Which Of The Following Islamic Groups Played A Large Role In The Spread Of Islam In Southeast Asia? (Solution)

The expansion of trade among West Asia, India and Southeast Asia helped the spread of the religion as Muslim traders brought Islam to the region. Gujarati Muslims played a pivotal role in establishing Islam in Southeast Asia.

Who was responsible for the spread of Islam?

The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula.

Which countries played an important role in spreading of Islam in South East Asia?

Moreover, in the 13th century, contacts between Muslim merchants and the local population, as well as commerce through the Silk Roads between the South of the Philippines and other neighbouring regions such as Brunei, Malaysia or Indonesia encouraged the spread of Islam amongst their local population.

Who introduced Islam in Malaysia?

Islam was introduced to the Malay Peninsula coast by Arabs in 674 CE. Islam was also brought to Malaysia by Arab Muslim and Tamil Indian Muslim traders in the 12th century AD.

How did Islam spread in Indonesia?

Islam in Indonesia is considered to have gradually spread through merchant activities by Arab Muslim traders, adoption by local rulers, and the influence of Sufism since the 13th century. During the late colonial era, it was adopted as a rallying banner against colonialism.

How was Islam spread?

Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries. Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time. The caliphate—a new Islamic political structure—evolved and became more sophisticated during the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates.

What caused the spread of Islam in North Africa?

Islam was spread to North Africa as a result of conquest over African tribes, missionary efforts by the Muslim people, and traders spreading the religion by ear. The Muslim people would also spread the religion through trade because it would help the trade and economy of the country.

How did Islam spread to Southeast Asia quizlet?

In general, how did Islam spread in southeast Asia? The conversion of southeastern Asia to Islam was accomplished by conversion of port cities, followed by extension into the back country.

What role did Sufi missionaries play in spreading Islam?

What role did Sufi missionaries play in spreading Islam? Sufi missionaries helped spread Islam by travelling around and convincing others to convert to Islam.

How did Islam spread in the Philippines?

Islam reached the Philippines in the 14th century with the arrival of Muslim traders from the Persian Gulf, southern India, and their followers from several sultanate governments in the Malay Archipelago. The first Muslims to arrive were traders followed by missionaries in the late 14th and early 15th centuries.

How did Islam influence Southeast Asia?

Islamic Influence on Southeast Asian Visual Arts, Literature, and Performance. Most of those who brought Islamic stories and tales into Southeast Asia were sailors, traders, holy men, and adventurers who found the religion easy to transport since it required no temples, priests, or congregations for its worshippers.

How did Islam spread to Singapore?

Islam was spread to Southeast Asia around the 14th century by Arab and Indian traders. Though the sultans’ conversion, a Muslim community was formed in Singapore at the beginning of the 19th century, comprising South Asians and Arab Muslims (Siddique, 1986, quoted in Kadir, 2004).

Which religion spread and flourished throughout Southeast Asia as a result of trade from the thirteenth through the seventeenth centuries?

From the 13th through the 17th century, Sunni Islam, carried chiefly by Arab and Indian merchants, spread widely through peninsular and insular Southeast Asia.

Who brought Islam in Indonesia?

The 15th century Muslim Chinese admiral, Cheng Ho, is often credited for helping spread Islam in the Indonesian island of Java.

How did Islam spread so rapidly?

The religion of Islam spread rapidly in the 7th century. Islam spread quickly because of the military. During this time, on numerous accounts there were military raids. Trade and conflict were also apparent between different empires, all of which resulted in the spreading of Islam.

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Where did Islam spread through trade?

Muslim trade routes extended throughout much of Europe, Northern Africa, and Asia (including China and India). These trade routes were both by sea and over long stretches of land (including the famous Silk Road). Major trade cities included Mecca, Medina, Constantinople, Baghdad, Morocco, Cairo, and Cordoba.

Did you know?: The Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia through the Trade Routes

The Silk Roads are among the most important routes in our collective history, and they are still in use today. The establishment of ties between east and west was made possible by the construction of these highways, which exposed varied regions to a variety of different ideas and ways of life. Notably, many of the world’s main religions, including Islam, were spread as a result of these contacts, which is noteworthy. Following the establishment of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century, the religion began to spread eastward through commerce, which was aided by the construction of the maritime Silk Roads.

