islam expanded throughout the world through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and the efforts of missionaries. Over time, Arab Muslim soldiers captured enormous swaths of territory and established imperial organizations. What was one of the consequences of the Islamic expansion between 632 and 750? The caliphs forbade armed conquest in their territories. There has been an increase in the number of cultural and commercial ties across a large area. Most of the western European populace converted, with the exception of a few.

  1. The Islamic Empire was unable to expand into northern and western Europe as a result of this victory.
  2. When it came to social standing, Jews and Christians in Islamic territories were raised to the greatest level.
  3. … Islamic kings ignored infrastructure, resulting in regions such as Baghdad being left in ruins.
  4. It ruled over large sections of the Middle East, northern Africa, the Iberian peninsula (Spain), and parts of Asia, all the way into Indian territory.
  5. In order to expand their territory, dynastic leaders relied on a robust military.
  6. Due to these exchanges, Islam was able to spread even farther, reaching people living in significant coastal towns on the Indian Subcontinent and in China, as well as those living in more remote South-eastern islands such as modern Indonesia and the Philippines.

Muslim Scientists and Scholars who are well-known He collected astronomical tables, developed Indian numbers (which later became Arabic numerals), formulated the earliest known trigonometric tables, and collaborated with 69 other experts to build a geographic encyclopaedia.

What helped unify the many groups that became part of the Islamic world quizlet?

Because of Arabia’s strategic location at a crossroads, Muslim traders had easy access to markets in South Asia, Europe, and Africa. What was it that contributed to the unification of the many groups that formed part of the Islamic world? Muslims conquered areas and entered into treaties with any non-Muslims who lived there at the time.

How did Islam spread to Europe?

Islam began to expand throughout Eastern Europe. Russians gained control of the Volga Bulgars, Cuman-Kipchaks, and eventually the Golden Horde and its successor khanates, which included a diverse Muslim population known as “Tatars.” Massive influxes of Muslims into Western Europe occurred in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

What was one result of the colonization of the Islamic world by European powers?

In what way did European countries’ colonization of the Islamic world have a negative impact on the region? The hegemony of the three major empires was established. … What do you think the future of Islam will be like? Increasingly prevalent and influential over the world, it is expected to continue to grow in popularity.

Who stopped the Islamic conquerors in Europe?

At the Battle of Tours, near Poitiers, France, Christian French commander Charles Martel defeats a vast army of Muslim Spaniards, thereby putting an end to the Muslim invasion of Western Europe.

How did European leaders respond to Islamic expansion in the 700s CE?

What were the responses of European leaders to Islamic expansion in the 700s C.E.? They viewed it as a threat and wanted to put a stop to it.

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How did the Islamic empire impact the areas it ruled quizlet?

As Islamic expansion accelerated in the seventh century CE, how did European leaders respond? They regarded it as a threat and wanted to put a halt to its activities.

What was the primary effect of cultural exchange between Europe and the Islamic world?

When it comes to cultural interchange between Europe and the Islamic world, what was the most significant result? Europeans learnt to accept different religions from their Muslim counterparts. The introduction of Muslim commodities and expertise into European civilization resulted in certain improvements.

What did the Islamic empire do?

It was via trade routes that Islam and the empire started to spread over the Fertile Crescent as well as North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia. Despite huge distances, deserts, and mountains, the empire continued to expand. Also spreading with the empire was Arabic, which aided with the improvement of trade across the empire’s new territories.

What continents did the Islamic empire spread to?

In the beginning, the Islamic empire was centered in Southwest Asia (the Middle East), but it swiftly spread into Africa and eventually further into Asia. Although the region was under Islamic authority, the majority of the population did not instantly convert to Islam. Islamic monarchs let individuals to practice their faith, but they frequently required them to pay a protection fee.

What happened to the Islamic empire?

Because to Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad in 1258, the period is typically considered to have come to an end with the demise of the Abbasid caliphates. (One source defines the medieval period of Islam as 900–1300 CE, which is extremely close, if not the same, as the ancient period.)

How did the early Islamic empire expand answer key?

