Which Of The Following Describes The Nation Of Islam In The Early 1960s? (Perfect answer)

Which of the following describes the Nation of Islam in the early 1960s? The group had a strong emphasis on personal self-improvement.


Why was the 1963 March on Washington significant in the history of the civil rights movement quizlet?

Why was the 1963 March on Washington significant in the history of the civil rights movement? Conflicts between moderate and militant activists signaled an emerging rift in the larger civil rights movement. Which of the following describes the 1955 murder of Emmett Till in Mississippi?

Which of the following statements accurately describes the Voting Rights Act of 1965?

Which of the following statements accurately describes the Voting Rights Act of 1965? The law ensured all citizens the right to vote, resulting in the dramatic expansion of black votes in the South.

Why did the federal deficit grow dramatically in the late 1960s?

Why did the federal deficit grow dramatically in the late 1960s? The government had spent huge sums on the Great Society programs and the Vietnam War.

Who pioneered the sit in method of civil rights protest that began in Greensboro North Carolina in 1960?

Franklin McCain was one of the four young men who shoved history forward by refusing to budge.

What was the significance of the March on Washington in 1963?

On 28 August 1963, more than 200,000 demonstrators took part in the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in the nation’s capital. The march was successful in pressuring the administration of John F. Kennedy to initiate a strong federal civil rights bill in Congress.

What was the purpose of the March on Washington in 1963 quizlet?

Held in Washington D.C on Wednesday, August, 28 1963. The purpose is to advocate for the civil and economic rights of African Americans.

What caused the Voting Rights Act?

Still, violence persisted in the states where blacks were continually blocked from voting. Then, on March 7, 1965, civil rights activists were attacked by Alabama police near a bridge in Selma, Alabama, in a moment that shocked a nation and helped lead to the Voting Rights Act.

What did the voting Right Act of 1965 do?

Signed into law on August 6, 1965, the Voting Rights Act protected the right to vote for all citizens and made methods used to obstruct voter registration illegal, such as poll taxes and literacy tests.

What demonstrated the need for the Voting Rights Act of 1965 quizlet?

What demonstrated the need for the Voting Rights Act of 1965? Even though African Americans were allowed to vote they were still discriminated against. Under the act, federal officials could register voters in places where local officials were blocking registration of African Americans.

Why were federal and state debts so high in 1790?

Where did that debt come from? Well, the Continental Congress, the rough equivalent of the Federal government in revolution-era America, lacked the power to tax. The states also had a ton of debt (about $25 million, Hamilton reckoned), which the Federal Government assumed–take a hint, euro zone!– in 1790.

What are the main causes of budget deficit?

A government budget deficit occurs when government spending outpaces revenue. Deficits are also caused from a decline in revenue due to an economic contraction such as a recession or depression. In simple terms, if there is less income being made, there is less income that can be taxed.

What was the purpose of the Greensboro protest?

They were inspired by Martin Luther King Jr. and his practice of nonviolent protest, and specifically wanted to change the segregational policies of F. W. Woolworth Company in Greensboro, North Carolina.

What did the Greensboro sit-in protest quizlet?

Four young African-American students staged a sit-in at a segregated Woolworth’s lunch counter and refused to leave after being denied service.

Who created civil rights?

President John F. Kennedy proposed the initial civil rights act. Kennedy faced great personal and political conflicts over this legislation. On the one hand, he was sympathetic to African-American citizens whose dramatic protests highlighted the glaring gap between American ideals and American realities.

Nation of Islam

In 1930, the Nation of Islam was created as an African American movement and organization that was characterized by the incorporation of traditional Islamic teachings and notions of black nationalism into its doctrines. In addition, the Nation encourages racial solidarity and self-help, and members are required to adhere to a severe code of discipline. Muslims from Africa introduced Islam to the United States, where it remained a real, if small, presence into the nineteenth century. Amadyah, an unorthodox sect founded in India by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (c.1839–1908), and Shaikh Ahmed Faisal (1891–1980), the Moroccan-born leader of an autonomous Black Muslim movement, worked together to bring it back into prominence at the beginning of the twentieth century.

A new sacred scripture, The Holy Koran, was created by him, based on his limited understanding of Islam and spiritualist beliefs, that has no relation to its namesake and is based on his limited knowledge of Islam.

Fard was one of those involved with the Moorish Science Temple in Los Angeles (or Wali Fard Muhammad).

He then sent his capable aide, Elijah Muhammad, originally Elijah Poole, to build the Nation’s second center in Chicago.

