Who Brought Islam To South Asia? (Solution found)

The expansion of trade among West Asia, India and Southeast Asia helped the spread of the religion as Muslim traders brought Islam to the region. Gujarati Muslims played a pivotal role in establishing Islam in Southeast Asia. The second theory is the role of missionaries or Sufis.

Who first brought Islam to South Asia?

The local mosques date to the early 700s. The first incursion occurred through sea by Caliph Umar’s governor of Bahrain, Usman ibn Abu al-Aas, who sent his brother Hakam ibn Abu al-Aas to raid and reconnoitre the Makran region around 636 CE or 643 AD long before any Arab army reached the frontier of India by land.

When did Islam arrive in South Asia?

ISLAM ARRIVES IN SOUTH ASIA Between 711 and 1526 various Muslim armies—Arabs, Turks, Afghans and Mughals—conquered northern Indian from the west while Islam was absorbed more peacefully in the south through the efforts of maritime traders and missionaries from the Middle East and Iran.

Who brought Islam Central Asia?

Arrival of Islam and Medieval period The Battle of Talas in 751 between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang dynasty for control of Central Asia was the turning point, initiating mass conversion into Islam in the region.

How did Islam go to Asia?

Islam came to the Southeast Asia, first by the way of Muslim traders along the main trade-route between Asia and the Far East, then was further spread by Sufi orders and finally consolidated by the expansion of the territories of converted rulers and their communities.

How did Islam first arrive in South Asia?

It is believed that Islam first arrived in these South-eastern regions by the 7th century. Muslim merchants from the Arabian Peninsula had to pass through these islands of the south via the maritime Silk Roads to reach China’s ports.

How did Islam influence Southeast Asia?

Islamic Influence on Southeast Asian Visual Arts, Literature, and Performance. Most of those who brought Islamic stories and tales into Southeast Asia were sailors, traders, holy men, and adventurers who found the religion easy to transport since it required no temples, priests, or congregations for its worshippers.

How did Islam spread to Southeast Asia Why did many in Southeast Asia convert?

How did Islam spread to Southeast Asia? Why did many in Southeast Asia convert? – The first Southeast Asian Muslims were local merchants (converted in the 700s), hoping to have better trading relations with the Islamic merchants. – Sufis did their missionary work in Southeast Asia.

How did Islam begin in the Philippines?

Islam reached the Philippines in the 14th century with the arrival of Muslim traders from the Persian Gulf, southern India, and their followers from several sultanate governments in the Malay Archipelago. The first Muslims to arrive were traders followed by missionaries in the late 14th and early 15th centuries.

Where did Islam originate?

Although its roots go back further, scholars typically date the creation of Islam to the 7th century, making it the youngest of the major world religions. Islam started in Mecca, in modern-day Saudi Arabia, during the time of the prophet Muhammad’s life. Today, the faith is spreading rapidly throughout the world.

What is Islam religion based on?

The basis for Islamic doctrine is found in the Qur’an (Koran). Muslims believe the Qur’an is the word of God, spoken by the angel Gabriel to Muhammad. The Qur’an was only in oral form while Muhammad was living, which means it was constantly interpreted by Muhammad and his disciples.

Who conquered Central Asia?

By the 19th century, Central Asia was completely taken over by Russia. In 1868, the Russians moved into Tashkent and made the city their capital in Central Asia. China moved into the region of Xinjiang even earlier in 1760s.

What was the religion of Central Asia before Islam?

Prior to the introduction of Islam, the main religions of the oasis belt were Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Manichaeism.

Who was the founder of Islam?

The rise of Islam is intrinsically linked with the Prophet Muhammad, believed by Muslims to be the last in a long line of prophets that includes Moses and Jesus.

How did Islam start and spread?

The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula. In other parts of the world, Islam spread through trade and commerce.

How did Islam spread in Asia and Africa?

The expansion of Islam into Asia was solidified with the formation of the Ottoman Empire in the 13th century. This vast empire helped the spread of Islam throughout the world. This lead to the formation of Dar al-Islam in the northwestern parts of Africa. Different variations of Islam existed even within cities.

Did you know?: The Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia through the Trade Routes

The Silk Roads are among the most important routes in our collective history, and they are still in use today. The establishment of ties between east and west was made possible by the construction of these highways, which exposed varied regions to a variety of different ideas and ways of life. Notably, many of the world’s main religions, including Islam, were spread as a result of these contacts, which is noteworthy. Following the establishment of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century, the religion began to spread eastward through commerce, which was aided by the construction of the maritime Silk Roads.