As a result of how they treated individuals and followers of various religions, as well as how becoming a Muslim or following their faith provided you with benefits, the early Islamic Empire grew.

… In Document C, warriors and aristocrats of a different faith were persuaded to convert to Islam on the grounds that it would be beneficial to their cause.

What is the caliphate system?

It was a semi-religious political system of governance in Islam in which the territories of the Islamic empire in the Middle East and North Africa, as well as the people living within them, were ruled by a supreme leader known as a Caliph (“Khalifa” in Arabic – which means “successor”), who was appointed by the Prophet Muhammad.

How will Muslims treat the people they conquer?

The people who were subjugated by the Muslims were frequently forced to choose a decision. In exchange for not converting to Islam, they may be forced to pay a fee in order to continue practicing their faith, be forced to become a slave, or be killed. The majority of people choose to convert. Those who paid the religious levy were referred to as dhimmis (religious tax payers).

What factors led to the rapid expansion of Islam quizlet?

Islam spread swiftly as a result of the conquest of neighboring areas by its leaders. During their conquests of nations in the Middle East and beyond, Muhammad and the Muslim leaders who followed him disseminated the teachings of Islam throughout the world.

What factors made the Eastern Mediterranean region fertile ground for the later spread of Islam?

Due to the conquest of adjacent regions by its leaders, Islam expanded fast. During their conquests of territories in the Middle East and beyond, Muhammad and the Muslim leaders who followed him propagated the teachings of Islam throughout the region.

What are three factors that contributed to the spread of Islam in the Middle East and North Africa in the 7th and 8th century?

During the 7th century CE, after the Muslim Arabs conquered North Africa and established themselves as a state, Islam expanded throughout West Africa, primarily by peaceful ways, as African monarchs either accepted the religion or converted to it.

How did the Islamic world contribute to the renaissance in Europe?

Islamic conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE resulted in the spread of Islam throughout West Africa, primarily through peaceful ways, as African monarchs either accepted the religion or converted to it themselves.

What was the impact of Islamic scholars?

Muslim academics made significant contributions not only to the creation of mathematical ideas and relationships via the application of logic, but also to the invention of a workable system of numeration that contained zero and led to the solution of equations.

What contributions did Islam make?

Hassani presents his top ten great Muslim innovations in this article:

  • Surgery. A 1500-page illustrated encyclopedia of surgery, written by the famed doctor Al Zahrawi in the year 1,000, was used as a medical reference across Europe for the next 500 years. Algebra, Optics, and Music are some of the topics covered in this lesson.
  • Coffee, Flying Machine, and University all appear in this lesson.

What helped unify the groups that became part of the Islamic world?

As Islam expanded around the world through commerce, conflict, and treaties, Arabs came into touch with people who held a variety of religious and cultural beliefs and practices. Many groups that formed part of the Islamic world were brought together by language and religion.

How did trade help to spread the Islamic culture?

Rather of working via intermediaries, Muslim merchants would travel to the trading locations, allowing them to be exposed to the religion in other countries as well. The practice of directtrade provided more exposure to the religion.

What two groups helped Islam spread?

  • The Rashidun Caliphs and Umayyads (610–750 C.E. )
  • The Abbasids (750–1258 C.E. )
  • The emergence of the Seljuks and Ottomans (950–1450 C.E. )
  • And the Abbasids (750–1258 C.E. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1924)
  • The Modern Era
  • Arabia
  • Greater Syria
  • Persia and the Caucasus
  • The Ottoman Empire (1299–1924)

How did Islam spread to Germany?

Muslims initially arrived in Germany in the eighteenth century as a result of the diplomatic, military, and commercial links that existed between Germany and the Ottoman Empire at the time. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Frederick William I of Prussia had twenty Muslim troops serving under his command.

What is European Colonisation?

It was the goal or practice of European colonialism and colonization to gain complete or partial governmental control over other nations and regions by building and settling colonies in other lands and utilizing their natural resources.

What were the main motivations for exploration by Europeans?