  • While Fard faded into obscurity, Elijah continued to preach that Fard was a Prophet (in the Muslim sense) and a Saviour (in the Christian sense), as well as the physical manifestation of Allah.
  • Several of the fundamental doctrines of Islam, like as monotheism, devotion to Allah, and a healthy family life, were emphasized in his lectures, which were afterwards pushed in the Nation’s parochialschools and universities.
  • He linked these beliefs and activities to an amyth that was specifically created to appeal to African Americans, according to the author.
  • Their time had come to an end in 1914, and the twentieth century would be the decade in which Black people would establish themselves.
  • Aside from encouraging his followers to abandon their “slave” names in favor of Muslim names, Elijah also pushed them to mark their foreheads with the letter “X,” indicating that they had lost their identities during slavery and did not know their actual names.
  • When Malcolm X claimed that President John F.
  • After being expelled from the country, he converted to orthodox Islam by participating in the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca.

Over the course of the last decade of Elijah Muhammad’s life, the movement became more riven by violence amongst current and past members of the organization.

The movement was entrusted to Wallace Muhammad, Elijah Muhammad’s son who took over as head of the Nation after his father’s death in 1975 and eventually adopted the name Warith Deen Mohammed.

The developments culminated in 1985 with his formal resignation as the leader of the American Muslim Mission and the dissolution of the organization, which occurred the following year.

Some former members, like Elijah Muhammad’s brother, John Muhammad, and national leader Silis Muhammad, were vocal in their opposition to the movement’s shift toward orthodoxy.

A far more significant event occurred as a result of the acts ofLouis Farrakhan(originally Louis Eugene Wolcott), the man who succeeded Malcolm X as head of the New York Temple and became the Nation’s most prominent spokesman following Elijah Muhammad’s assassination.

Farrakhan, a gifted orator, started his group with only a few thousand members, but he quickly expanded it into a nationwide movement.

He also increased the movement’s worldwide reach by establishing centers in England and Ghana, among other places.

He got widespread attention after this incident, and has since become well-known beyond the African American community.

The success of the Million Man March in Washington, D.C., which he helped to organize in 1995, highlighted his emergence as a significant African American leader by the 1990s, as seen by his participation in the march.

Members of the Nation of Islam number between 10,000 and 50,000, according to estimates. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica J. Gordon Melton’s full name is J. Gordon Melton.

The Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam is an African American movement and organization that was created in 1930 and is well-known for its teachings that combine parts of traditional Islam with Black nationalist ideologies. In addition, the Nation emphasizes racial harmony and self-help, and members are required to adhere to a rigid code of conduct. Islam was introduced to the United States by African Muslim slaves, and it maintained a real, if little, presence in the country throughout the nineteenth century. It reemerged at the beginning of the twentieth century as a result of the efforts of the Amadyah movement, an unorthodox sect formed in India by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (c.1839–1908), and Shaikh Ahmed Faisal (1891–1980), the Moroccan-born head of an autonomous Black Muslim movement.

  • Noble Drew Ali, formerly Timothy Drew (1886–1929), was born in 1886 and died in 1929.
  • A hawker by the name of Wallace D.
  • Fard formed the Nation of Islam in Detroit, Michigan, in 1930, claiming to be Noble Drew Ali reborn.
  • When issues arose at the company’s Detroit headquarters in 1934, Elijah Muhammad stepped in and seized over.
  • In Fard, Muhammad offered what was lacking: strong leadership as well as an internally consistent religious system of thought.
  • Traditional Islamic behavioral standards, such as the reluctance to eat pork or consume nicotine, alcoholic beverages, or illicit narcotics, were also included into Elijah’s character development.
  • A black scientist named Yakub, according to Elijah Muhammad, was responsible for the creation of the white race, and Allah had permitted this sinful race to rule for 6,000 years.
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This myth was used to justify a policy of economic self-sufficiency, the growth of Black-owned companies, and the demand for the establishment of a distinct Black country out of the states of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, all of which were supported by the Black community.

A young dynamic leader, Malcolm Little, better known as Malcolm X, took over the New York Temple during World War II and led the Nation back to prominence.

When Malcolm X claimed that President John F.

The Hajj, or trip to Mecca, was his first step toward traditional Islam after being expelled from the country.

Over the course of the last decade of Elijah Muhammad’s life, the movement became increasingly riven by violence amongst current and former members of the organization.