This allowed them to control the East-West trade routes that ran over the maritime Silk Roads, which linked numerous key ports in eastern Asian countries together.

Due to these exchanges, Islam was able to spread even farther, reaching people living in significant coastal towns on the Indian Subcontinent and in China, as well as those living in more remote South-eastern islands such as modern Indonesia and the Philippines.

Historically, Muslim traders traveling from the Arabian Peninsula to China’s ports had to transit via these islands in the southern hemisphere through the maritime Silk Roads.

According to popular belief, some of these traders eventually moved in Indonesia and assimilated with the locals.

It is possible to see archeological evidence of Islam being practiced by monarchs in the 13th century by looking at tombstones inscribed with dates according to the Islamic year of Sumatran Kings from the 13th century.

Furthermore, during the 13th century, contacts between Muslim merchants and the local population, as well as trade through the Silk Roads between the southern Philippines and other neighboring regions such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia, aided in the spread of Islam among the local population in those regions.

  • Islam, like Buddhism, was assimilated into the existing cultural and religious influences of the Southeast Asian areas in a similar way.
  • Sri Lanka has an ancient monastic hospital system that dates back thousands of years.
  • The Khwarazm region and the Silk Roads are intertwined.
  • The spread of Buddhism throughout South and Southeast Asia as a result of trade routes.

Sayyid Bin Abu Ali, a true representative of intercultural relations throughout the Maritime Silk Roads, was recently honored. Thailand and the Silk Roads of the Maritime Silk Roads The Greeks Have a Foothold in Central Asia Routes of the Maritime Silk Routes in Central Asia

Islam in South Asia

On July 14, 2004, the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific of the House Committee on International Relations delivered a presentation. Mr. Chairman, I am writing to express my gratitude for the opportunity to serve you. In order to begin, I would want to express my gratitude to you and the other members of this committee for the opportunity to speak before you on the significance of Islam in Asia and the consequences of this for U.S. foreign policy. Since the attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, by terrorists claiming to speak in the name of Islam, there has been substantial debate in the United States over the role of Islam as a force in American foreign and domestic policy.

  • Given the United States’ commitment to the concept of absolute separation between state and religion, the United States is unable to pursue a foreign policy toward the Islamic faith.
  • I’d want to share with you some general views before I go into the specifics of the challenges surrounding political and terrorist Islamic organisations in Asia: 1.
  • There are many varied ways that its members practice its main principles in different regions of the world, and even within the same group.
  • On the Asian continent, a number of Islamic sects and Sufi orders coexist, and some of them are combative with one another, as well as antagonistic to non-Muslims and non-Muslim religions.
  • Despite the disparities in ritual and even religious belief or practice, Muslims have a strong feeling of belonging to a single group – the Ummah – despite their differences in ritual and religious belief or practice.
  • Although Muslim history is rich with instances of militant claims of religion, they are not much different from, for example, the invocation of Christianity as a unifier of countries or a mobilizing force for armies in the Middle Ages, which were both commonplace at the time.
  • 4.
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However, while Islam has been used as a source of political legitimacy throughout history, the Islamic political ideology known today as Political Islam has emerged in large part as a response to or reaction to the breakdown of the conventional order as a result of the strains of modernity.

As a result, the concept of political Islam should be seen as a contemporary concept rather than as an intrinsic component of the Islamic heritage.

According to Chinese Muslims, one of Muhammad’s companions brought the faith to the nation, and is buried in the country’s southern province.

Indonesia (population 238 million, 88 percent Muslim), Pakistan (population 160 million, 97 percent Muslim), and Bangladesh (population 142 million, 83 percent Muslim) are the world’s three largest Muslim majority countries, according to the United Nations Development Programme.

Islam’s expansion into Asia occurred in various phases and in a variety of methods.

In South and Southeast Asia, Islam’s early proselytizers permitted local people to keep their cultures and customs, creating a regional blend that differed greatly from Islam’s practice in the Arab world.

Religious tolerance, as well as the desire to blend Islam with local customs, has long been one of the most distinguishing aspects of Islam across Asia.

In a very short period of time, they were forced to modernize in response to pressure from the European powers, which was primarily responsible for this shift.

The Dutch in Indonesia and the British in India and Malaya both invaded and colonized Muslim nations throughout the nineteenth century.

Enlightened absolutism was the first western concept that Muslim modernizers, particularly in the nineteenth century, appropriated and adapted.