Historians generally agree that there were three primary motivations for European discovery and colonization of the New World: God, gold, and glory (or a combination of the three).

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What was the significance of the Battle of Poitiers, which took place in France in the year 732? In what ways did the Islamic expansion into India differ from other expansions? The Islamic spread into India was analogous to the way Islam grew in other parts of the world, in what ways? Identify one political issue that played a role in the halting of Islam’s advance into Europe throughout the medieval period. What was the influence of the Islamic empire on the territories it ruled? (Five points) What was the influence of the Islamic empire on the territories it ruled?

See more entries in the FAQ category.

Did you know?: The Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia through the Trade Routes

The Silk Roads are among the most important routes in our collective history, and they are still in use today. The establishment of ties between east and west was made possible by the construction of these highways, which exposed varied regions to a variety of different ideas and ways of life. Notably, many of the world’s main religions, including Islam, were spread as a result of these contacts, which is noteworthy. Following the establishment of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century, the religion began to spread eastward through commerce, which was aided by the construction of the maritime Silk Roads.

  1. This allowed them to control the East-West trade routes that ran over the maritime Silk Roads, which linked numerous key ports in eastern Asian countries together.
  2. Due to these exchanges, Islam was able to spread even farther, reaching people living in significant coastal towns on the Indian Subcontinent and in China, as well as those living in more remote South-eastern islands such as modern Indonesia and the Philippines.
  3. Historically, Muslim traders traveling from the Arabian Peninsula to China’s ports had to transit via these islands in the southern hemisphere through the maritime Silk Roads.
  4. According to popular belief, some of these traders eventually moved in Indonesia and assimilated with the locals.
  5. It is possible to see archeological evidence of Islam being practiced by monarchs in the 13th century by looking at tombstones inscribed with dates according to the Islamic year of Sumatran Kings from the 13th century.

Furthermore, during the 13th century, contacts between Muslim merchants and the local population, as well as trade through the Silk Roads between the southern Philippines and other neighboring regions such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia, aided in the spread of Islam among the local population in those regions.

  • Islam, like Buddhism, was assimilated into the existing cultural and religious influences of the Southeast Asian areas in a similar way.
  • Sri Lanka has an ancient monastic hospital system that dates back thousands of years.
  • The Khwarazm region and the Silk Roads are intertwined.
  • The spread of Buddhism throughout South and Southeast Asia as a result of trade routes.

Sayyid Bin Abu Ali, a true representative of intercultural relations throughout the Maritime Silk Roads, was recently honored. Thailand and the Silk Roads of the Maritime Silk Roads The Greeks Have a Foothold in Central Asia Routes of the Maritime Silk Routes in Central Asia

The Spread of Islam in West Africa: Containment, Mixing, and Reform

Margari Hill is a professor at Stanford University. accessible in PDF format as of January 2009 (1.14 MB) While Islam has been present in West Africa since the seventh century, the expansion of the faith in the territories that are now the modern republics of Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, and Nigeria was a lengthy and difficult process that began in the Middle East and ended in the Middle East. Much of what we know about the early history of West Africa comes from medieval records written by Arab and North African geographers and historians, who were primarily concerned with the region’s geography and history.

  1. The economic objectives of some are emphasized, while the spiritual message of Islam is emphasized by others, and a number of others emphasize the prestige and impact of Arabic literacy in the process of state creation.
  2. Despite the fact that commerce between West Africa and the Mediterranean predates Islam, North African Muslims were responsible for the expansion of the Trans-Saharan trade.
  3. The trade routes Sijilmasa to Awdaghust and Ghadames to Gao, for example, connected Africa below the Sahara with the Mediterranean Middle East and were important commercial routes.
  4. The Sahel region of West Africa was the site of the development of the three major medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and the Songhay.
  5. Containment is the first stage.
  6. The historical evolution of the medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay, as well as the 19th century jihads that resulted in the foundation of the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland and the Umarian kingdom in Senegambia, are illuminated by this three-phase paradigm.

