Which Of The Following Statements Best Describes The Spread Of Islam Under The First Four Caliphs? (Solved)

Which of the following statements BEST describes the spread of Islam under the first four caliphs? Arabs conquered the peoples east of Persia and converted them to Islam. Persians were united and spread Islam as they conquered. Byzantine emperors embraced Islam in the region.

How did the invention of the Arabic language help the caliphates?

  • It spread Arabic throughout Europe and Africa, making it the required language of trade and business. c. It helped create unity and a money economy, and facilitated the spread of ideas and culture. d. It ensured the caliphates had monopolies in agricultural and textile products.

Which of the following statements best describes the spread of Islam during the Arab conquests?

Which of the following statements best describes the spread of Islam during the Arab conquests? Islam spread inside and outside the new Arab Islam empire.

Where did Islam spread to during the reign of the first four caliphs?

During the Rashidun caliphates, Arab Muslim forces expanded outward beyond the Arabian peninsula and into the territories of the neighboring Byzantine and Sasanian Empires.

Which of the following was the main method by which Islam spread to North Africa?

Following the conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE, Islam spread throughout West Africa via merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries, that is largely through peaceful means whereby African rulers either tolerated the religion or converted to it themselves.

What were the 4 Islamic empires?

Major Empires and Dynasties of the Islamic World: Important Facts and Events

  • Sasanian empire (224–636 A.D.)
  • Byzantine empire (about 330–1453)
  • Umayyad caliphate (661–750)
  • Spanish Umayyads (756–1031)
  • Abbasid caliphate (750–1258)
  • Samanids (819–1005)
  • Seljuqs of Iran (about 1040–1196)

Which of the following statements best describes the spread of Islam in West Africa?

Which of the following statements best describes the spread of Islam in West Africa? It was a voluntary process, spread by merchants.

Which of the following statements best describes Mecca in the sixth century CE?

Which of the following statements best describes Mecca in the sixth century C.E.? It was a pilgrimage and trading center. Which of the following statements is true of women in the early Islamic period before the formation of the Arab Empire?

How did Islam spread through trade?

After the advent of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century, Islam started its expansion towards eastern regions through trade encouraged by the development of the maritime Silk Roads. It is believed that Islam first arrived in these South-eastern regions by the 7th century.

How did the spread of Islam help spread the Arabic language?

The primary way in which Islam helped to spread Arabic culture was to make Arabic the everyday language of the people in the lands to which it spread.

How did Islam spread in Central Asia?

Arrival of Islam and Medieval period The Battle of Talas in 751 between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang dynasty for control of Central Asia was the turning point, initiating mass conversion into Islam in the region. Most of the Turkic khanates converted to Islam in the 10th century.

How did Islam spread in North Africa?

Islam was spread to North Africa as a result of conquest over African tribes, missionary efforts by the Muslim people, and traders spreading the religion by ear. Although missionary efforts played a big role in the spread of the Islamic religion; traders who spread the religion by ear were the most effective.

How did Islam spread throughout Africa quizlet?

Islam would spread to West Africa by trade. The Mali king, Mansa Musa, followed Islam. He even undertook a Hajj and it was over a 3000 mile journey.

Why did Islam spread so quickly quizlet?

Islam spread quickly because its leaders conquered surrounding territories. As Muhammad and the Muslim leaders that came after him conquered lands in the Middle East and beyond they spread the teachings of Islam. Islam spread quickly because its leaders treated newly conquered people well.

Who were the first four caliphs of Islam?

Rashidun, (Arabic: “Rightly Guided,” or “Perfect”), the first four caliphs of the Islamic community, known in Muslim history as the orthodox or patriarchal caliphs: Abū Bakr (reigned 632–634), ʿUmar (reigned 634–644), ʿUthmān (reigned 644–656), and ʿAlī (reigned 656–661).

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What impact did the caliphs have on the spread of Islam?

What impact did the caliphs have on the spread of Islam? The caliphs’ rule kept Islam limited to the Arabian Peninsula. The clans’ conflict over the caliphs’ control restricted the growth of Islam. Caliphs came and went too quickly to have any significant impact on Islam.

Why are the first four caliphs called rightly guided?

The Four Caliphs were the first four leaders of Islam that succeeded the Prophet Muhammad. They are sometimes called the “Rightly Guided” Caliphs because each of them learned about Islam directly from Muhammad. They also served as Muhammad’s closest friends and advisors during the early years of Islam.