In various regions of the Islamic world, a large number of ‘partial modernizers’ developed, especially rulers who want to adopt selected western social and economic ideals and technologies without affecting the foundations of political authority.

Two approaches were taken by Muslims in response to the challenge posed by the technologically and militarily superior western world: An large part of the population has accepted western education and adopted the western style of life, with religion being almost absent from their conversations.

  • It is therefore fair to say that the beginning of the modern age coincided with the commencement of ideological struggles within the Muslim world over politics and governance.
  • Muslims, with a few noteworthy exceptions, had paid little attention to political and economic theory in general.
  • A conflict between Islamic traditionalists who regarded the colonial powers’ withdrawal as an opportunity to “revive” the old “Islamic” way of life and modernizers who argued that there could be no turning back from western influences began with the end of the colonial era.
  • In 1947, the Muslim-majority portions of British India were partitioned to become the country of Pakistan.

While in this country, the elite attempted to “use” Islam as a unifier of national identity while also encouraging Islamic revivalism, with the belief that a secular civil-military oligarchy could retain power even after suppressing ethnic and political dissent with the assistance of an Islamist ideology.

  • As we all know, the anti-Soviet jihad in Afghanistan was the zenith of this partnership, which played a big role in alienating Muslim populations and converting political Islamists into militant Jihadists in the process.
  • Saudi Arabia and other Gulf Arab states dispatched missionaries to Asian Muslim communities in response to invitations from pro-Western governments to aid with Islamic education and charitable endeavors.
  • Strong Wahabi and neo-Wahabi organizations currently exist in all Asian Muslim nations, eroding the country’s traditional pluralism and eroding the country’s national identity.
  • It is not true that all Islamic political organizations created in the name of Islam are a danger to global security or to the national interests of the United States.
  • A poll conducted by the Pew Research Center in 2003 found that favorable opinions of the United States in Indonesia had dropped from 61 percent to 15 percent in a single year, according to the survey.
  • At the same time, the vast majority of Muslims favor Islam and religious leaders playing a significant – and in some cases, increasing – role in the political life of their own nations.

Given the size of Muslim populations, even if only one percent of the world’s Muslims accepts an uncompromising theology that calls for an endless struggle between Islam and un-Islam, we face the prospect of several million volunteers fighting against the current global order, based on the size of Muslim populations.

  1. A number of factors have been identified as contributing to the rise of political and radical Islam throughout the Muslim world.
  2. Although the Middle East has a role in Asian Muslim politics, there are other, more localized variables that contribute to the radicalization of Asian Muslim populations.
  3. Despite Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf’s choice to align the country with the United States, not all Jihadists are prepared to accept the state’s U-turn and are continuing to wage Jihad in pursuit of their religious views.
  4. Each of these situations, however differing, has as a major factor the absence of ideological alternatives and the deteriorating performance of the state in providing for its citizens, both of which can be exploited by well-funded and organized radical groups.
  5. policy, are the most important elements in Muslim anti-Americanism.
  6. Young Bangladeshis can redirect their efforts towards secular political routes, which are available to them.
  7. The open political atmosphere in Bangladesh, as well as the absence of a big disagreement that might cause the government to assist extremist rebels, has helped to keep the Islamists’ influence under control.

In Pakistan, on the other hand, the military and intelligence agencies maintain tight control over the political landscape.

Islamist candidates achieved their highest showing in a general election in Pakistan during parliamentary elections conducted in October 2002, winning 11.1 percent of the public vote and 20 percent of the seats in the lower house of parliament, the country’s lower house of parliament.

Because of their links to the military, the initials of the alliance of Islamic groups Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal – MMA – are sometimes referred to as the Military Mullah Union by their detractors, who refer to the alliance as the Military Mullah Alliance.

With a rising proportion of its population living below the poverty line (31 percent of the overall population last year), the pool of disgruntled young looking for easy answers to complicated concerns, and hence probable candidates for recruitment to radical causes, grows.

The Islamic Party of the nation recently lost control of a state that it had dominated for the previous twelve years.

The establishment of a continuous democratic process, backed by socio-economic growth, has the potential to marginalize radical Islamist organizations in Indonesia over time, as has happened in Malaysia.

While surveys in Muslim countries revealed a decline in support for the United States government, the same surveys also revealed widespread acceptance of the ideas and principles advocated by the United States.

Moderate democratic Muslim partners would provide answers to concerns concerning the role of the state, political practices and institutions, education and knowledge acquisition, and the economy from a position that is diametrically opposed to that of anti-Western Islamists, as described above.

