Who Invented Islam? (Perfect answer)

Muhammad was the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qurʾān, Islam’s sacred scripture. He spent his entire life in what is now the country of Saudi Arabia, from his birth about 570 CE in Mecca to his death in 632 in Medina.

  • Islam is thus the youngest of the great world religions. The prophet Muhammad (circa 570-632 A.D.) introduced Islam in 610 A.D. after experiencing what he claimed to be an angelic visitation. Muhammad dictated the Qur’an, the holy book of Islam, which Muslims believe to be the preexistent, perfect words of Allah. Origin of Islam: According to Islam

How did Islam begin?

The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula. The angel recites to him the first revelations of the Quran and informs him that he is God’s prophet.

Who started the origins of Islam?

A person who is believe and practices the religion of Islam is called a Muslim. It’ founder was the Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad lived from 570-632. He was born in Mecca into a middle class family in a powerful tribe of nomadic herders and successful merchants.

Who wrote the Quran?

The Prophet Muhammad disseminated the Koran in a piecemeal and gradual manner from AD610 to 632, the year in which he passed away. The evidence indicates that he recited the text and scribes wrote down what they heard.

What is the oldest religion?

The word Hindu is an exonym, and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitioners refer to their religion as Sanātana Dharma (Sanskrit: सनातन धर्म, lit.

Who were the first Muslims?

Ali was the first Muslim convert. Ali ibn Abi Talib is considered the first Muslim convert. The early historian Ibn Ishaq and Tabari puts Ali Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law as the first male convert; Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari presents three candidates, and does not decide between them.

What does the Quran say?

As the Quran says, “With the truth we (God) have sent it down and with the truth it has come down. ” The Quran frequently asserts in its text that it is divinely ordained. Some verses in the Quran seem to imply that even those who do not speak Arabic would understand the Quran if it were recited to them.

Which is older Quran or Bible?

The Bible is older than the Quran. The Quran was written by Muhammad in the 500 ADs. The Bible consists of books written centuries before. All of them were compiled into the Bible at a later time but the books themselves existed before the Quran.

Where is Allah located?

Given that Allah is just another name of Jewish God (Yahweh), Allah resides in the third heaven mentioned in the Bible. Note that this heaven is outside the creation of God.

What Allah means?

Allah, Arabic Allāh (“God”), the one and only God in Islam. Etymologically, the name Allah is probably a contraction of the Arabic al-Ilāh, “the God.” The name’s origin can be traced to the earliest Semitic writings in which the word for god was il, el, or eloah, the latter two used in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament).

What is the oldest God?

Inanna is among the oldest deities whose names are recorded in ancient Sumer. She is listed among the earliest seven divine powers: Anu, Enlil, Enki, Ninhursag, Nanna, Utu, and Inanna.

Who founded Hinduism?

Unlike other religions, Hinduism has no one founder but is instead a fusion of various beliefs. Around 1500 B.C., the Indo-Aryan people migrated to the Indus Valley, and their language and culture blended with that of the indigenous people living in the region.

Islam

Islam, after Christianity, is the second most popular religion in the world, with around 1.8 billion Muslims practicing their faith globally. Despite the fact that Islam’s origins trace back far older, experts generally agree that it was founded in the 7th century, making it the most recent of the major global faiths. Islamic teachings were first taught at Mecca, which is now part of modern-day Saudi Arabia, during the prophet Muhammad’s lifetime. Today, the faith is expanding at an alarming rate around the world.

Islam Facts

  • The term “Islam” literally translates as “submission to God’s will.”
  • Muslims are those who adhere to Islam
  • Muslims are monotheistic and worship a single, all-knowing God, known in Arabic as Allah
  • Muslims are those who adhere to other religions. Islamic adherents strive to live lives of total surrender to Allah and His will. Despite their belief that nothing can happen without Allah’s approval, they acknowledge that humans possess free choice. Islamic teachings hold that Allah’s word was given to the prophet Muhammad by the angel Gabriel, and Muslims believe that other prophets were sent to teach Allah’s law throughout history. They hold several of the same prophets in high regard as Jews and Christians, including Abraham, Moses, Noah, and Jesus, among others. According to Muslims, Muhammad was the final prophet. Moschees are sites of religious prayer for Muslims. In addition to the Kaaba shrine in Mecca and the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem, some notable Islamic holy sites are the Prophet Muhammad’s mosque in Medina and the Kaaba in Mecca. The Quran (also known as the Koran) is the most important religious document in Islam. Another significant literature is the Hadith (also known as the Sunnah). Muslims also hold some passages from the Judeo-Christian Bible in high regard
  • Followers of Islam worship Allah via prayer and recitation of the Quran. It is their belief that there will be a day of judgment and that there is life after death. “Jihad,” which literally translates as “battle,” is a major concept in Islam. Despite the fact that the phrase has been used negatively in popular society, Muslims feel it refers to internal and outward attempts to protect their religious beliefs. Although uncommon, military jihad may be used in the event of a “just war” being declared.