Containment: Ghana and the Takrur

Islamic settlements tied to the trans-Saharan commerce were the only places where Islam could be found in the early days of civilization. Al-Bakri, an Andalusian geographer who lived in the 11th century, recorded details of Arab and North African Berber communities in the region during his time. A number of causes contributed to the expansion of the Muslim merchant-scholar class in non-Muslim nations, including: Islam encouraged long-distance trade by providing merchants with a helpful set of instruments, including as contract law, credit, and communication networks.

  • In addition to having created script, they possessed other important abilities that aided in the administration of kingdoms.
  • Additionally, merchant-scholars played a significant role in the expansion of Islam into the forest zones.
  • Muslim populations in the forest zones were minorities that were frequently related to trading diasporas, according to historians.
  • Al-Hajj Salim Suwari was a Soninke scholar who focused on the responsibilities of Muslims in non-Muslim societies.
  • This practice has been in place for generations in the forest zone, and it continues to be effective today in areas where there are active Muslim minorities.
  • Ghana The name was chosen as a means to pay homage to early African history.
  • Peoples such as the Soninken Malinke, the Wa’kuri, and the Wangari have lived in this region for thousands of years.
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Around the year 300 A.D., large settlements began to appear in the Niger Delta region.

Merchants trading in salt, horses, dates, and camels from northern Africa and the Sahara exchanged them for gold, lumber, and food from the countries south of the Sahara, according to historians.

This gave rise to one of Ghana’s most distinctive characteristics: the dual city; Ghana’s Kings benefitted from Muslim commerce while keeping them outside the country’s political centre.

African kingdoms eventually began to enable Muslims to enter into their societies.

Around this time, the Almoravid reform movement began in the Western Sahara and spread over modern-day Mauritania, North Africa, and Southern Spain, among other places.

Muslims in West Africa benefited from the Almoravid revolution, which brought greater consistency of practice and Islamic law to their communities.

The Takruri realm was weakened as a result of the Almoravids’ conquest of trade routes and fortified fortifications. It would take more than a hundred years for the empire to disintegrate into a collection of minor kingdoms.

Mixing: The Empires of Mali and Songhay

Over the next several decades, African kings came to embrace Islam despite reigning over populations of varying religious and cultural beliefs and practices. The mixing phase, as specialists refer to it, was a period in which many of these kings combined Islam with conventional and local rituals. After a period of time, the populace began to embrace Islam, typically just adopting components of the faith that they found appealing. The Mali Empire (1215-1450) arose out of a series of fighting kingdoms in West Africa.

  1. It was a multi-ethnic state with a diverse range of religious and cultural organizations.
  2. However, while the empire’s founder, Sunjiata Keita, was not himself a Muslim, Mali’s rulers converted to Islam by 1300.
  3. He established Islam as the official religion of the country and traveled on a pilgrimage from Mali to Mecca in 1324.
  4. According to reports, his spending depreciated the value of gold in Egypt for a number of years.
  5. By the fifteenth century, however, Mali had essentially disintegrated as a result of internal dissension and warfare with the Saharan Tuareg.
  6. Hausaland was made up of a series of city-states that were connected by a network of roads (Gobir, Katsina, Kano, Zamfara, Kebbi and Zazzau).
  7. During the ninth century, the state adopted Islam as its religion.

Northern Nigeria today includes most of Hausaland and Bornu in the east, as well as the rest of the country.

The kings of Hausaland followed in the footsteps of the rulers of prior Muslim republics in blending indigenous traditions with Islam.

Despite the fact that Islam was the official state religion, the vast majority of the populace continued to adhere to their traditional religious beliefs.

In the period 1465-1492, Sonni Ali, the ruler of the country, punished Muslim academics, particularly those who denounced pagan rites and practices.

Two centuries later, the kingdom of Gao re-emerged as the Songhay Empire, bringing the kingdom back to life.

Under the reign of King Songhay (1493-1529), the Songhay’s territory grew well beyond the bounds of any previous West African empire.

One famous example is the Great Mosque of Jenne, which was constructed in the 12th or 13th centuries and is still standing today.