This allowed them to control the East-West trade routes that ran over the maritime Silk Roads, which linked numerous key ports in eastern Asian countries together.

Due to these exchanges, Islam was able to spread even farther, reaching people living in significant coastal towns on the Indian Subcontinent and in China, as well as those living in more remote South-eastern islands such as modern Indonesia and the Philippines.

Historically, Muslim traders traveling from the Arabian Peninsula to China’s ports had to transit via these islands in the southern hemisphere through the maritime Silk Roads.

According to popular belief, some of these traders eventually moved in Indonesia and assimilated with the locals.

It is possible to see archeological evidence of Islam being practiced by monarchs in the 13th century by looking at tombstones inscribed with dates according to the Islamic year of Sumatran Kings from the 13th century.

Furthermore, during the 13th century, contacts between Muslim merchants and the local population, as well as trade through the Silk Roads between the southern Philippines and other neighboring regions such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia, aided in the spread of Islam among the local population in those regions.

  • Islam, like Buddhism, was assimilated into the existing cultural and religious influences of the Southeast Asian areas in a similar way.
  • Sri Lanka has an ancient monastic hospital system that dates back thousands of years.
  • The Khwarazm region and the Silk Roads are intertwined.
  • The spread of Buddhism throughout South and Southeast Asia as a result of trade routes.

Sayyid Bin Abu Ali, a true representative of intercultural relations throughout the Maritime Silk Roads, was recently honored. Thailand and the Silk Roads of the Maritime Silk Roads The Greeks Have a Foothold in Central Asia Routes of the Maritime Silk Routes in Central Asia

Spread of Islam

  • Describe how Islam expanded throughout the world and how caliphs maintained control over conquered countries.

Key Points

  • Discuss the expansion of Islam and the methods through which the caliphs maintained control over acquired territory.

Terms

A position of Islamic leadership, most typically found in the context of a mosque’s worship leader and the Sunni Muslim community as a whole.

Zoroastrianism

Zoroaster condensed the pantheon of early Iranian gods into two opposing forces, which led to the emergence of an ancient Iranian religion and religious philosophy in the eastern ancient Persian Empire when the religious philosopher Zoroaster wrote his religious philosophy. Because of the development of the Arab Empire in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphates were established over a broad geographic region. A major factor in the rise of Islam was the missionary operations of missionaries, notably those of Imams, who were able to readily intermingle with the local population in order to spread Islamic teachings.

Islam spread outwards from Mecca towards both the Atlantic and Pacific seas.

The establishment of Muslim dynasties was swift, and subsequent empires such as those of the Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids, Seljukids, and Ajurans, Adal and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in India, Safavids in Persia, and Ottomans in Anatolia were among the largest and most powerful empires in history.

  1. In the wake of Islamic expansion in South and East Asia, Muslim cultures in the Indian subcontinent, Malaysia, Indonesia, and China developed into cosmopolitan and eclectic melting pots.
  2. In actuality, little has changed for the people of this new kingdom, who were originally subjects of the drastically diminished Byzantine and annihilated Sassanid empires, save in name.
  3. As a result, it was only in the following centuries that there was a true Islamization.
  4. The first group consists of animists and polytheists from tribal communities in the Arabian Peninsula and the Fertile Crescent, while the second group consists of monotheistic inhabitants from agrarian and urbanized societies in the Middle East.
  5. In contrast, “Islam was replaced for a Byzantine or Sassanian political identity as well as for a Christian, Jewish, or Zoroastrian religious allegiance” in sedentary and frequently already monotheistic communities, according to the authors.
  6. When the religious and political leadership came to a new understanding, it resulted in the weakening or complete collapse of the social and religious institutions of rival religious communities such as Christians and Jews.
  7. Expansion halted under the reign of the Abbasid Caliphate, and the major disciplines of Islamic philosophy, theology, law, and mysticism gained in popularity, as did the gradual conversion of the inhabitants inside the empire.
  8. There were three routes across Africa: over the Sahara via trading centres such as Timbuktu, up the Nile Valley through Sudan and Uganda, and down East Africa via colonies such as Mombasa and Zanzibar.
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Following a general pattern of nomadic conquests of settled regions, the Arab-Muslim conquests of Europe followed a similar pattern in which conquering peoples became the new military elite and reached a compromise with the old elites by allowing them to retain their local political, religious, and financial authority.