Muhammad

Muhammad, also known as Mohammed or Mohammad, was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, around 570 A.D., and is considered to be the founder of Islam. According to Muslims, he was the final prophet sent by God to proclaim their beliefs to the rest of the world. Islam’s sacred writings and traditions claim that an angel called Gabriel came to visit Muhammad during his meditation session in a cave in the year 610 AAD. Muhammad was instructed by the angel to repeat the words of Allah. Muslims believe that Muhammad continued to receive revelations from Allah for the rest of his life, despite his physical limitations.

He preached that there was only one God, Allah, and that Muslims should devote their lives to worshipping this one and only God.

Hijra

Muhammad and his supporters embarked on a journey from Mecca to Medina in 622. The Hijra (sometimes written Hegira or Hijrah) is a voyage that marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar and is commemorated on the Islamic calendar. A little more than seven years later, Muhammad and his throngs of followers returned to Mecca and completely subjugated the surrounding area. He preached until his death in 632, at the age of 84.

Abu Bakr

During the year 622, Muhammad and his supporters migrated from Mecca to Medina. The Hijra (sometimes written Hegira or Hijrah) is a voyage that marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar and is commemorated on the Islamic calendar as the Hijra. Muhammad and his numerous supporters returned to Mecca seven years later and conquered the surrounding area. After his death in 632, he continued to preach.

Caliphate System

The job of caliph was taken up by Uthman, Muhammad’s son-in-law, when Umar was slain six years after being proclaimed caliph. Uthman was assassinated as well, and Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, was chosen to be the caliph in his place. During the tenure of the first four caliphs, Arab Muslims conquered vast swaths of the Middle East, including Syria, Palestine, Iran, and Iraq, among other places. Islam also expanded throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia, as well as throughout the Middle East.

Sunnis and Shiites

When Muhammad died, there was a heated controversy over who should take over as leader of the Muslim community. Due to this division among the Islamic community, two major sects emerged: the Sunnis and the Shiites. Sunnis constitute roughly 90 percent of all Muslims in the globe. They acknowledge that Muhammad’s first four caliphs were the legitimate successors to him. Muslims who follow the Shiite school of thought believe that only the caliph Ali and his descendants are legitimate heirs to Muhammad.

They assert that the legitimacy of the first three caliphs was questioned. Shiite Muslims now have a significant presence in Iran, Iraq, and Syria, among other places.

Other Types of Islam

Other, minor Muslim denominations exist within the Sunni and Shiite communities, in addition to the larger ones. Some of these are as follows:

  • Wahhabi: This Sunni sect, which was created in Saudi Arabia in the 18th century by members of the Tameem clan, is a branch of Islam. Followers adhere to Muhammad ibn Abd al-exceedingly Wahhab’s stringent interpretation of Islam, which he taught them. Alawite: This Shiite branch of Islam is widely practiced in Syria. Followers of the caliph Ali retain similar views about him, but they also mark various Christian and Zoroastrian feasts, as well. Nation of Islam (also known as the Muslim Brotherhood): This Sunni sect with a majority of African-American members was created in Detroit, Michigan, in the 1930s. A disagreement over the method of selecting a new leader caused this group to split from the Shiites. They are well-known for their hardline fundamentalism, and they are now referred to as Ibadis.

Quran

Founded in Saudi Arabia in the 18th century by members of the Tameem clan, the Wahhabi sect is a Sunni Muslim group. Those who adhere to Muhammad bin Abd al-teachings Wahhab’s adhere to an exceedingly stringent interpretation of Islam. Assad’s religion is known as Alawite Islam, which is a Shiite sect of Islam. However, several Christian and Zoroastrian holidays are observed by followers, who share similar views about the caliph Ali. “The Nation of Islam” is a term used to describe an organization that advocates for Muslims worldwide.

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Kharijites: This group seceded from the Shiites as they disagreed on how to choose a new ruler.

Islamic Calendar

The Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijra calendar, is a lunar calendar used in Islamic religious devotion that is based on the lunar month of Ramadan. The calendar began in the year 622 A.D., commemorating Muhammad’s trip from Mecca to Medina, and has been in use ever since. According to the Islamic calendar, religious festivals and festivities are held on the appropriate days, including the month-long period of fasting and prayer known as Ramadan, which takes place during the ninth month of the calendar.