By the 16th century, the Niger Bend area was home to various centers of commerce and Islamic study, the most famous of which was the fabled city of Timbuktu.

Timbuktu was established as a trade station by the Tuareg.

In 1325, the city had a population of around 10,000 people.

Timbuktu drew academics from all across the Muslim world to attend its conferences.

The Songhay Empire came to an end in 1591, when Morocco captured the realm.

As a result of the dispersal of merchant scholars from Timbuktu and other major learning centers, learning institutions were transferred from urban-based merchant families to rural pastoralists throughout the Sahara.

A mystical Sufi brotherhood organization began to expand over this region somewhere during the 12th and 13th centuries.

In African Muslim civilizations, Sufi organizations played an important role in the social order and the propagation of Islam throughout the continent, and this continued far into the twentieth century.

Reform in the Nineteenth Century: Umarian Jihad in Senegambia and the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland

The jihad activities of the nineteenth century are the clearest example of the third phase in the growth of Islam in West Africa. During this time period, experts have emphasized the manner in which literate Muslims grew increasingly aware of Islamic theology and began to seek reforms on the part of the leadership. Historically significance because it symbolizes the transition from Muslim communities that practiced Islam in conjunction with “pagan” ceremonies and customs to cultures that fully embraced Islamic ideals and created Shariah (Islamic Law).

  1. Mauritania was the site of the first known jihad in West Africa, which occurred around the 17th century.
  2. Nasir al-Din, a scholar, was the leader of an unsuccessful jihad known as Sharr Bubba.
  3. In 1802, a Fulani scholar named Uthman Dan Fodio took the initiative and launched a massive jihad.
  4. Because of this movement, there has been a consolidation of power within the Muslim community, as well as educational and legal changes.
  5. His progeny carried on his legacy of literary creativity and educational reform into the modern day.
  6. One famous example was the jihad of al Hajj Umar Tal, a Tukulor from the Senegambia area, who was killed in the course of his mission.
  7. His conquests of three Bambara kingdoms took place during the 1850s and the 1860s.

Despite the fact that the French were in charge of the territory, colonial authorities faced a powerful adversary.

Following his death, French soldiers beat Toure’s son in a battle that took place in 1901.

Despite the fact that European forces were responsible for the fall of the Umarian state and the Sokoto Caliphate, colonial domination did little to prevent Islam from spreading over West Africa.

Sokoto Caliphate came to an end in 1903 when British soldiers invaded and annexed the region.

Contrary to colonial officials’ hopes and dreams, colonialism had far-reaching consequences for the Muslim society of Northern Nigeria.

Thus, Islam began to grow swiftly in new urban centers and regions, such as Yoruba land, as a result of this.

Despite the fact that Muslims lost political authority, Muslim communities made great strides throughout West Africa during the first decades of the twentieth century.

The trans-Saharan commerce route served as a key conduit for the spread of Islam throughout Africa.

Muslim communities have flourished in West Africa for more than a millennium, demonstrating that Islam is a substantial component of the continent’s cultural and religious environment.

  • InTimeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. 2001), “Western Sudan, 500–1000 AD.”
  • “Western and Central Sudan, 1000–1400 AD.”
  • “Western and Central Sudan, 1600–1800 AD.”
  • “Western and Central Sudan, 1600–1800 A.D.”
  • “Western and Central Muslim Societies in the History of Africa. Nehemia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels’ book, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2004, is a classic (eds). The History of Islam in Africa is a fascinating subject. Spencer Trimingham’s History of Islam in West Africa was published by Ohio University Press in Athens, Ohio, in 2000. Oxford University Press, 1962
  • New York: Oxford University Press, 1962