  1. Many Muslim intellectuals and small groups of activists around the Muslim world – and particularly in Asia – regard bigotry and Jihadist interpretations of Islam as a threat to the Ummah as much as they do to the rest of the world, and they are calling for action.
  2. During the Cold War, Islamist revivalism was considered as a viable alternative to communist influence, providing Islamists with a chance to create a global network of supporters.
  3. Groups and intellectuals that advocate for nonviolent ideas such as democracy, inclusion, and secularism, for example, are restricted to their own nations of birth.
  4. In the same way that the “puritanical” vision of Islam from the Arabian heartland has attempted to permeate the syncretist Asian periphery in recent decades, there is now a pressing need to reverse the flow of Islamic ideas from Asia to the Middle East.
  5. The United States was at the forefront of efforts to counter Communist propaganda and ideology at the time.
  6. It can, on the other hand, provide support and encouragement to moderate Muslims, who will then be able to move forward on their own initiative.

As a rule, Carnegie does not take institutional positions on public policy matters; the opinions expressed below are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Carnegie Foundation, its employees, or its board of directors.

Islam in South Asia

A half billion Muslims live in South Asia, which comprises the nation-states of Pakistan and Bangladesh and accounts for over one-third (or a half billion) of the world’s Muslim population. Malik’s excellent work is a chronicle of the lengthy and convoluted history of Islam in the Middle East and North Africa. This book provides rich and provocative material for academics who are interested in topics such as Islam and identity politics, religious communalism and the modern state, the impact of the colonial project on Muslim political culture, and the current radicalization of Muslims in the Middle East and North Africa.” Choice magazine published an article by A.

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It is undeniably true that Malik’s brief biography contributes to our comprehension of the current situation by bringing together all available facts on South Asian Islam and clearly defined multidisciplinary methods.

A compelling read that is detailed, extensive in the span of history it covers, and clear in its presentation of ideas.

Islam in South Asia

Historically, the spread of Islam in South Asia has been one of the most significant geopolitical movements of the previous millennium. Arab-Muslim commerce established themselves on the subcontinent’s southern coast in the 7th and 8th centuries, and Arab-Muslim military expeditions investigated the Makran coast and the Indus Valley. In today’s globe, South Asia is home to one-third of the world’s Muslims, and it has emerged as a key source of Islamic ideas and organizations around the world.

  • Islam itself demonstrated an ability to connect productively with the diverse regional cultures of South Asia.
  • It was not until the eighteenth century that South Asia began to export individuals and ideas to the rest of the Islamic world.
  • In this setting, a remarkable resurgence took place, and theulama, or learned men of Islam, came to have a bigger influence on the affairs of the Muslim community than they had ever had before.
  • When it comes to politics, Muslim separatist movement has grown in strength, and South Asia was partitioned in 1947 into India and Pakistan.

General Overviews

Several books, including Qureshi 1962, Mujeeb 1967, and Schimmel 1980, give comprehensive overviews of the growth of Islam and the Muslim communities in South Asia. Ahmad 1964discusses the fundamental themes that have gone through the Muslim presence in South Asia since its inception. Metcalf 2009illustrates the many different ways of being Muslim, whereas De Bary et al. 1958illustrates religious change among Muslims in the all-important context of change among the subcontinent’s other faiths.

  • Aziz, Ahmad, and Aziz In this course, you will learn about Islamic culture in its Indian context. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1964. An important collection of writings written by a leading scholar on Islamic culture and civilization. De Bary, William Theodore, Stephen Hay, and I. H. Qureshi, eds., published a revised edition in 1999. Indian tradition may be traced back to its origins. Columbia University Press, New York, published this book in 1958. a classic collection of materials that has been effectively presented and has lasted the test of time
  • Metcalf, Barbara D., ed., Islam in South Asia in Practice (Islam in South Asia in Practice). Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2009. Outstanding collection of readings that demonstrates how Islam has manifested itself in South Asia through time and space, while also allowing the reader to come into contact with Muslim lives as they are being lived. Mohammad Mujeeb is the author of this work. The Indian Muslims are a different story. Allen and Unwin, 1967. London: Allen and Unwin. An encyclopedic study of South Asia’s Muslim history, written from the perspective of a “Indian Muslim” after partition
  • Qureshi, Ishtiaq Hussain, ed. A Brief Historical Analysis of the Muslim Community on the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent, 610–1947. Mouton Publishers, The Hague, 1962. Schimmel, Annemarie, “An Overview from a Pakistani Perspective,” in The Pakistani Perspective. Islam’s presence on the Indian Subcontinent Brill Publishing Company, Leiden, the Netherlands, 1980. In particular, the author’s extensive understanding of literature and Sufism is evident in this well-written summary.