Islam Symbols

Just as there is no internationally acceptable image or symbol of Islam, there is no single image or symbol of Islam that is universally approved by all Muslims worldwide. Despite the fact that the crescent moon and star picture is considered to have predated Islam and was first used as a sign of the Ottoman Empire, the crescent moon and star image has been embraced as a symbol of Islam in several mostly Muslim nations. In various other contexts, like as the International Red Cross and Red Crescenthumanitarian help movement, a red crescent signifies that Muslims are accepted and treated as such by their fellow citizens.

Five Pillars of Islam

Muslims adhere to five fundamental pillars that are fundamental to their faith. These are some examples:

  • Declaring one’s trust in God and confidence in Muhammad is known as a Shahada. Salat: a five-times-a-day prayer (at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening) that includes the following: Zakat is a religious obligation to contribute to people in need. Sawm: to refrain from eating or drinking during Ramadan
  • It is obligatory for all Muslims to do the Hajj at least once throughout their lifetime (if they are physically able to do so).

Sharia Law

The legal system of Islam is referred to as Sharia Law. This faith-based code of behavior advises Muslims on how they should live their lives in practically every aspect of their lives, including marriage and family life. Men and women are required to dress modestly under Sharia law. It also includes recommendations for Muslim marriages as well as other moral concepts for Muslims. Those who break the rule are subjected to draconian penalties under Sharia law, which is well-known.

In certain countries, for example, the punishment for stealing is amputating the offender’s hand. Adultery is punishable by death by stoning in several jurisdictions. Many Muslims, on the other hand, are opposed to such harsh measures.

Muslim Prayer

Building the first mosque in Medina is attributed to the prophet Muhammad, who did it in the courtyard of his residence in Medina. Some of the precepts he established in 622 A.D. continue to be followed by mosques today. A mosque’s big open area or outdoor courtyard is frequently used for Muslim prayer. When praying in a mosque, a mihrab is a decorative feature or niche that symbolizes the direction to Mecca and, consequently, the direction to face when praying. Separate prayers are offered for men and women, and Muslims are permitted to attend a mosque five times a day for each of the five prayer periods.

Muslim Holidays

A mosque in Medina’s courtyard, which was built by the prophet Muhammad, is often regarded as one of the world’s earliest. Some of the precepts he established in 622 A.D. continue to be followed by mosques today. Muslim prayer is frequently held in a mosque’s big open area or outdoor courtyard. When praying in a mosque, a mihrab is a decorative feature or niche that denotes the direction to Mecca and, hence, the direction to face during prayer. Islam allows Muslims to attend a mosque five times a day for each of the prayer hours, with men and women praying in distinct areas of the mosque.

Islam Today

Recently, Islam’s alleged relationship with terrorism and mass murder has provoked heated political controversy in a number of nations, particularly in the Middle East. Radical Islam” has become a well-known moniker to define the religion’s association with acts of violence, despite its use being contentious at the time. Surveys recently conducted have revealed that in nations with large Muslim populations, the vast majority of Muslims hold highly unfavorable attitudes about terrorist organizations such as ISIS.

Islam is currently the fastest-growing religion in the world.

Sources

Islam,BBC. Islam is the second most popular religion in the world. Religious Tolerance is increasing in number. Islam in a Nutshell, CNN. The Fundamentals of Islam, and PBS. What is Sharia Law, and how does it work in practice? BBC. ISIS is reviled in countries with large Muslim populations, and this is especially true in Europe. Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan research organization. The Religion Library’s Islam Rituals and Worship: Symbolism section has further information. The Islamic Calendar is available at TimeandDate.com.

Muhammad and the Faith of Islam [ushistory.org]

University of Southern California’s Muslim Students Association provided the image. In this passage from the Qur’an, which was originally written in Arabic, “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” is translated. According to the Qur’an (48:29), A religious vision was revealed to a guy who was meditating alone in a cave near Mecca. This vision set the groundwork for the establishment of a new religion. Muhammad was born in the year 610, and he was a man of many names. Islamic thought evolved from Muhammad’s thoughts, and the belief system that resulted from these concepts is now the foundation for Islam, which is one of the most commonly practiced religions in the world.

  1. Both of Muhammad’s parents died when he was six years old, and he was raised by his grandpa and uncle after that.
  2. A Bedouin family welcomed him into their home throughout his boyhood, as per the customs of rich families.
  3. Muhammad’s encounters with these persons are highly likely to have had a significant impact on the formation of Islamic thought.
  4. Over the following 20 years, he rose from obscurity to become a wealthy and well-respected trader who traveled across the Arab world.

All he and his wife had six children, two boys (both of whom died before reaching maturity) and four daughters. By the time he was 40 years old, he began receiving religious visions that would forever alter the course of his life. The Prophet Muhammad’s Mosque in Medina is depicted here.