The movement was entrusted to Wallace Muhammad, Elijah Muhammad’s son who took over as head of the Nation after his father’s death in 1975 and eventually adopted the name Warith Deen Muhammad.

Wallace died in 1993.

Eventually, the vast majority of his former followers joined the greater Muslim society, where he established himself as a highly recognized figure.

They established two new groups, both known as the Nation of Islam, to carry on the principles of Elijah Muhammad’s movement.

While appointed to a national position by Mohammed, Farrakhan was dissatisfied with the reforms made by Mohammed and left the organization in 1978 to create a third Nation of Islam.

Eventually, he acquired Elijah Muhammad’s former Chicago mosque and renovated it to serve as the Nation of Islam’s new headquarters.

His worldwide expansion included the establishment of centers in England and Ghana.

He acquired widespread attention after this incident, and his name began to circulate outside the African American community.

During the 1990s, he began to establish himself as a prominent African-American leader, as evidenced by the success of theMillion Man March in Washington, D.C in 1995, which he helped organize.

Facing prostate cancer in 2000, Farrakhan changed his stance on race and steered the organization toward orthodox Islam. The Nation of Islam is comprised of between 10,000 and 50,000 persons, according to estimates. In the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the editors write about: Melton, J. Gordon

Prominent Members of the Nation of Islam

The electronic records in this series can be searched online using the Access to Archival Databases (AAD) system, which is part of the National Archives and Records Administration. It has been judged that the telegrams on AAD are of permanent historical significance, and so only unclassified and unrestricted files have been included. Please look up ‘Nation of Islam’ on the internet.

Record Group 60: Department of Justice

Please search for ‘Nation of Islam’ using the Find feature in your browser’s search bar.

Record Group 267: Supreme Court of the United States

MLK Jr. and Malcolm X were both significant players in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, yet the two only met once and shared a few words during their brief meeting. Growing up in Lansing, Michigan, Malcolm Little acquired a skepticism toward white people of his generation. Terrorists from the Ku Klux Klan set fire to his home, and his father was later assassinated, an event that young Malcolm believed to racist whites in the neighborhood. Malcolm became involved in gang activity after relocating to Harlem.

  1. The young man’s jail experience was eye-opening, and he took certain decisions that changed the path of his life as a result of his experiences.
  2. He became a Muslim after being persuaded to do so by fellow convicts.
  3. He adopted the last name of a variable, X, because he believed that his actual genealogy had been lost when his forebears were taken into slavery.
  4. Fard stated that Christianity was the religion of the white man.
  5. People who identify as members of the Nation of Islam read the Koran, worship Allah as their God, and acknowledge Mohammed as their primary prophet, among other things.
  6. Fard’s followers became known as “Black Muslims” as a result of their appearance.
  7. The Nation of Islam gained a large number of adherents, particularly in jails, where many were imprisoned.
  8. They insisted on following a stringent moral code and putting one’s faith in one’s fellow African Americans.

The Nation of Islam, on the other hand, wished for blacks to establish their own schools, churches, and support networks. When Malcolm X decided to make a personal conversion, Elijah Muhammad quickly recognized his abilities and elevated him to the position of chief spokesperson for Black Muslims.

Martin and Malcolm

MLK Jr. and Malcolm X were both significant players in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, yet the two only met once and shared a few words during their brief encounter. He acquired a distrust towards white Americans while growing up in Lansing, Michigan, where he was raised. Terrorists from the Ku Klux Klan set fire to his home, and his father was later assassinated, an incident that young Malcolm blamed on white people in the neighborhood. Malcolm became involved in crime after relocating to Harlem.

  1. The young man’s jail experience was eye-opening, and he made certain decisions that changed the path of his life as a result of his experiences there.
  2. He was persuaded to convert to Islam by fellow convicts.
  3. A variable, X, was given to him as a last name since he believed his actual genealogy had been lost when his forefathers were enslaved.
  4. The Nation of Islam was formed in the 1930s by Wallace Fard.
  5. During the slave experience, it was imposed on African Americans.
  6. People who identify as members of the Nation of Islam study the Koran, worship Allah as their God, and regard Mohammed as their primary prophet, among other things.
  7. Those who followed Fard were dubbed “Black Muslims” for the color of their skin.
  8. Numerous adherents, particularly in jails, were attracted to the Nation of Islam.
  9. A severe moral code was taught, and they encouraged people to rely on fellow African Americans for support and encouragement.
  10. Blacks were encouraged to establish their own schools, churches, and support networks, as the Nation of Islam advocated for them.

