Who Made Islam? (Solution)

The Prophet Muhammad and the Origins of Islam.

  • Islam is thus the youngest of the great world religions. The prophet Muhammad (circa 570-632 A.D.) introduced Islam in 610 A.D. after experiencing what he claimed to be an angelic visitation. Muhammad dictated the Qur’an, the holy book of Islam, which Muslims believe to be the preexistent, perfect words of Allah. Origin of Islam: According to Islam

How did Islam begin?

The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula. The angel recites to him the first revelations of the Quran and informs him that he is God’s prophet.

Who was the first person to start Islam?

Born in Mecca, in western Arabia, Muhammad (ca. 570–632), last in the line of Judeo-Christian prophets, received his first revelation in 610. Muslims believe that the word of God was revealed to him by the archangel Gabriel in Arabic, who said, “Recite in the name of thy Lord …” (Sura 96).

Who wrote the Quran?

The Prophet Muhammad disseminated the Koran in a piecemeal and gradual manner from AD610 to 632, the year in which he passed away. The evidence indicates that he recited the text and scribes wrote down what they heard.

Who is father of Islam?

Muhammad, in full Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, (born c. 570, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]—died June 8, 632, Medina), the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qurʾān.

What is the oldest religion?

The word Hindu is an exonym, and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitioners refer to their religion as Sanātana Dharma (Sanskrit: सनातन धर्म, lit.

When was Islam created?

Islam, major world religion promulgated by the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7th century ce.

What Allah means?

Allah, Arabic Allāh (“God”), the one and only God in Islam. Etymologically, the name Allah is probably a contraction of the Arabic al-Ilāh, “the God.” The name’s origin can be traced to the earliest Semitic writings in which the word for god was il, el, or eloah, the latter two used in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament).

Which is older Quran or Bible?

The Bible is older than the Quran. The Quran was written by Muhammad in the 500 ADs. The Bible consists of books written centuries before. All of them were compiled into the Bible at a later time but the books themselves existed before the Quran.

Where is Allah located?

Given that Allah is just another name of Jewish God (Yahweh), Allah resides in the third heaven mentioned in the Bible. Note that this heaven is outside the creation of God.

Where is oldest Quran?

The Topkapi manuscript is an early manuscript of the Quran dated to the early 8th century. It is kept in the Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul, Turkey.

Who built the Kaaba?

Some say that it was built by the angels. Others say the father of humankind, Adam built the Kaba but over many centuries it fell into disrepair and was lost in the mists of time, to be rebuilt by Prophet Abraham and his son Ishmael. All agree that the Kaba was either built or rebuilt by Prophet Abraham.

How did Muhammad look like?

He had black eyes that were large with long lashes. His joints were rather large. He had little hairs that stood up, extending from his chest down to his navel, but the rest of his body was almost hairless. “He had thick palms and thick fingers and toes.

Why was Muhammad disliked in Mecca?

Why was Muhammad disliked in Mecca? He told the people not to worship all the other Gods and stated that there was only one true God to follow. Came back to Mecca smashed all the other idols, he believed there should only be one God. In what present say country are Mecca and Medina?

Muhammad

Uncertainty exists as to when the first Muslims arrived in the territory that would become the United States. The Senegambian area of Africa, according to several historians, is where the earliest Muslims arrived in Europe in the first half of the 14th century. We assume they were Moors who had been banished from Spain and who had found their way to the Caribbean and perhaps even as far as the Gulf of Mexico. In his voyage to the United States, it is reported that Columbus brought with him a book authored by Portuguese Muslims who had negotiated their way to the New World in the 12th century.

That the first genuine wave of Muslims to arrive in the United States was made up mostly of African slaves — between 10% and 15% of the population — is undeniable.

Any attempt to practice Islam, as well as to maintain the traditional clothes and names, had to be carried out in secret to avoid detection.

A substantial number of Muslim immigrants from the Middle East, primarily from Syria and Lebanon, immigrated in the United States between 1878 and 1924, with the majority settling in the Midwest states of Ohio, Michigan, Iowa, and the Dakotas.

  1. For example, the Ford Motor Company was one of the first major employees of Muslims and African-Americans, as these individuals were sometimes the only ones willing to work in the plants’ oppressive heat and terrible circumstances.
  2. The possibility of restoring the culture and faith that were shattered during the age of slavery remains a realistic possibility for the present.
  3. There were more than 1,000 mosques in North America by 1952, with the majority being constructed by African-American Muslims.
  4. South-east Asian Muslims made their way to the United States in large numbers in the 1960s.
  5. In this nation, different sources give different figures for the number of Muslims living there.
  6. One million ten thousand four hundred thousand Muslims were counted by the City University of New York’s American Religious Identification Study, which was completed in 2001.
  7. More than 1500 Islamic centers and mosques may be found around the country these days.
  8. America’s second most popular religion, Islam, is set to overtake Christianity shortly.