A Revelation of Faith

Muhammad received a revelation while meditating in a cave on the mountain of Hira. Eventually, Muhammad came to think that he had been chosen by God to serve as a prophet and teacher of a new religion, Islam, which literally translates as “submission.” The elements of Judaism and Christianity were merged into this new religion. Religions’ sacred texts, as well as their famous prophets and leaders – Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others — were held in high regard. Muhammad addressed Abraham as “Khalil,” which means “God’s companion,” and designated him as the ancient patriarch of Islam.

Muhammad thought that he was God’s ultimate prophet and that he himself was the final prophet.

  • There is just one worldwide God, and his name is Allah. Muslims are obliged to pray five times a day with their backs to Mecca, according to Islamic tradition. All Muslims are required to pay an annual tax, which is mostly used to assist the poor and needy. Muslims are prohibited from eating, smoking, drinking, or engaging in sexual intercourse from sunrise to sunset during the whole month of Ramadan. All capable Muslims are required to do the Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) at least once in their lives.

The Kaaba

The Kaaba, Islam’s holiest location, is located in Mecca and is believed to have been erected by Abraham and his son Ishmael for the worship of Yahweh. Islam grew at a breakneck pace, engulfing most of what was formerly the ancient Near East, North Africa, and Spain, and eventually enveloping the whole world. The impoverished and slaves, in particular, responded favorably to Muhammad’s message. However, his message was met with strong opposition from many quarters. As a result of the pushback, he appeared to become even more determined.

From Mecca to Medina and Back

The Kaaba, Islam’s holiest location, is located in Mecca and is believed to have been erected for Yahweh by Abraham and his son Ishmael. Mecca is the most important city in the Islamic world. Islam grew at a breakneck pace, engulfing most of the former kingdoms of the ancient Near East, North Africa, and Spain in a few of centuries. The impoverished and slaves, in particular, reacted favorably to Muhammad’s preaching. However, his message was met with strong opposition by many. He appeared to be emboldened by the resistance rather than discouraged.

After years of public promotion, he became widely despised.

Jihad

Many Islamic sects have a belief in jihad, which is a common thread running through them. Despite the fact that the actual meaning of the Arabic word is difficult to convey in English, the word jihad is most appropriately translated as “fight.” For the vast majority of Muslims, jihad is a personal battle against evil. The sacred wars of this spiritual conflict are fought within the minds and hearts of Muslims. Sometimes the fight takes the shape of a physical battle against those who do not believe in God.

  1. A small but vocal minority of Muslims, on the other hand, places a high value on holy war jihads.
  2. It is this idea of jihad that serves as an inspiration for Islamic extremist terrorist activity.
  3. It should be emphasized that mainstream Islam is a peaceful religion that opposes the concept of unjustified violence.
  4. The unfortunate thing is that Muhammad had not named a successor.

Despite these difficulties, a huge Islamic empire was established over the course of the following 12 centuries, resulting in a worshiper base that was unsurpassed by any other religion.

Muslim inventions that shaped the modern world – CNN.com

Many Islamic sects share a belief in jihad as a common thread. The Arabic word jihad is most correctly translated as “battle” in English, despite the fact that the specific meaning of the Arabic word is difficult to describe. JIhad is, for the most majority of Muslims, a personal battle against evil. Within Muslims’ minds and hearts are waged the spiritual battlegrounds of this epochal conflict. Sometimes the struggle takes the shape of a physical battle against those who do not believe in the gospel of Jesus Christ.

  • Jihadi holy wars, on the other hand, are held in high regard by a small but vocal minority of Muslim believers.
  • ISIS and other Islamic extremist organizations are motivated by this vision of jihad.
  • To emphasize, mainstream Islam is a peaceful religion that opposes the concept of unjustified warfare.
  • The unfortunate fact is that Muhammad had not named a successor.
  • However, despite these difficulties, a huge Islamic empire was established during the following 12 centuries, resulting in a worshiper base that was unsurpassed by any other religious tradition in the world.
  • Exhibition honors 1,000 years of Muslim legacy that has been “lost.” From coffee to cranks, Muslim inventors have created goods that we could not live without today. The first modern hospitals and institutions were established in North Africa in the ninth century.

London, United Kingdom (CNN)- When you think of the roots of that modern-day need, the cup of coffee, Italy is frequently the first place that comes to mind. Yemen, on the other hand, is where the original origins of the ubiquitous brew can be traced back to. It is among the remarkable Muslim innovations that have helped to build the world in which we live today, alongside the first university and even the first toothbrush. Those who are interested in the origins of these essential concepts and items – which serve as the foundation for everything from bicycles to musical scales – should read “1001 Inventions,” a book that commemorates “the lost” history of 1,000 years of Muslim heritage.