People and Ideas: The Civil Rights Movement

God in the United States of America|Article

People and Ideas: The Civil Rights Movement

In the United States of America, there is a God.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. was born and raised in Atlanta’s venerable Ebenezer Baptist Church, the son and grandson of preachers. Crozer Seminary and Boston University were also places where King studied theology. In his graduate studies, King battled with the work of great theologians and philosophers, seeking to reconcile their thought with the reality of injustice, the role of African-American churches, and the prospects for social change in the United States. The Social Gospel, as defined by Walter Rausenbusch, provided King with a theological framework for social activity and for fighting for the establishment of God’s Kingdom on earth.

  1. In addition, Dr.
  2. Johnson delivered a lecture on the life and teachings of Mahatma Gandhi, which King attended.
  3. Johnson claimed that the moral authority of Gandhian nonviolence might be used to improve race relations in the United States as well.
  4. He immediately went out and purchased six books on Gandhi, who had already studied Henry David Thoreau.
  5. It would be King’s combination of religion and social action that would give him with a stable basis in the turbulent years that were ahead.
  6. Approximately six months later, a local activist and member of the African Methodist Episcopal Church called Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white person, and she was arrested as a result.
  7. King was first hesitant, but eventually accepted.

King felt he simply couldn’t go on any longer.

King promised to continue the struggle.

We still have the attitude of love,” King said as he refused to give in to violence.

King persisted in his efforts to bring about change.

Written from his detention cell in reaction to white pastors who had accused him of generating unrest and inciting violence, he addressed the letter to them.

King’s profound insight is available online.

Kennedy to propose a new civil rights legislation, which was signed into law the following year.

On August 28, 1963, a crowd of 250,000 civil rights advocates assembled on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

King was the last to speak.

His language was steeped in the rhythm of Scripture.

Following that, he described his vision of America as a place of equality and social justice, concluding his speech with the words: “At long last, I’m free!

Thank you, Almighty God, for granting us freedom at long last!” The White House paid attention.

King, on the other hand, came under fire.

I believe that resorting to violence would be both impracticable and unethical on the part of the Negro.” On April 3, 1968, he traveled to Memphis, Tenn., to speak in support of striking black sanitation workers who were on strike.

It’s possible that I won’t make it with you.

As a result, I’m content tonight. Not a single thing has me concerned. I have no apprehensions about men. My eyes have beheld the splendor of the Lord’s arrival to the earth! The next day, Martin Luther King, Jr. was killed in Memphis. He was 39 years old at the time.

Malcolm X

Dr. Malcolm X was an African-American leader in the civil rights movement, as well as an activist for Black nationalism and a pastor. He pushed his fellow African-Americans to defend themselves against white violence “by whatever means necessary,” a posture that was sometimes at odds with the peaceful teachings of Martin Luther King, Jr., and other civil rights leaders. During the early years of the Nation of Islam, his charm and oratory abilities helped him rise to national prominence in a religious system that combined Islam with Black nationalism.

Malcolm X: Early Life

Malcolm Little was born in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1925, and became known as Malcolm X. The Reverend Marcus Garvey’s father was a Baptist pastor and a disciple of Marcus Garvey. The family relocated to Lansing, Michigan, after receiving threats from the Ku Klux Klan. Despite their relocation, the family continued to get threats at their new home. According to Malcolm’s father, a white supremacist gang known as the Black Legionaries reportedly murdered him in 1931, while the authorities said that his death was the result of a car accident.

Little and her children were denied the death benefits that her husband was entitled to.

Despite the fact that he was very educated and a brilliant student, he dropped out of school after eighth grade.

He was sentenced to prison for stealing when he was 21 years old.

Malcolm X and The Nation of Islam

Malcolm X first came into contact with the teachings of Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Lost-Found Nation of Islam, also known as the Black Muslims, a Black nationalist group that classified white people as the devil while incarcerated. Malcolm changed his last name to “X” shortly after, as a way of symbolizing his rejection of his “slave” moniker. Malcolm was freed from jail after serving six years and went on to become the minister of Mosque No. 7 in Harlem, where his oratory talents and sermons in support of self-defense helped the group acquire new supporters, including the following people: The Nation of Islam rose from 400 members in 1952 to 40,000 members by 1960, a tenfold increase in membership.