1. Which of the following statements best describes the spread of Islam during the Arab

In your opinion, which of the following assertions most accurately reflects the spread of Islam during the Arab conquests? A.Islam only expanded inside the borders of the territories conquered by Arabs. *Everyone in conquered territories was coerced into becoming Muslims, and this included children. C.Only a handful of non-Arabs have ever converted to Islam. d.Islam expanded both within and outside of the newly formed Arab Muslim empire. Consider the dynastic table in the next section. Dynasty Accomplishment The Sasanian Empire preserved Mesopotamian culture.

Baghdad was elevated to the status of cultural capital during the Abbasids.

Which of the following descriptions may take the place of the question mark?

The Quran has been translated into the most foreign languages possible.

  1. who finished the conquest of the Byzantine empire, and D.
  2. 3.
  3. A.He was instrumental in establishing the Sultanate of Delhi.
  4. C.**He was instrumental in the propagation of Buddhism in China.
  5. 4.
  6. A.It was the Mongol administration in India that was responsible.
  7. C.It belonged to the Chola empire’s administration.

Umayyad dynasty

Frequently Asked Questions

Who were the Umayyads?

United Arab Emirate (also known as the Caliphate) under the Umayyad dynasty (661–750ce), the first great Muslim dynasty to control the empire of the caliphate (also known as the Arab kingdom) (reflecting traditional Muslim disapproval of thesecularnature of the Umayyad state). The Umayyads, led by Ab Sufyan, were a Quraysh tribal commercial family based inMecca that was primarily concerned with trade. They had first fought Islam, not joining until 627, but they rose through the ranks to become powerful administrators under Muhammad and his immediate successors after that.

  • Muwiyah then established himself as the first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty.
  • In the 8th century, Caliph al-Wald I erected the Great Mosque of Damascus in the Umayyad capital, making it the world’s oldest surviving stone mosque and the world’s oldest mosque overall.
  • The Umayyads were divided into two parts of the family: the Sufynids (reigned 661–684), who were descended from Ab Sufyn, and the Marwanids (reigned 684–750), who were descended from Marwn I ibn al-Hakaman and his successors.
  • The Syrian army became the foundation of Umayyad power, allowing the establishment of a unified empire via better control over conquered regions and Arab tribal rivalries.
  • In Khorsan, Muslim dominion was extended, garrison cities were established at Mervand Sstn to serve as staging areas for expeditions into Central Asia and northwestern India, and the invasion of northwestern Africa was launched.

Despite the fact that the Sufynids generally retained the Byzantine and Persian administrative bureaucracies that they inherited in the provinces, they were politically organized along Arab tribal lines, with the caliph being elected by his peers to become, theoretically, “first among equals” and act on the advice of the ashraf (vizier) (tribal council).

After a civil conflict and the deaths of Yazd I in 683 and Muwiyah II in 684, the Sufynids were forced to abdicate from their thrones.

The Umayyad caliphate continued to grow under the reign of Abd al-Malik (reigned 685–705).

Arabization was a multi-pronged effort that resulted in Arabic being adopted as an official state language, the financial administration of the empire being reorganized, with Arabs replacing Persian and Greek officials, and a newArabic coinage being introduced to replace the previously used copies of Byzantine and Sasanian coins.

  • The Dome of the Rock is a natural formation in the Rocky Mountains.
  • Photograph courtesy of Mordechai Meiri/Shutterstock.com The Syrian army was defeated and defeated badly by the Byzantine emperor Leo III, which marked the beginning of the decline (the Isaurian; 717).
  • Hishm ibn Abd al-Malik (reigned 724–743) was able to hold back the flood for a short period of time.
  • Nevertheless, in the years following Hishm’s death, feuds between the Qays and the Kalb exploded into significant revolts in Syria, Iraq, and Khorsan (744-546), whilst the Mawluks were linked with theHshimiyyah, a religious-political movement that disputed the legitimacy of Umayyad power.
  • Hishm’s Palace is located in Jericho.
  • Isak Wiklund of Dreamstime.com contributed to this article.

While the Umayyad family was tracked down and executed, Abd al-Rahman managed to flee and establish himself as a Muslim monarch in Spain (756), thereby establishing the dynasty of the Umayyads inCórdoba as a result of his escape. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica

Introduction to Southeast Asia

Barbara Watson Andaya contributed to this article. Southeast Asia is made up of eleven nations that stretch from eastern India to China, and it is commonly classified into two zones: “mainland” and “island.” Southeast Asia is separated into two zones: “mainland” and “island.” The Asian mainland (Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam) can be thought of as an extension of the continent’s eastern edge. Muslims may be found in every country on the continent, although the largest concentrations can be found in southern Thailand and western Burma, respectively (Arakan).