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The Science Museum in London is now hosting an exhibition titled “1001 Inventions.” He believes that the show will draw attention to the contributions of non-Western civilizations – such as the Muslim empire that once spanned through Spain and Portugal, Southern Italy, and even into portions of China – to modern civilization.

  • Salim al-Hassani is a lecturer at the American University of Beirut.
  • SurgeryAround the year 1000, the famed doctorAl Zahrawi wrote a 1,500-page illustrated encyclopedia of surgery that was used as a medical reference across Europe for the following 500 years.
  • Medicine Zahrawi’s many inventions include the discovery of the use of dissolving cat gut to stitch wounds, which eliminated the need for a second operation to remove the sutures that had previously been required.
  • 2.
  • Sufis relied on coffee to keep them up during their late-night devotional sessions in the beginning.
  • By the 13th century, it had reached Turkey, but it was not until the 16th century that the beans began to boil in Europe, thanks to a Venetian trader who carried them to Italy.
  • He explained that “Abbas ibn Firnas was the first actual attempt to develop a flying contraption and fly,” and that he was the first person to do so.

Firnas soared aloft for a few seconds during his most famous experiment, which took place near Cordoba, Spain, before collapsing to the earth and suffering a partial back fracture.

4.

Her sister Miriam established a mosque nearby, and the two mosques joined together to form the al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University complex.

In the ninth century, a Persian mathematician published “Kitab al-Jabr Wa l-Mugabala,” which translates approximately as “The Book of Reasoning and Balancing.” The term algebra was coined from this title, which is derived from the title of his famous book.

Al-Khwarizmi, the same mathematician, was also the first to establish the notion of elevating a number to a power, which was also introduced by him.

It was about the year 1000 when Ibn al-Haitham demonstrated that people see objects by light reflected off of them and entering the eye, thus disproving Euclid and Ptolemy’s views that light was emitted from the eye itself, respectively.

The seventh point is music.

The lute and the rahab, a progenitor of the violin, are just two of the instruments that made their way to Europe via the Middle East over the centuries.

According to Hassani, the Prophet Mohammed popularized the usage of the first toothbrush about the year 600.

Meswak-like substances are employed in the manufacture of contemporary toothpaste.

Due to the fact that it converts circular motion into linear motion, the crank makes it possible to move large things with relative ease.

10.

11.

In accordance with the Muslim tradition of caring for all those who are sick, Tulun hospital gave free medical care to anybody who needed it, regardless of their financial means.

More information about Muslim innovations may be found at the website:muslimheritage.com. If you’d want more information on the exhibition at the Science Museum in London, you can visit their website at sciencemuseum.org.uk.

Islam In America

It is not known when the first Muslims arrived in the territory that would become the United States of America. The Senegambian area of Africa, according to several historians, is where the earliest Muslims arrived in Europe in the early 14th century. It is thought that they were Moors who had been banished from Spain and who had made their way to the Caribbean and maybe the Gulf of Mexico to seek refuge. On his voyage to the United States, it is reported that Columbus brought with him a book written by Portuguese Muslims who had negotiated their way to the New World in the 12th century.

  1. But what is apparent is that the first true wave of Muslims in the United States was composed mostly of African slaves, with Muslims accounting for 10 to 15 percent of the population.
  2. Any attempt to practice Islam, as well as to maintain the traditional clothes and titles, had to be carried out in secret.
  3. In the period 1878 to 1924, Muslim immigrants from the Middle East, mainly Syria and Lebanon, flocked to the United States in great numbers, with the majority settling in states such as Ohio, Michigan, Iowa, and the Dakotas.
  4. The Ford Motor Company was one of the first major employees of Muslims and African-Americans, as these individuals were sometimes the only ones willing to work in the hot, tough conditions of the plants.
  5. The possibility of restoring the culture and faith that were shattered during the age of slavery remains a realistic possibility.
  6. Black Muslims in North America had already begun to build their own mosques, and by 1952, there were more than 1,000 mosques in the region.
  7. Many Muslims from Southeast Asia arrived in the United States in large numbers throughout the 1960s.
  8. This country’s estimated Muslim population differs depending on the source used to calculate it.
  9. The American Religious Identification Study, conducted by the City University of New York and completed in 2001, estimated the total number of Muslims in the United States to be 1, 104,000 people.
  10. There are currently more than 1500 Islamic centers and mosques scattered around the country.
  11. Islam is predicted to overtake Christianity as the second most popular religion in the United States in the near future.

Since the September 11th attacks, there has been a significant increase in anti-Muslim sentiment. Many Muslims have responded by becoming more involved in the political process in the United States, with the goal of educating their neighbors about their faith and historical background.