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In the expanding civil rights movement, his promotion of obtaining success “by whatever means necessary” placed him on the other end of the spectrum from Martin Luther King, Jr.’s peaceful strategy to gaining momentum.

while tripping and swaying along arm in arm, arm in arm, with the very people they were supposed to be angrily revolting against?” Malcom X’s political views also attracted the attention of the FBI, which kept tabs on him from the time he was in jail until he died.

“Do something about Malcolm X,” J. Edgar Hoovereven instructed the FBI’s New York headquarters. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: 7 Interesting Facts About Malcolm X You Probably Didn’t Know

Organization of Afro-American Unity

Malcolm X was disillusioned with corruption in the Nation of Islam when the group suspended him in December 1963 after he declared that President John F. Kennedy’s killing was “the chickens coming home to roost,” and he decided to leave the organization permanently. “The genuine brotherhood I had observed had persuaded me to see that anger can obscure human perception,” he wrote about his spiritual transition in Mecca, which took place a few months after his initial trip. El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz was Malcolm X’s new name when he returned to the United States.

In particular, his more moderate ideology gained traction among members of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).

The killer was a Black Muslim.

The Autobiography of Malcolm X

Malcolm X began writing his autobiography in the early 1960s with the assistance of Alex Haley, the famed author of Roots, who assisted him in the process. Throughout his Autobiography, Malcolm X recounted his life and expressed his opinions on issues such as race, religion, and Black nationalist ideology. Despite the fact that it was released posthumously, it quickly became a bestseller. In addition to multiple film adaptations, the book and Malcolm X’s life have inspired numerous film adaptations, the most well-known of which being Spike Lee’s 1992 film Malcolm X, starring Denzel Washington.

READ MORE: Malcolm X’s Autobiography Is Missing an Explosive Chapter (Part 2)


Malcolm X’s biography may be found at Malcolm X.Biography.com. Malcolm X, according to Britannica. ‘Blood Brothers: The Fatal Friendship Between Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X,’ is a book about Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X. According to the New York Times. People and Ideas: Malcolm X. Public Broadcasting Service.

Black Nationalism

Proponents of black nationalism, who gained national prominence through organizations such as the Nation of Islam (NOI) and the Black Power Movement of the 1960s, campaigned for economic self-sufficiency, African American race pride, and black separation from the United States. In the 1960s, black nationalists criticized the methods of Martin Luther King, Jr., the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and other organizations that sought to reform American society through nonviolent interracial activism.

  • His 1963 letter from Birmingham Jail defined himself as a “middleman” who stood between the forces of complacency and the “hate and despair of the black nationalist” (King, 90).
  • As a result, Delany thought that this development would help to improve the position and condition of African Americans who remained, describing them as “a people that are shattered” (Martin R.
  • Delany,” by Painter, “Martin R.
  • Marcus Garvey, a Jamaican immigrant to the United States who formed the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in 1914, had a significant effect on the development of twentieth-century black nationalist movements.
  • An important goal of the UNIA was to build black-owned enterprises, the best-known of which was the Black Star Line, a company that aimed to carry people and products to and from African countries.
  • Garvey was convicted of mail fraud in 1923 and deported, but he was remembered as a hero by many black nationalists in the years that followed his conviction.
  • It was the goal of the NOI to establish a purposely isolated and economically self-sufficient black society, which would be controlled by a modified form of the Muslim faith.
  • When Farrad Muhammad vanished in 1934, following a struggle for power among several groups within the NOI, his pupil Elijah Muhammad ascended to the position of sect head.
  • When Malcolm X first began preaching, his sermons included both appeals for black independence and sharp critiques of major civil rights leaders who sided with whites.
  • In the same way that you are terrified of black nationalism, you are also afraid of revolution.
  • Stokely Assigned to the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in May 1966, Carmichael marked the beginning of an organizational move away from black self-determination and toward exclusive black self-determination in the organization’s civil rights agenda.

As Carmichael put it in his essay “Toward Black Liberation,” “concern for black power” “addresses itself directly to the issue of recovering our past and our identity from the cultural terrorism and devastation of self-justifying white guilt.” To the contrary, rather than openly criticizing black nationalists, King chose to concentrate on the social factors and conditions that propelled black nationalist ideologies such as “Black Power” to the forefront of public debate.

According to him, their decision to forego inter-racial cooperation in civil rights work was “a response to the sense that a true solution is hopelessly distant because of the contradictions, opposition, and faintheartedness of those in authority” (King,Where, 33).

According to King, black nationalist groups rejected “the one thing that keeps the fire of revolutions burning: the ever-present flame of hope” because they believed “American society is so hopelessly corrupt and steeped in evil that there is no chance of regeneration from inside” (King,Where, 44; 46).