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The History of Islam in South Asia – Winter/Spring 2021 – Digital Islamic Studies Curriculum

Winter/Spring 2021 is the term. Semester dates are January 18, 2021, through April 29, 2021. Campuses that are taking part include: The University of Michigan is the host institution, while Michigan State University is the receiving institution. the State University of New Jersey (Rutgers University) Number of Credit Hours Titles:

  • Courses offered at the University of Michigan include: HISTORY 325, ASIAN 324, ISLAM 325, MEMS 325, MIDEAST 375, RELIGION 325, and others. “The History of Islam in South Asia”
  • REL 355 “Southeast Asian Religions: Islam in South Asia”
  • Rutgers University: 01:508:292 “Topics in History”
  • Michigan State University: REL 355 “The History of Islam in South Asia”

Presentation times: Tuesday-Thursday, 11:30am-1:00pm Eastern time Farina Mir | [email protected] is a professor at the University of Michigan. Students learn about the broad historical currents of Islam’s expansion in the Indian subcontinent, as well as about the nature of Muslim political authority, the interaction between religious communities, Islamic aesthetics and contributions to material culture, the varied engagements and reactions of Muslims to colonial rule, the partition of British India and the establishment of Pakistan, as well as about the contemporary concerns of Muslims in South Asia.

  • The course places a strong emphasis on the social, political, and cultural history of Islam in South Asia, with a secondary emphasis on the history of Islam in the Middle East.
  • The instructor’s background: Farina Miris a historian of colonial and postwar South Asia, with a special focus in the social, cultural, and religious history of late-colonial north India.
  • in history from the University of California, Berkeley.
  • It received the 2011 John F.
  • The Social Science Research Council, the Ford Foundation, and the Whiting Foundation, among others, have awarded Mir fellowships for his work in Comparative Studies in Society and History and the Indian Economic and Social History Review.
  • She has had a postdoctoral appointment at Cornell University’s Society for the Humanities, and she has taught at a number of institutions, including Cornell, the University of Virginia, and the University of Michigan, among others.
  • First, a study of Muslim socio-religious reform in late-colonial India that will examine the role of popular ethics in the formation of modern Muslim subjectivity and history is in the works.
  • Secondly, there is a book called A History of Islam in South Asia, which is a synthetic history that spans the era from the rise of Islam to the present day.

Students can enroll in courses for course credit at their own university without having to go via a third party. Contact [email protected] if you would like additional information about this course, including information about the textbook and directions on how to enroll.

Spread of Islam in South and Southeast Asia, The

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The “Spread of Islam in South and Southeast Asia, The” is a phrase that means “the spread of Islam in South and Southeast Asia.” In the second edition of the Atlas of the World’s Religions. Ninian Smart and Frederick Denny edited this volume. Oxford Islamic Studies Online will be available on January 13, 2022.


The “Spread of Islam in South and Southeast Asia, The” is a phrase that means “the spread of Islam in South and Southeast Asia.” In Ninian Smart and Frederick Denny’s Atlas of the World’s Religions, Second Edition, they write about the religions of the world. Oxford Islamic Studies Online (Oxford Islamic Studies Online) (accessed Jan 13, 2022). South and Southeast Asia are home to the world’s biggest Muslim population, with almost 550 million Muslims living in the region together. In this region, which is distinguished by its linguistic and cultural diversity, the vast majority of Muslims are Sunni; nonetheless, large Shi’i groups can be found in Kashmir, Sindh, and Pakistan.

Sometimes the symbiosis with other world religions, such as Hinduism and Sikhism in India, Buddhism in Thailand, or Christianity in the Philippines, explodes into open confrontation with the other global religion.

Islam in South Asia

It is thought to have come in India by two primary routes: from the south, where Arab traders’ colonies had been established along the southwest coast of India from pre-Islamic times; and from the north, where Islam arrived by land after conquering Central Asia through military conquest. Sind was a critical outpost for the expansion of Islam in the northern hemisphere, with the religion spreading as far as Punjab and Gujarat from there. However, it wasn’t until the eleventh century that Muslim influence became increasingly significant in the region.