10 Things You Use Every Day That Are Invented by Muslims

Along with the first university and even the toothbrush, Muslim inventors have come up with a slew of other startling innovations that have helped to form the world in which we live today. These key concepts and items are the subject of “1001 Inventions,” a book that celebrates the forgotten history of 1,000 years of Muslim heritage by tracing the origins of these fundamental ideas and artifacts. I have compiled a list of 10 excellent Muslim innovations that are still in use today based on the information in this book.

1. Coffee

Coffee Until a herd of curious goats and their vigilant owner, an Arab named Khalid, discovered this simple yet life-changing ingredient more than twelve hundred years ago, hard-working individuals had to fight to remain awake without this stimulant. In the Ethiopian mountains, he saw that his goats had grown more animated and energetic after eating a special fruit. He suspected it was the result of the berry. However, instead of just consuming the berries, they were removed and cooked in order to produce “al-qahwa.”

2. Clocks

Al-Jazari, a brilliant engineer from the Turkish city of Diyarbakir in the country’s south-eastern region, was a devout Muslim who also happened to be a highly accomplished engineer who was responsible for the invention of automated machinery. By 1206, al-Jazari had produced a large number of clocks in a variety of styles and sizes. Muslims, like us, require time to organize our lives now, just as they did over seven hundred years ago, to be successful. Al-Jazari was following in the footsteps of a long-standing Muslim tradition of clockmaking.

The elephant clock was a medieval innovation by al-Jazari (1136–1206), which consisted of a weight-driven water clock in the shape of an Asian elephant propelled by a spring.

3. Camera

Ibn al-Haitham transformed optics, transforming it from a philosophically debated subject into a scientific discipline based on experimentation. Rather than accepting the Greek notion that sight was generated by an unseen light emitted from the eye, he correctly said that vision was caused by light bouncing off an object and entering the eye. The camera obscura is considered to be the forerunner of the modern camera. He offered evidence for his idea by setting up a dark chamber with a pinhole on one wall and a white sheet on the other, and recording the results.

This was referred to as the “qamara” by him.

4. Cleanliness

Ibn al-Haitham transformed optics, transforming it from a philosophically debated subject into a scientific discipline based on empirical evidence. Rather than accepting the Greek notion that vision was generated by an unseen light emitted from the eye, he correctly asserted that vision was caused by light bouncing off an object and entering the eye. An early version of the modern camera, the camera obscura was invented in the 16th century. The proof for his theory was presented by him in a dark room with a pinhole on one side and a white sheet on the other.

Lighting passed through the hole and projected an inverted picture of the items outside the chamber on the sheet opposite it, which was darkened. This was dubbed the “qamara” by the author. As the world’s first camera obscura, it was built in the year 1603.

5. Universities

Muslims place a high value on knowledge and the pursuit of knowledge. They are exhorted to seek information, as well as to observe and reflect, according to the Quran. As a result, Fatima al-Fihri, a devoted and pious young woman, desired to provide a study center for the Fez community. Al-Qarawiyin Mosque in Fez, like many other large mosques in the city, quickly evolved into a center for religious education as well as political debate. It subsequently broadened its educational offerings to include all areas, notably the scientific sciences, and thereby gained the distinction of being one of the world’s very first universities.

Other subjects studied were the Quran and religion, law, rhetoric, prose and verse writing, logic and arithmetic, geography and medicine.

Aside from grammar and Islamic history, there were also components of chemistry and mathematics taught in the program.

With the center still in operation over 1,200 years after its founding, Hassani intends to remind people that learning is at the heart of Islam’s history and that the narrative of the al-Firhi sisters will serve as an inspiration to young Muslim women throughout the globe today.

6. Flying machine

In the year 1307, Abbas ibn Firnas made the first true attempt to build a flying contraption and to actually fly it, and he was successful. In the 9th century, he devised a winged contraption that resembled a bird costume in shape and appearance. Firnas sailed aloft for a few seconds during his most famous experiment, which took place near Cordoba, Spain, before plunging to the earth and suffering a partial back fracture. His works would surely have served as an influence for the legendary Italian artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci, who lived more than six hundred years later and created the Mona Lisa.

7. Surgical instruments

Al-Zahrawi As a result, if we traveled back to the 10th century, we would have the opportunity to peer over the shoulder of a cutting-edge Muslim scholar named Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn Abbad al-Zahrawi, who is better known in the West by the name Abulcasis. The al-Tadrif, his medical encyclopedia, had a dissertation entitled “On Surgery,” which he composed in his spare time. This housed a mind-boggling collection of more than two hundred surgical instruments. The use of tools in surgery was a groundbreaking notion because it allowed science to transition from a speculative to an experimental mode of operation.

In fact, their design was so precise that they have undergone just a few minor modifications over the course of a millennium. These pictures were significant in laying the groundwork for surgical practice in Europe.