Free Flashcards about Fall Semester Exam

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Question Answer
How was Judaism different from other religions of the Early Civilizations Era? Judaism required believers to practice monotheism.
Which geographic factor likely contributed to the beginning of the Neolithic Revolution? Climate changes produced longer growing seasons.
Which of the following is one change that directly resulted from the development of farming approximately 10,000 years ago? It led to the creation of settled communities.
Why was Egypt called the “Gift of the Nile”? Irrigation from the Nile provided for farming in a desert region.
Which civilization developed an early writing system that used cuneiform script on wet clay tablets? Sumerian
The physical geography of China influenced development in the Huang He valley because mountains to the west of the river valley protected the region creating cultural isolation
Which of the following is one change to human societies as a result of the Neolithic Revolution? Development of specialization of labor
How are the origins of Hinduism and Buddhism similar? Both began in the same modern-day country.
Christianity’s spread throughout the Roman Empire was facilitated by a network of roads and common language used in the region
How did the Roman idea of citizenship facilitate political stability throughout Roman territories? Romans allowed conquered peoples to become citizens.
What is the historical significance of Justinian’s Law Code? It preserved the Roman legal customs for later Western civilizations.
How did the early Christian Paul contribute to the spread of Christianity? As a missionary, he traveled around the Roman Empire converting people to Christianity
Which of the following best describes the factors that contributed to the collapse (fall) of the Roman Empire and Han China? Corruption in the government, social instability and the inability to manage vast borders eventually doomed both empires.
Which of the following was politically characteristic of many civilizations during the Classical Era (500BC-600AD)? Complex empires with bureaucracies developed
Which belief system gained prominence in India during the Mauryan Empire? Buddhism
Which of the following best explains how river valley civilizations influenced the development of Classical civilizations? The foundations of political centralization were established by the river valley civilizations.
Which classical civilization created the decimal system and numeral writing used in the world today? Gupta India
Which innovation promoted trade and contributed to the unity of the Persian Empire? Use of standardized metal coins
Zoroastrianism is an early monotheistic religion emerging from which classical civilization? Persia
The rise and fall of dynasties in China was based on – The Mandate of Heaven
Which factor contributed to the division of Western and Eastern Churches into Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy? Opposing opinions on Christian theology
A vassal is expected to show loyalty to a lord by — providing military service
One way monasteries contributed to the spread of Christianity in Europe was by being outposts for missionary work
Christianity and Islam were important institutions in the reconsolidation of Europe following the collapse of the Roman Empire because both — served as unifying influences on culture
A common belief held by Jews, Christians and Muslims is the idea that — only one God should be worshiped
For early Christians following Church teachings involved observance of — holy sacraments
Which of the following is one event that made 1215 a significant historical year? King John was forced to acknowledge the rights of his subjects.

BBC – Religions – Islam: Early rise of Islam (632-700)

The Muslim community grew throughout the Middle East as a consequence of conquest, and the expansion of the Muslim state that resulted offered a fertile environment for the newly revealed faith to take root and flourish. The religious inspiration for the military conquest was strong, but it was also fueled by wealth and politics. Men fought for the sake of their faith, the promise of loot, and the fact that their friends and other tribesmen were also engaged in combat. Hugh Kennedy’s 2001 book, The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State, is a good example of this.

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The history problem

It is possible to find many narratives from this time period regarding the early Muslim conquests, although most of the material is inaccurate and written in a style that glorifies the conquerors and their god. Although they provide some insight into the big events of the seventh century, they are just incomplete explanations. However, this is not to suggest that the Muslims were not courageous or that their belief that they were carrying out Allah’s will was not significant: it was unquestionably.

Despite the massive amount of words written, we have yet to discover the complete explanation for Muslim success.

Conversion by conquest?

Although it is impossible to determine if Islam was the driving force behind Muslim military development, one new book shows that Islam undoubtedly aided the rise of Muslim power.only one viable explanation exists for Arab success—and that is the spirit of Islam. The generous terms that the conquering troops frequently presented enabled their faith to be accepted by the subjugated inhabitants. Moreover, even though it was a young and upstart religion, its administration by simple and honest individuals was better to the corruption and persecution that were the norm in more sophisticated civilizations at the time.

  • Nafziger and Mark W.
  • And Islam reaped enormous benefits from the improbable military victories of the troops of Arabian Arabia.
  • Simply said, Islam may have accelerated the conquests, but it also shown far more long-term viability.
  • Islam at War: A History, edited by George F.
  • Walton, published in 2003.
  • Following the Ridda wars and the Arabs’ quick conquest of the majority of the Near East, the new religion was more clearly characterized as a monotheistic religion for the Arab people than it had been previously.