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Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei, and the newly independent nation of East Timor are all part of island or maritime Southeast Asia (formerly part of Indonesia).

Despite the fact that Muslims constitute 85 percent of Indonesia’s population of over 234 million people, a higher proportion than in any other country in the world, Islam is not the official state religion in the country.

Geography, Environment, and Cultural Zones

Because virtually all of Southeast Asia is located between the tropics, there are many parallels in terms of climate, as well as in terms of plant and animal life throughout the area. Temperatures are typically warm, with the exception of highland areas, which are milder. Many marine and jungle items are unique to the region, and as a result, they were highly sought for by international traders in the early days of the trade. For example, some tiny islands off the coast of eastern Indonesia were formerly the world’s sole supply of cloves, nutmeg, and mace, according to historical records.

  • They provide rather predictable rainy seasons, and before steamships were built, they also made it possible for traders from outside the region to enter and go at regular intervals from the region.
  • There are some distinctions between the physical environments of mainland Southeast Asia and the islands of the region.
  • The large lowland plains, which are divided by wooded hills and mountain ranges, are a second characteristic of the region.
  • A variety of tribal tribes lived in the highlands, each of which expressed its own sense of identity via different attire, jewelry, and hairstyles.
  • The communities that formed in these regions, despite having a strong agrarian basis, were also part of the marine commercial network that connected Southeast Asia to India and China.
  • Because the core of these islands was densely forested and sometimes divided by mountains, land travel was never a straightforward endeavor.
  • Coastal and adjoining island communities were divided by ocean, resulting in smaller zones where people spoke comparable languages and were exposed to the same religious and cultural influences as one another.
  • The waters themselves are a second distinguishing element of maritime Southeast Asia.
  • A perfect habitat for fish, coral, seaweeds, and other goods may be found in this area.

However, there are several active volcanoes in the area, and the island world is extremely sensitive to seismic action.

Lifestyle, Livelihood, and Subsistence

Southeast Asia is distinguished by its cultural variety, which is a defining trait of the region. Southeast Asia is home to an estimated thousand of the six thousand languages that are now spoken around the world. The earliest evidence of human residence in Southeast Asia dates back over a million years, but migration into the region has a lengthy history as well. In ancient times, ethnic tribes from southern China traveled up the lengthy river systems to settle in the interior regions of the Chinese mainland.

  1. Besides northeastern India and southern China, languages belonging to these families can also be found in the Middle East.
  2. The indigenous occupants of the Philippines and the Malay-Indonesian archipelago, who may have been connected to populations in Australia and New Guinea, were either evicted or assimilated as a result of this migration.
  3. The many ways in which people have adapted to their respective settings throughout Southeast Asia is a notable aspect of the region.
  4. The deep jungles were home to a large number of tiny traveling groups, and the inner tribes contained formidable headhunters as well as other hunters.
  5. Sedentary populations produced irrigated rice in the rich plains of Java and the rest of Southeast Asia’s mainland; around the beaches, which were less ideal for agriculture due to the presence of mangrove swamps, fishing and commerce were the primary sources of income.
  6. Approximately two thousand years ago, cultural shifts began to affect Southeast Asia, with influences originating from two different sources.
  7. Although Chinese domination of Vietnam was finally abolished in 1427, Confucian ideology continued to have an impact even after the country gained independence.
  8. The expansion of commerce over the Bay of Bengal meant that Indian influences became increasingly prominent in the remainder of mainland Southeast Asia, as well as in the western portions of the Malay-Indonesian archipelago, as well.
  9. Those rulers and courts who accepted Hinduism or versions of Buddhism in these countries encouraged the development of a culture that blended imported ideals with characteristics of indigenous society.
  10. Creating a permanent government structure with stable bureaucracy and a trustworthy revenue base was difficult when people lived nomadic or semi-nomadic lives, as was the case in ancient times.

Even the most powerful of these states, however, found it impossible to expand their control into the isolated highlands and islands of the Pacific Ocean.

The Arrival of Islam in Southeast Asia

From roughly the thirteenth century onward, Islamic doctrines began to spread throughout Southeast Asia. Religions such as Islam teach on the oneness of God (known to Muslims as Allah), who has revealed his word via a succession of prophets, culminating in Muhammad’s revelation (ca. 570-632 CE). The fundamental doctrines of Islam are included in the Qur’an (Koran), which was revealed to Muhammad as a revelation of Allah’s will, as well as in the hadith, which are records of Muhammad’s utterances or acts.