8. Maps

It was in Sicily in 1154 when Muhammad al-Idrisi created a map of the world that is considered to be one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Maps have been used to guide humans for over 3,500 years, with the earliest examples being found on clay tablets. The invention of paper was a significant advancement in the art of mapmaking. When it comes to computing places on the planet, modern technology relies on a network of satellites and other receiving equipment. Throughout history, maps were created based on the tales of travelers and pilgrims.

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They walked routes, sometimes merely gathering information about new areas, and when they returned, they told stories about the paths they had taken and the people and sites they had seen along the way.

9. Music

Al-Kindi Do artists and singers of the twentieth century realize that a large portion of their skill is in the hands of Muslims dating back to the ninth century? These artists, in especially al-Kindi, made use of musical notation, which is a technique for noting down musical compositions. They also used syllables rather than letters to label the notes of a musical scale, a process known as solmization. These syllables make form the fundamental scale in modern music, and we are all familiar with the sounds ofdoh, ray, me, far, so, la, tee, and so on.

The remarkable phonetic resemblance between today’s scale and the Arabic alphabet, which was in use in the 9th century, is quite remarkable.

10. Algebra

Algebra A great Persian mathematician’s famous 9th century book “Kitab al-Jabr Wa l-Mugabala” (The Book of Reasoning and Balancing) is where the word “algebra” derives from. Al-Khwarizmi begins by introducing the fundamentals of algebra. In order to appreciate exactly how crucial this new concept was, it’s vital to first comprehend what it was. To be more precise, it represented a profound break with the Greek conception of mathematics, which was fundamentally founded on geometry. Al-Khwarizmi, the same mathematician who pioneered the notion of raising a number to a power, was also the first to propose the concept of raising a number to a power.

A Brief History of the Veil in Islam

Algebra The term “algebra” derives from the title of a prominent Persian mathematician’s 9th century work, “Kitab al-Jabr wa l-Mugabala,” which approximately translates into “The Book of Reasoning and Balancing.” Al-Khwarizmi begins by introducing the fundamentals of algebraic computations. To appreciate exactly how crucial this new concept was, it’s necessary to consider the following: To be more precise, it represented a dramatic shift away from the Greek conception of mathematics, which was fundamentally dependent on geometry.

Al-Khwarizmi, the same mathematician who pioneered the notion of raising a number to a power, was also the first to do so.

  • There are several different types of hijabis, all with the same name. It is the most often worn veil in the Western world. These veils are made out of one or two scarves that are wrapped around the head and neck. Outside of the West, this traditional veil is worn by many Muslim women throughout the Arab world and beyond
  • The niqab covers the whole body, including the head and face, with an opening for the eyes left in the middle. The two most common types of niqab are the half-niqab, which is made up of a headscarf and a facial veil that leaves the eyes and a portion of the forehead visible, and the full, or Gulf, niqab, which leaves only a tiny slit for the eyes and no other visible features. Despite the fact that these coverings are popular throughout the Muslim world, they are particularly prevalent in the Gulf States. A great deal of controversy has erupted around the niqab in European countries. A number of lawmakers have called for its prohibition, while others believe that it interferes with communication or raises security issues. Thechadoris a shawl that covers the entire body and is tied at the neck with a hand or a pin. It totally conceals the head and torso, yet it leaves the face entirely exposed. Chadors are typically black in color and are most widespread in the Middle East, notably in Iran
  • Theburqas are a full-body veil that is worn by women in Iran. It is possible to see through a mesh screen over the user’s eyes, as the entire face and torso of the wearer is covered. Afghanistan and Pakistan are the countries where it is most regularly seen. This weapon was mandated by law in Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001, while the Taliban ruled the country.

Which historical events spawned the need to wear the Islamic veil (orhijab, in Arabic)? Do all Muslim women cover their faces with a veil? Is it mandatory for them to do so? Also, are all veils the same, or do they come in a variety of sizes, styles, and colors? The third question is: what are the objections against women covering their faces in various Western countries? Caitlin Killian, a sociologist, says that, both historically and currently, the custom of veiling has been impacted by many theological interpretations as well as political ideologies.

  • While there are several references to Mohammed’s wives wearing veils in the Quran and Hadith (passages ascribed to the prophet Mohammed), whether these statements apply just to Mohammed’s wives or to all Muslim women is up for debate.
  • The veil serves as a technique of differentiating between women and men, as well as a means of exerting control over male sexual desires.
  • An immodest lady casts disgrace upon herself and her male family members, as well as onto her male friends and acquaintances.
  • The practice was also strongly associated with socioeconomic status: wealthy women could afford to totally cover their bodies, but impoverished women who had to work either reduced their veils or did not wear them at all.
  • Muslim women in France, as a result, use a diverse spectrum of clothing and head coverings to express themselves.
  • A lot of immigrant women adhere to modesty by dressing long-sleeved blouses and skirts that reach their ankles, rather than by adopting traditional garb (such as the North Africandjellaba).
  • Maghrebian women’s attire has been a source of contention since long before their immigration to France in the 1970s.
  • As a result, throughout Algeria’s independence and nationalist struggles, as well as in other North African and Middle Eastern nations, the veil became a symbol of national identity and defiance to Western imperialism and influence.