As is generally known, the Arabs made no attempt to force their religion on their new subjects, and in fact actively discouraged non-Arabs from converting to Islam at first. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800, by Jonathan P. Berkey, published in 2003.

The justification of conquest

Whether Islam was the driving force behind early Muslim imperialism or not, it could be used to offer justification for it in the same way that it had previously been used to defend Muhammad’s own actions against his adversaries. The Qur’an contains a number of passages that support military action against non-Muslims, such as:But when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem; but when the forbidden months have passed, fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them (of war).

Qur’an 9:5 (from the Qur’an) You must fight all of those who deny the existence of Allah and the Last Day, as well as those who adhere to that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and who refuse to recognize the religion of Truth (even though they are) of the People of the Book.

Considering that the armies of those days were not like contemporary armies – rather, they were more like an association of tribal mercenary groups that received no compensation and received their sole material benefit from the spoils of war – this is hardly unexpected.

After Muhammad’s death

When Islam was elevated to a political stature and given the function of both a political and a religious force by Muhammad, the military conquests served to solidify this position. For a caliph like Umar, it appears that he considered himself first and foremost as the leader of the Arabs, and that their monotheistic religion served as the religious component of their new political identities. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800, by Jonathan P. Berkey, published in 2003.

The conquest of Arabia

Following Muhammad’s death in 632 CE, the new Muslim commonwealth began to experience difficulties. Some tribes came to the conclusion that, because their commitment to Islam had been largely to Muhammad himself, Muhammad’s death gave them the opportunity to renounce their allegiance to Mecca and to Islam. Furthermore, the Prophet had not given clear instructions as to who would be in charge of the community following his death, which made matters much more complicated. Fortunately, the community picked Abu Bakr, the Prophet’s close associate and father-in-law, to be his successor very soon after his death.

Abu Bakr took rapid military action against the villages that were attempting to secede from the government.

Expansion in the Middle East

The caliph Abu Bakr died in 634, and his successor was Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph, who governed until his death in 644. After becoming the ruler of a vast, cohesive kingdom with a well-organized army, Umar utilized this position as a vehicle to advance Islam’s expansion throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Umar’s first operations were against the Byzantine Empire, which he defeated. Following the crucial Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the Muslim troops seized the erstwhile Byzantine realms of Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, bringing them under their control.

It was made considerably simpler by the weakness of the Sassanid Empire, which had been devastated by internal disputes and a protracted battle with the Byzantine Empire when this conquest took place.

It was only a few years later that Muslim armies had already captured portions of Egypt to the south, as well as Anatolia and Armenia to the north.

Is proselytism still appropriate?

In order to see this content, you must have Javascript enabled as well as Flash installed on your computer. For complete instructions, go to BBC Webwise. In this debate, Christians and Muslims compare and contrast their respective histories of mission, conversion, and religious growth around the world. Is there a religion that has a monopoly on the truth?


Muslims believe that the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7th century CE propagated Islam, which is a prominent international religion. The Arabic termislam, which literally translates as “submission,” illustrates the essential theological notion of Islam: that the believer (also known as a Muslim, from the active component ofislam) accepts surrender to the will ofAllah (in Arabic, Allah is translated as “God”). According to Islam, Allah is the one God, who is the creator, sustainer, and restorer of the universe.

  1. In Islam, Muhammad is regarded as the final prophet in a line of prophets that includes Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Solomon, and Jesus, and his teaching both summarizes and completes the “revelations” credited to preceding prophets, according to Islamic tradition.
  2. By the beginning of the twenty-first century, there were more than 1.5 billion Muslims in the globe.
  3. Britannica QuizIslam What is your level of knowledge about the Prophet Muhammad?
  4. With this quiz, you may see how well you know about Islam.
  5. The history of the numerous peoples who have adopted Islam is also discussed in the article Islamic world.