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These are the ones: 1) The act of professing one’s religion The following are required: 1) declaration of belief in the existence of only one god, Allah, and Muhammad as his Prophet; 2) five daily prayers at various times of the day, including daybreak; 3) fasting between sunrise and sunset during Ramadan, the ninth lunar month; 4) pilgrimage to Mecca (in modern Saudi Arabia), or hajj, at least once in a lifetime if possible; and 5) payment of 14 percent of one’s income as alms, in addition to voluntary donations.

  1. In Islam, there are no priests, but there are many learned teachers, known as ‘ulama, who interpret Islamic teachings in accordance with the writings and commentaries of scholars in the past, as well as the teachings of the four schools of law practiced within the majority Sunni tradition.
  2. Islamic scholars estimate that Sunni Muslims account for around 85 percent of all Muslims.
  3. Islam continues to spread even after the Prophet’s death.
  4. Islam was introduced to India in the eleventh century CE by a similar process of conquest and conversion, and its dominating political position was further cemented with the establishment of the Mughal empire in the sixteenth century.
  5. Muslims have been among the many foreigners who have traded in Southeast Asia since at least the ninth century, and a few individuals from Southeast Asia have traveled to the Middle East to further their education.
  6. Muslim traders from western China also established themselves in coastal cities along the Chinese coast, and Chinese Muslims established substantial relations with people in central Vietnam, Borneo, the southern Philippines, and the Javanese coast, among other locations.
  7. Bengal, Gujarat, Malabar) traveled to Southeast Asia and served as a vehicle for the dissemination of Islamic ideals.

According to the established pattern, a ruler or chief would convert to Islam, sometimes out of a desire to attract traders, sometimes out of a desire to be associated with powerful Muslim kingdoms such as Mamluk Egypt, and then Ottoman Turkey, and finally Mughal India, and sometimes out of the attraction of Muslim teaching.

Marco Polo, the well-known adventurer, made a stay in north Sumatra in 1292 and is credited with making the first verifiable reference of a Muslim population.

Around 1430, the monarch of Melaka, on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, made the choice to convert to Islam, marking a watershed moment in the history of the region.

Learn to speak Malay, which is not a difficult language to learn and was already spoken by many people along the trade routes that connected islands all over the world.

The former Malay script has been replaced by a modified Arabic script. A number of Arabic terms have been introduced into Malay, notably in the context of spiritual beliefs, social customs, and political life.

Change over Time

Islam’s growth was partly owing to a process historians refer to as “localization,” in which Islamic teachings were typically modified in such a way that they avoided substantial problems with existing attitudes and cultural practices. Local heroes were frequently elevated to the status of Islamic saints, and their tombs became revered sites of prayer. Some features of mystical Islam, particularly in Java, were reminiscent of pre-Islamic beliefs. Despite Islam’s rejection of polytheism, cultural activities like as cockfighting and gambling endured, and spirit propitiation remained a key part of the lives of the majority of Muslim people.

  1. Law codes based on Islamic principles were frequently modified to accommodate local norms.
  2. A important development in Muslim countries such as eastern Indonesia and the southern Philippines, where pork had long been considered a ceremonial meal, was the prohibition on eating it.
  3. Male circumcision has evolved into a significant rite of passage.
  4. A party known as the Wahhabis took Mecca in the early nineteenth century, giving rise to reforming impulses in the Muslim community.
  5. People were drawn to Wahhabi ways of teaching in Southeast Asia, despite the fact that they were only briefly popular in the region.
  6. Muslim leaders played a key role in anti-colonial activities, particularly in Indonesia and Malaysia.
  7. When it came to rural populations or “traditionalists,” these reform-minded Muslims were frequently frustrated with those who preserved ancient pre-Islamic rituals.

Malaya, Burma, Singapore, and western Borneo were all under British control; the Indonesian archipelago belonged to the Dutch; Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam were French colonies; East Timor belonged to Portugal; and the Philippines were under the control of the Spanish, who later became the American government.

This connection continues to be a source of contention in nations where Muslims constitute a minority (such as Thailand and the Philippines).

Islam is the subject of a heated dispute among Indonesian Muslims, who are divided over the best methods to practice their faith and whether Islam should play a more prominent role in governance.

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