1 This is an excerpt from “The Other Side of the Veil: North African Women in France Respond to the Headscarf Affair,” which can be found on Amazon. Gender and Society was granted copyright in 2003. With permission, this article has been reprinted.

Citations

As stated in the Islamic declaration of testimony (orshahada), “There is no deity other than Allah.” Moslems believe he created the world in six days and sent prophets like as Noah and Abraham to summon mankind to worship only him and reject idolatry and polytheism. Prophets such as Moses, David, and Jesus, as well as Muhammad, are also believed to have been sent by God. The wordislam, which literally translates as “submission,” was not originally used to refer to the religion created by Muhammad.

Earlier prophets and their followers were all Muslims (submitters to Allah), yet Muslims have a tendency to confound the general and specific meanings of the words Islam and Muslim by using them interchangeably.

Their messages and books, on the other hand, were either tainted or lost.

As a result, there will be no need for any additional prophets or revelations.

The names and character of Allah

Allah is referred to be the Lord of the Worlds in the Qur’an. Unlike the biblical Yahweh (who is often referred to as Jehovah), he does not have a personal name, and his customary 99 names are really epithets that are used to refer to him. The Creator, the King, the Almighty, and the All-Seer are examples of such beings. Two of Allah’s most essential names appear in a statement that is commonly used to begin texts: Bismillah, al-Rahman, and al-Rahim (In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful).

Even though Muslims profess to be against anthropomorphic depictions of Allah, the Qur’an describes him as speaking, sitting on a throne, and possessing a face, eyes, and hands.

If things go well, one can sayma sha’ allah (as Allah wills), but if things don’t go well, one can sayal-hamdu li-llah (thank you, Allah) (Thanks be to Allah).

Allah and the god of the Bible

Almighty Allah is referred to as “the Lord of the Worlds” in the Qur’an. He does not have a personal name, unlike the biblical Yahweh (who is frequently misread as Jehovah), and his customary 99 names are simply epithets. Creator, King, and Almighty are only a few examples of the countless more. Two of Allah’s most essential names appear in a statement that is commonly used to begin texts: Bismillah, al-Rahman, al-Rahim (In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful). Moreover, Allah is the Master of the Day of Judgment, when the righteous, particularly believers, will be despatched to their heavenly recompense and the wicked, particularly unbelievers, will be dispatched to the fires of hell.

In order to ensure that nothing happens unless it is caused or at the very least authorized by Allah, Muslims commonly say in sha’ allah while making arrangements of any type (God willing).

Muslims affirm that Allah is bigger than all other things throughout their prayers and on other occasions (such as warfare and street rallies) (Allahu akbar).

Polytheistic origins

Allah is referred to as “the Lord of the Worlds” in the Qur’an. Unlike the biblical Yahweh (who is often referred to as Jehovah), he does not have a personal name, and his customary 99 names are simply epithets that are used to refer to him. Creator, King, and Almighty are just a few examples of the many deities who have appeared in the Bible. Two of Allah’s most essential names appear in a statement that is commonly used to begin texts: Bismillah, al-Rahman, al-Rahim (In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful).

Muslims profess to reject anthropomorphic portrayals of Allah, however the Qur’an depicts him as speaking, sitting on a throne, and having a face, eyes, and hands.

If things go well, one can sayma sha’ allah (whatever Allah wills), but if things don’t go well, one can sayal-hamdu li-llah (thank you, Allah) (Thanks be to Allah).

Gods as human constructions

The Qur’an refers to Allah as the Lord of the Worlds, which means “Lord of the Universes.” Unlike the biblical Yahweh (who is often referred to as Jehovah), he does not have a personal name, and his customary 99 titles are simply epithets. These beings include the Creator, the King, the Almighty, and the All-Seer. Two prominent titles of Allah appear in a phrase that is commonly used to introduce texts: Bismillah, al-Rahman, and al-Rahim (In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful).

Although Muslims profess to reject anthropomorphic portrayals of Allah, the Qur’an depicts him as speaking, sitting on a throne, and having a face, eyes, and hands.

If everything goes according to plan, one can sayma sha’ allah (whatever Allah wills), but in any case, one can sayal-hamdu li-llah (thank you, Allah) (Thanks be to Allah).

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