Religion in American History, TeacherServe, National Humanities Center

Islam in America: From African Slaves to Malcolm X
Thomas A. TweedUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill©National Humanities Center

Among the first images that come to mind when students think about Islam are Denzel Washington in Spike Lee’s 1992 film about the civil rights leader Malcolm X, or perhaps Louis Farrakhan on the speaker’s platform at the Million Man March in Washington, D.C., in 1995. Some people may have seen Middle Eastern Muslims on the nightly news, largely as “fundamentalists” and “terrorists,” but this was not the case for everyone. A few have had encounters with Muslim immigrants in their area. It is possible that Muslim pupils will be among their peers.

It encompasses two groups: Muslims from other nations who moved to America, either by force or by choice, and African Americans who founded Muslim sects in the United States throughout the twentieth century.

  1. When did slavery begin in the United States, and what is the history of slavery in the country
  2. What strategies have immigrants used to fight and adapt to American society
  3. Was there a difference between African Americans’ experiences in northern cities following the Great Migration? Since the 1960s, how has African-American Islam addressed issues of racial relations? Whether or whether America is a Christian nation

For starters, you’ll need to introduce Islam to your kids, and one effective approach to do so is by asking them for their reactions when they hear the word “Muslim.” When they hear the term, what is the first thing that springs to mind? Write down their replies on the board without commenting on them, and then use the list to build the prevalent images of Muslims—for example, militants, radicals, and newcomers—in the world today. Afterwards, you may begin to challenge these perceptions and demonstrate that Islam is a diversified and long-established American religion—one that has long had a strong presence in the United States.

The religion of Islam (which is second only to Christianity in terms of worldwide members) is divided into a number of communities or branches, just as it is in Christianity and Judaism.

Within the five million Muslims who live in the United States, there is representation from all historic organizations, as well as from some new movements that have been nurtured on American soil.

In particular, Muslims turn to the Qu’ran, which is a sacred book that chronicles the word of Allah as it was given to his final prophet, Muhammed (about 570-632 A.D.), and they strive to emulate the prophet’s example (sunna).

All Muslims recognize and embrace the Five Pillars of Islam, which represent the fundamental beliefs and obligations of Muslims:

  1. A public declaration of faith (shahada). Everyone who calls themselves a Muslim must say, “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet. ” It is important to note that in Muslim theology, Muhammad is not God, but rather a representative or spokesman for the divine
  2. Prayer (salat). All Muslims pray five times a day while facing the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia
  3. Alms are given to those who are in need (zakat). Faith is also about reaching out to others. Muslims who have the financial means should offer alms to those who are less fortunate in order to express gratitude and follow the example of Muhammad
  4. Muslims who fast should do so as well (sawmorsiyam). Muslims who are physically capable of doing so are required to fast from dawn to dusk during the ninth month (Ramadan) of the Islamic calendar
  5. They are also required to make the pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca at this time. All Muslims who are able must undertake a pilgrimage to the Great Mosque in the holy city of Mecca at least once in their lifetimes, in the direction of which they have knelt while praying five times a day for the entirety of their lives. (Chapter seventeen of Malcolm X’s Autobiography provides a detailed description of this trek, which had a life-changing effect on him.) He recalls that it was during the hajj that he first became aware of the idea that individuals of various races may get along.)

Slavery and Islam

Faith is expressed by a public declaration (shahada). “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet,” all Muslims must affirm. Keep in mind that in Muslim theology, Muhammad is not considered to be God, but rather a representative or spokesman for the divine; (salat). Everyone who practices Islam prays five times daily while facing the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia; alms are given to those who are less fortunate (zakat). Having faith also entails doing good in the community. Muslims with financial resources must pay alms to those who are less fortunate in order to express gratitude and follow the example of Muhammed; Muslims who fast must fast in order to show respect for Muhammed (sawmorsiyam).

A pilgrimage to the Great Mosque in Mecca, where all Muslims who are capable of doing so must go at least once in their lifetimes, in the direction of which they have knelt while praying five times a day for the entirety of their lives.

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Muslims and Immigration, 1878-1924

The immigrants who transformed the demographics of America throughout the nineteenth century are covered in most history classes. To emphasize that these immigrants were not all Europeans or Christians, you may say Numerous of them were Chinese and Japanese immigrants who practiced Buddhism and other Asian religious traditions. Thousands of Muslims also arrived, the vast majority of them were Arabs from what was then known as Greater Syria, who were the first Islamic immigrants. Workers from Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon who traveled to the United States in search of more economic stability were illiterate and underpaid.