The foundations of Islam

When Islam was first introduced to the world, Muhammad instilled in his followers an understanding of brotherhood as well as a shared commitment to their faith. These qualities contributed to the development among his followers of a strong sense of closeness that was heightened by their experiences of persecution as a fledgling community in Mecca. It was only through a deep devotion to the teachings of the Qur’anic revelation and the evident socioeconomic substance of Islamic religious activities that this bond of faith could be strengthened.

The religion of Islam developed its distinctive ethos during this early period, as a religion that encompassed both the spiritual and temporal aspects of life, and that sought to regulate not only the individual’s relationship with God (through conscience), but also human relationships in a social setting.

Select Muslim intellectuals did not differentiate between the religious (private) and the secular (public) until the twentieth century, and only in some countries, such as Turkey, was the distinction formalized.

This dual religious and social character of Islam, which manifests itself in one way as a religious community commissioned by God to bring its own value system to the world through theji After the Prophet’s death in 632ce, they had placed a huge portion of the world under the control of a new ArabMuslim empire, stretching from Spain to Central Asia and India.

  1. Islam’s fundamental equality within the community of the faithful, as well as its explicit discrimination against adherents of other religions, attracted a large number of recruits quickly.
  2. They were, however, obligated to pay a per capita tax known as jizyah, as contrast to pagans, who were forced to either adopt Islam or die as a result of their refusal.
  3. During the period after the 12th century, the Sufis (Muslim mystics) were largely responsible for the spread of Islam in India, Central Asia, Turkey, and sub-Saharan Africa, as well as other parts of the world (see below).
  4. Islam was brought to Indonesia in the 14th century, but it had little time to establish a political foothold in the country before the region fell under the control of the Dutch.
  5. All elements of Muslim society, on the other hand, are united by a shared religious belief and a sense of belonging to a single community of believers.

In the mid-20th century, the religion of Islam aided many Muslim peoples across their quest for political independence, and the oneness of Islam led to subsequent political solidarity in the world.

Sources of Islamic doctrinal and social views

In Islamic theology, law, and thinking in general, four sources, or essential principles (ul), are relied upon: (1) the Qur’an, (2) the Sunnah (or “Traditions”), (3) the Ijma (or “consensus”), and (4) the Ijtihd (or “individual thought”). Known as the Qur’an (literally, “reading” or “recitation”), it is said to be the verbatimword, or speech, of God, as given to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel. It is the most important source of Islamic doctrine since it is divided into 114 suras (chapters) of varying length.

  1. The suras revealed at Medina at a later stage in the Prophet’s life are primarily concerned with social law and the political-moral principles that should guide the formation and organization of the community.
  2. Photograph by Orhan Am/Fotolia Pre-Islamic Arabs used the term sunnah (which means “a well-trodden road”) to refer to their tribe or common law systems.
  3. Six of these compilations, which were collected in the 3rd centuryah (9th centuryce), came to be considered as particularly authoritative by the Sunnis, who constitute the majority of Islam’s population.
  4. To unify legal theory and practice, as well as to remove individual and regional variations of opinion, the doctrine ofijm, also known as orconsensus, was established in the 2nd centuryah (eighth centuryce).
  5. The concept of Ahijm has existed since the 3rd century and has come to represent a principle of stability in thought; topics on which consensus had been established in practice were deemed closed, and any further meaningful questioning of them was forbidden.

Finding the legal or doctrinal answer to a new situation necessitated the use of the word ijtihd, which means “to endeavor” or “to exert effort.” During the early period of Islamic history, becauseijtihd took the form of individual opinion (ray), there was an abundance of contradictory and chaotic viewpoints to choose from.

While the “gate ofijtihd” in Sunni Islam was effectively closed by the turning of Ijm into a conservative mechanism and the adoption of a final collection of Hadith, the “gate ofijtihd” remained open in Shi’ism.

The Qur’an and Hadith are studied in further detail below. It will be addressed below in the frameworks of Islamictheology, philosophy, and law what the importance of Ijm and Ijtih is.

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