  • With its foundation in 670 CE by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba Ibn Nafi, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the oldest mosque in western Islamic countries and serves as an architectural icon of the expansion of Islam in North Africa.
  • The Arab conquerors did not make the same error as the Byzantine and Sasanian empires, who had attempted and failed to impose an official religion on subject populations, resulting in hostility that made the Muslim conquests more palatable to the conquered peoples.
  • Religious tolerance typified the early caliphate after military operations, which included the looting of several monasteries and the confiscation of Zoroastrian fire temples in Syria and Iraq, and people of all nationalities and religions were able to mingle in public life.
  • In Iraq and Egypt, Muslim rulers worked in partnership with Christian religious leaders to achieve their goals.
  • Some non-Muslim communities, on the other hand, were subjected to persecution.
  • Zoroastrians were forced to pay an additional tax known as Jizya, and if they failed to do so, they were slaughtered, enslaved, or imprisoned as a result.

Jizya payers were exposed to insults and humiliation by the tax collectors, who demanded they pay the levy. In exchange for converting to Islam, Zoroastrians who had been kidnapped as slaves in battles were granted their freedom.

Islamic world – Indian Ocean Islam

It is an ancient Iranian religion and religious philosophy that developed in the eastern old Persian Empire when the religious scholar Zoroaster reduced the pantheon of early Iranian gods into two opposing forces. It is also known as the Iranian religion and religious philosophy. Because of the development of the Arab Empire in the years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death, caliphates were established throughout a wide geographic region. A major factor in the rise of Islam was the missionary operations of missionaries, notably those of Imams, who were able to readily intermingle with the local community in order to spread Islamic doctrine.

International trade had a crucial role in the development of Islam around the world, particularly in Southeast Asia.

In the Islamic world, numerous sophisticated centers of culture and science emerged, supported by extensive mercantile networks, travelers, scientists, hunters, mathematicians, doctors, and philosophers, all of whom contributed to the Golden Age of Islam by advancing their respective fields of expertise.

One of the most significant empires in global history was established within the first century after the introduction of Islam on the Arabian Peninsula, and the subsequent fast expansion of the Arab Empire during the Muslim conquests.

Because fertile land and water were in short supply on the Arabian Peninsula, the conquests had a purely utilitarian purpose rather than a political one.

Scholars have distinguished between two distinct groups of converts who lived during the historical period under consideration.

Aside from the religious and spiritual reasons that each individual may have had for converting to Islam, “conversion to Islam represented the response of a tribal, pastoral population to the need for a larger framework for political and economic integration, a more stable state, and a more imaginative and encompassing moral vision to cope with the problems of a tumultuous society,” according to the historian.

In contrast, “Islam was replaced for a Byzantine or Sassanian political identity as well as for a Christian, Jewish, or Zoroastrian religious allegiance” in sedentary and frequently already monotheistic communities, according to the author.

Large-scale conversions occurred only in later centuries, as a result of the growth of Islamic theological philosophy and, with it, the comprehension of the Muslim Ummah.

For example, with the weakening of many churches and the favoring of Islam, as well as with the migration of significant Muslim Turkish populations into countries such as Anatolia and the Balkans, the “social and cultural importance of Islam” was increased, and a great number of peoples were converted.

It is also important to note that significant conversions happened outside the boundaries of the empire, such as among the Turkic tribes of Central Asia and peoples who lived in regions south of the Sahara in Africa, as a result of interaction with Muslim traders working in the region and Sufi groups.