Those who remained suffered from social isolation, while some were successful in establishing Islamic communities, often in odd locations.

Communities of Lebanese and Syrian origin established themselves in Ross, North Dakota, and afterwards in Detroit, Pittsburgh, and Michigan City, Indiana.

As a result of the Asian Exclusion Act and the Johnson-Reed Immigration Act, only a trickle of “Asians,” as Arabs were termed, were permitted to enter the country after the initial wave of Muslim immigration came to a stop in 1924.

African-American Islam in the Urban North

Converts to Islam have been more common among African-Americans of African descent, particularly those who have followed the mass migrations of southern blacks to northern cities that began during the early decades of the twentieth century. Mohammed Alexander Webb (1847-1916), a Euro-American, declared himself a Muslim at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Noble Drew Ali founded the Moorish Science Temple in Newark, New Jersey, in 1913 as a Black nationalist Islamic society dedicated to science and technology.

Fard, who arrived in Detroit in 1930 and preached black nationalism and Islamic religion to a captive audience.

In the wake of Fard’s mysterious disappearance in 1934, Elijah Muhammed (1897-1975) took over as leader, attracting dissatisfied and impoverished African Americans from the metropolitan northern tier.

They converted for a variety of reasons, but for others, the poverty and bigotry in those communities made the Nation of Islam’s teaching about “white devils” (and “black supremacy”) seem credible, according to the organization.

Race Relations since the 1960s

Malcolm Little (1925-1965), who was imprisoned at the time of his conversion, was a significant convert for Elijah Muhammad. Malcolm X, the moniker he used to signify his long-lost African ancestry, rose to prominence in the 1960s, despite his separation from the Nation of Islam just before his murder. He was assassinated in 1965. In 1975, with the death of Elijah Muhammed, the movement broke apart. One branch, led by Elijah Muhammed’s fifth son, drew closer to the doctrines and practices of Islam as it is practiced in the majority of the globe, while the other branch remained more traditional.

Compared to the considerably smaller Nation of Islam, which the American Muslim Mission and other Islamic organizations decry as racist and unorthodox, the majority of Americans are much more familiar with it.

If you are teaching the Nation of Islam, you might want to ask your students what the history of African-American Islam since the Great Migration tells us about the state of race relations in the United States.

When it comes to the birth of whites, the Nation of Islam’s holy myth about a black scientist’s blunder as the cause of their existence is a “true” reflection of many African Americans’ reality, you may wonder.

Muslims and the New Immigrants after 1965

If you are able to bring your class up to date with the post-1965 period, you can consider reintroducing Muslims as part of a discussion of demographic shifts in contemporary America. Following Israel’s establishment in 1948, Palestinian refugees flooded into the country. A more significant event in the history of American Islam was the passage of the McCarran-Walter Act in 1952, which eased the quota system that had been in place since 1924 and allowed for greater Muslim immigration. Following the 1965 changes to the Immigration and Naturalization Act, the gates were even more broadly opened.

By the 1990s, Muslims had erected more than six hundred mosques and Islamic institutions throughout the United States of America.

Islamic Cultural Center of New York
Courtesy Muslimsonline.com, the Islamic Cultural Center of New York,and the Islamic Assn. of West Virginia

Is America a Christian Nation?

Toward the end of your discussion of Islam in America, you might raise this final issue concerning religion and national identity.Islam may soon be the second largest American faith after Christianity, if it is not already.Estimates vary widely, and a moderate estimate is five million American Muslims in 1997—more than Episcopalians, Quakers, and Disciples of Christ.When recounting this to students, and recalling the history of Islamic slaves and the early debates about the First Amendment, you might ask students whether America is a Christian nation as some have proclaimed.Could we, you might ask to focus the discussion, elect a Muslim president?If so, would she (while we are imagining, let’s get bold!) view this land as a New Israel or take her presidential oath on a Christian Bible, as has been traditional?