  • Mahmud was drawn to the Hindu rajas by their wealth, and he launched a series of wars that culminated in the capture of Somnath, although he only managed to conquer Punjab.
  • Eventually, the Khaljis were able to hold this region against successive Mongol incursions and, under the leadership of Sultan ‘Ala’ al-din, they were able to expand it all the way to the extreme south.
  • The Mughal monarchs reunified the subcontinent throughout the seventeenth century, bringing the region back together.
  • Following British withdrawal from India in 1947, the newly-formed Muslim state of Pakistan re-affirmed its ties with Persia and the Middle East, and this was the beginning of a new era for the country.

The fast rise of Muslim population, despite the fact that Islam was frequently backed by the state, may be traced in large part to the missionary activities of Sufi orders, notably the Chishtiyah, Suhrawardiyah, Qadiriyah, and Naqshbandiyah orders.

Islam in Southeast Asia

When the Portuguese entered the worldwide marine commercial arena in the fifteenth century, Islam in Southeast Asia was also related to commerce, which had been controlled by the Arabs from the twelfth to fifteenth centuries. Local kings began to convert to Islam as early as the fourteenth century, and within two centuries, practically the whole province had been Islamized. It was at this time that Malacca had established itself as the most important trade port in Southeast Asia, as well as the most important center for the spread of Islam, which became associated with both the state and its primary language, Malay, in the late fifteenth century.

Islamic law, which places a great focus on mysticism and speculative theology, is distinguished by its intermingling with local custom, particularly in the areas of family and civil law.

The Impact and Legacy of Western Colonialism

It is widely acknowledged that the advent of British authority in India had a significant impact on the religious development of the subcontinent. As a result of their original policy of tolerance, the British began to repress various religious rituals, preferred English as the language of government, grew in popularity among the Hindu and Sikh populations and ultimately phased out Islamic religious legislation altogether. The responses of Muslims to change have been either moderate modernity, open rejection of Western principles, or the formation of a contemporary Muslim political identity in response to change.

The question of national or religious identity was never satisfactorily resolved, and the national element finally won out in East Pakistan, which became the independent state of Bangladesh in 1971 after years of struggle.

Among the consequences of colonial presence are polarization of conflicts between and within governments, as well as a secularization of society, which is the most significant of these impacts.

Still present is the conflict of identity between a secular and an Islamic Southeast Asia; between the reality of a predominantly secular (though nominally Islamic) state, a Muslim communal religious movement, and the commitment of some groups to achieving an ideal Islamic state; and between a secular and an Islamic Southeast Asia.

LibGuides: Islam in Southeast Asia: Home

Southeast Asia, sometimes known as the “Muslim archipelago,” is one of the most populated regions of the Islamic world and is often referred to as such. It is estimated that there are 1.6 billion Muslims worldwide, with more than 240 million Muslims living in this sub-region of Asia, accounting for around 42 percent of the entire Southeast Asian population and approximately 25 percent of the total world Muslim population. The majority of Muslims in Southeast Asia are Sunni (Sunnite) Muslims who adhere to the Shafii school of Islamic law, which is based on the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad.

Southeast Asian Muslims hail from a diverse range of ethnic backgrounds and speak a variety of languages, including Bahasa Indonesia, Malay, Javanese, Maranao, Maguindanao, Tausug, Thai, Chinese, and Burmese, among others.

However, there is little evidence that it was primarily transmitted by traders throughout the 12th century.

The founding of the first Islamic monarchy, in Pasai, Sumatra, took place in the thirteenth century.

During the 17th century, Arab traders and scholars/holy men from Hadramawt (also known as Hadhramout and Hadhramaut, a region in southern Arabia) established themselves in the area, and this continued to flourish.

Despite the fact that practically majority Muslims in South-East Asia are Sunni, IslamicShia(Shite)holidays have become part of the local heritage.

Southeast Asian Islam was mainstreamed through this movement, which followed orthodox principles.

As known asabanganin Javanese, orkaum tuiin Malay, andkhana kauin Thai in many languages, the first reflects a kind of local (syncretic) Islam distinct from the orthodox Islam known assantriin Bahasa Indonesia, orkaum mudaiin Malay, andkhana maiin Thai in other languages.

Additional Middle Eastern influences include puritanical Wahhabism from Saudi Arabia, which emerged as a reformist/revivalist movement in the eighteenth century, and Islamic modernism and revival, which emerged in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as responses to Western colonial influence as well as the political decline of Muslim powers.

The current state of Islam in Southeast Asia is marked by a competition between all of the aforementioned varieties of Islam, as local Muslims struggle to define their identities as citizens of both Muslim-majority and Muslim-minority nations.

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