  1. The first adaptations were designed to be as adaptable as possible to changing circumstances.
  2. Members of the old and new elites collected taxes from peasants, laborers, and merchants, who paid them.
  3. It is located in Kairouan, Tunisia, and serves as an architectural icon of Islam’s conquest over North Africa.
  4. As a result, the rulers of the new empire often adhered to the existing middle-Eastern pattern of religious plurality, which was not one of equality but rather one of domination by one group over the others, rather than introducing new religious pluralism.
  5. For a long time before Muslims in Syria were ready to build mosques, they regarded Christian churches as sacred places and shared them with the local Christian population.
  6. During the Umayyad period, a large number of churches were renovated and new ones were erected.
  7. The Zoroastrian community was accorded dhimmi (non-Muslim) status after the Muslim conquest of Persia and subjected to persecution; discrimination and harassment began in the form of sporadic violence.

The tax collectors insulted and humiliated those who paid Jizya, and they were reprimanded. Converting to Islam earned the freedom of Zoroastrians who had been kidnapped as slaves during wartime.

However, while some earlier histories mention Islam being widely adopted beyond the Arab peninsula beginning in the mid-seventh century, in reality this did not occur for at least a century beyond that time period. According to Richard C. Foltz, the reason for this misunderstanding is due to a misinterpretation of the wordislam (which means “submission”), which has been used in Muslim histories to refer to the submission of one clan to the authority of another, rather than the spread of the Islamic faith in its proper sense.

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To the contrary, Foltz claims that the act of submitting resulted in the formation of de facto non-aggression pacts between Muslim Arabs and their neighbors.

When the Muslim clans expanded into these territories, they had no difficulty ousting the Sassanian and Byzantine rulers and their soldiers; some communities, according to Foltz, even opened their doors to the Muslim Arabs and greeted them as liberators after the invasion.

Several other kingdoms ruled by Arab and non-Arab Muslim dynasties would come to dominate the entire world by 750, extending from Spain in the west all the way through northern Africa, across all of Persia and the entire Middle East, as far east as the eastern edge of the Tang Empire in the Tarim Basin, and crossing the Indus river into the Indian subcontinent.

Instead, they were bound together by governments that were based on the interpretation of Islamic law and had a common history.

For the most part, Muslims referred to their faith as “the Arab religion” (al-din al-‘arab), and they made little effort to convert non-Muslims to Islam.

3 Consistently distinguishing between reigning Muslims and conquered non-Muslims provided for smoother government and ensured Muslims a favored position under the rules of each of the numerous Islamic nations in which they lived.

Fourteenth, non-Muslims were strongly encouraged to convert to Islam, particularly those who had previously held elite economic, social, and political positions.

Apart from that, the Arabs saw in those they conquered a natural aptitude for administrative work.

As government officials, it would appear that they should have converted to Islam, however they did not do so until after they began to advocate for the same rights as Arab Muslims.

As a result of this development, Arab Muslims began to see non-Arab converts asmawla (or “clients”), so elevating themawla to the status of honorary clan member.

6 By the middle of the ninth century, Muslims had gained control of the western part of the Silk Route, and trade had emerged as the second most important element in Islam’s growth.

7Muslim traders journeyed as far as the Tang capital of Chang-an, as well as other towns in the Chinese empire, and even further to the east, to trade with the Chinese.

At 757, the Tang emperor handed Muslim troops lands in the western-most periphery of the empire as a prize for their assistance in putting down the uprising of An Lushan, and fifty years later Muslims were permitted to settle in Yunnan province.

8 Islam dictates that children of Muslim fathers must be reared as Muslims, which resulted in the establishment of a Muslim Chinese minority in certain locations during the Tang dynasty.

– John D.

D.

Martin’s Press, 1999), p.

(2) Foltz, Richard C., Religions of the Silk Road: Overland Trade and Cultural Exchange from Antiquity to the Fifteenth Century (New York: St.

90.

(3)Ibid., p.

(4)Ibid., p.

(4) Lewis, Bernad, et al (ed.).

II, Religion and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), page 224.

II, Religion and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), page 224.

(6 ) Ira M. Lapidus’s A History of Islamic Societies (Cambridge University Press, 1988) has the following passage: “A History of Islamic Societies” (p. 98). Foltz (1996), p. 96.

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