Thomas A. Tweed holds a Ph.D. from Stanford University in Religious Studies and is currently the Zachary Smith Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Tweed is the author ofOur Lady of the Exile: Diasporic Religion at a Cuban Catholic Shrine in Miami(Oxford University Press, 1997) and the editor ofRetelling U.S. Religious History(California University Press, 1997). He most recently co-edited, with Stephen Prothero,Asian Religions in America:A Documentary History(Oxford University Press, 1999).Address comments or questions to Professor Tweed through TeacherServe ” Comments and Questions.”TeacherServe Home PageNational Humanities Center Home Page Revised: December 2004nationalhumanitiescenter.org

Three Visions for Achieving Equal Rights

Students will learn about three important civil rights leaders during the turbulent period between 1964 and 1966: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, and Stokely Carmichael. They will also learn about the role each of these men played in bringing about change during the tumultuous period between 1964 and 1966. Students will examine the leaders’ ideas about the most effective ways to enact change at this pivotal moment in the civil rights movement, and in the process, they will consider how to best bring about the changes they would like to see in their own communities.

During the 1950s and early 1960s, civil rights leaders such as Dr.

Their efforts would broaden the scope of American democracy and serve as an example to other minorities who are battling for recognition and influence.

Some black Americans, dissatisfied with the slow pace of change, began to doubt many of the basic assumptions of the civil rights movement, including the necessity of integration with the white society and the importance of nonviolence in the liberation struggle.

Martin Luther King, Jr., in the late 1950s and early 1960s to gain legal equality for African-Americans in the United States drew inspiration from both his Christian faith and the peaceful teachings of Mahatma Gandhi.


These included protests, grassroots organization, and civil disobedience.

After fewer than thirteen years of nonviolent activism, Dr.

With his beliefs, Malcolm X contradicted Dr.

Malcolm Little was born in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1925, and spent his childhood in Michigan, Boston, and New York.

While in prison, he became a member of the Nation of Islam1 and adopted the name Malcolm X as his new moniker.

After gaining popularity in these areas in the 1950s, the Nation of Islam began to challenge long-held notions about integration and reconciliation.

On the 21st of February, 1965, he was shot and died while giving a speech in New York City.

As a result of the march from Selma to Montgomery, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SNCC) targeted one of the poorest towns in Alabama—Lowndes County, where blacks formed 80 percent of the population and no black person had been registered to vote as of 1965.

The LCFO was founded as an independent political party with the objective of providing an alternative to the Alabama Democratic Party, which was still actively preventing black voters from exercising their right to vote.

Despite intimidation and threats of violence, the League of Colored Voters had registered 2000 new black voters by the spring of 1966, according to the organization.

In response to Carmichael’s new, militant vision of black nationalism, the SNCC shifted its tone and direction.

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Meredith thought that by setting an example, black people would be encouraged to stand up to intimidation and register to vote.

Leaders from all of the main civil rights organizations descended on Mississippi to continue the march, register voters, and express their displeasure with the violent retaliation against those engaged in the civil rights movement.

At a protest in Greenwood, Mississippi, such tensions—over white involvement and the efficacy of nonviolent resistance—were brought to the forefront.

and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Carmichael heralded the arrival of the black power movement, which signaled a shift in the civil rights movement as black Americans called for increased power and control over their communities, while white Americans were forced to confront the realities of their democratic institutions.


  1. Creating a Historical Context is important. According to your students’ prior knowledge of the civil rights movement’s leaders, you may need to prepare a mini-lecture to deliver before the jigsaw activity that helps explain Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, and Stokely Carmichael’s roles in the civil rights movement and their views on the best strategies for achieving their goals of freedom and democracy
  2. Or Preparing to Teach Vocabulary Many of the terms and organizations that students will encounter in this lesson’s readings will be unfamiliar to them, including the definition and connotation of “Negro,” Mecca, the Nation of Islam, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Black Power, nationalism, castration, and degradation. The readings depend on primary source material that is mostly composed of speeches and involve difficult vocabulary and grammar, thus it is critical that you study them in order to determine where your students may want more assistance. The Jigsaw Activity is about ready to begin. Create groups of 3-4 students for a Jigsaw exercise before giving this lesson, and provide a reading assignment to each group (Black Nationalism,Malcolm and Martin,Black Power). Because Black Power is the most difficult of the three readings, you might want to keep that in mind when forming your groups of three. Select the Read Aloud technique that you believe will be most effective for your class. Reading with a different perspective: Black Power It has been said above that Black Poweris more difficult to complete than the other two jigsaw readings because of its length, complicated language and sentence structure, and numerous historical allusions. Students should begin reading at paragraph 7 (“Negroes are determined by two forces: their blackness and their helplessness.”) to limit the amount of civil rights references your students may not have encountered and to cut the length of the reading from three pages to two.

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