The surge in anti-Muslim sentiment since the September 11th attacks is a significant development. Many Muslims have responded by becoming more involved in the political process in the United States, with the goal of educating their neighbors about their faith and historical heritage.

Who was Muhammad?

It is not known when the first Muslims arrived in the territory that would become the United States. The Senegambian area of Africa, according to several historians, is where the earliest Muslims arrived in the early 14th century. It is thought that they were Moors who had been banished from Spain and had found their way to the Caribbean and maybe the Gulf of Mexico. When Christopher Columbus embarked on his voyage to the United States, it is reported that he brought with him a book written by Portuguese Muslims who had negotiated their way to the New World in the 12th century.

  1. But what is apparent is that the first true wave of Muslims in the United States was composed mostly of African slaves, with Muslims accounting for 10 to 15 percent of the total.
  2. Any attempt to practice Islam, as well as to preserve traditional garb and names, had to be carried out in secret.
  3. Between 1878 and 1924, Muslim immigrants from the Middle East, mainly Syria and Lebanon, descended upon the United States in significant numbers, settling mostly in Ohio, Michigan, Iowa, and even the Dakotas in considerable numbers.
  4. The Ford Motor Company was one of the first major employers of Muslims and African-Americans, as they were sometimes the only individuals willing to work in the hot, tough conditions of the plants.
  5. The possibility of restoring the culture and faith that were shattered during the age of slavery still exists.
  6. Black Muslims in North America had already begun to build their own mosques, and by 1952, there were more than 1,000 of them throughout the continent.
  7. During the 1960s, waves of South-east Asian Muslims made their way to the United States.
  8. According to several sources, the estimated number of Muslims in this nation fluctuates.
  9. The American Religious Identification Study, conducted by the City University of New York and completed in 2001, estimated the number of Muslims in the United States to be 1,104,000 people.
  10. There are more than 1500 Islamic institutions and mosques in the United States today.
  11. Islam is predicted to surpass Christianity as the second most popular religion in the United States in the near future.

Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, there has been a significant increase in anti-Muslim sentiment. Many Muslims have responded by becoming more involved in the political process in the United States, with the goal of educating their neighbors about their faith and history.

Biographical sources

In terms of biographical information about the Islamic Prophet, the Qur’an provides little: it speaks of an individual “messenger of God,” whom a number of verses address as Muhammad (e.g., 3:144), and it speaks of a pilgrimage sanctuary that is associated with the “valley of Mecca” and theKabah (e.g., 2:124–129, 5:97, 48:24–25). Certain passages presume that Muhammad and his followers live at a hamlet known as al-madnah ( “the town”) or Yathrib (e.g., 33:13, 60) after having been expelled by their disbelieving adversaries, probably from the Meccan sanctuary, and that they have returned to this location (e.g., 2:191).

These are occasionally associated with geographical locations, as in the fleeting mention to a triumph at a location known as Badrat 3:123.

As a result, even if one believes that the Qur’anic corpus genuinely recounts Muhammad’s teaching, the corpus as a whole simply does not include enough evidence to create even a brief biographical picture of Muhammad.

Kitb al-maghz (literally, “Book of Military Expeditions”), written by Muhammad ibn Isaq (died 767–768), is considered to be the single most important work in the genre.

Rather than being an original composition, Ibn Isaq’s original book was a compilation of independent reports about specific events that occurred during Muhammad’s lifetime and also prior to it, which Ibn Isaq arranged into what he believed to be their correct chronological order and then supplemented with his own comments.

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Many variations on Ibn Isq’s material, as well as additional information on Muhammad’s life, are recorded in writings by various authors, including Abd al-Razzq (died 827), al-Wqid (killed 823), Ibn Sad (deceased 845), and al-Abar (died 845).

In light of the fact that such biographical anecdotes about Muhammad can only be found in texts dating from the eighth or ninth centuries (or even later), the question of how confidence one can be in thesrahliterature’s claims to be a reliable source of historical data is inevitable to be raised.

  • In any case, it would be completely reasonable to assume some accumulation of popular mythology around a figure such as Prophet Muhammad.
  • Furthermore, several of the accounts in question are obvious modifications of biblical tropes intended to portray Muhammad as equal to or superior to earlier prophetic figures like as Moses and Jesus, according to the author.
  • Finally, it is very plausible that certain accounts of events in Muhammad’s life were derived not from historical memory but rather from exegetical interpretation about the historical context of specific passages of the Qur’an, rather than from historical memory.
  • It is believed that Urwah ibn al-Zubayr was a key collector of such early traditions.
  • Furthermore, a number ofrudimentarydetails concerning Muhammad have been validated by non-Islamic sources that stretch back to the first decades following Muhammad’s canonical date of death.
  • Such evidence is adequate to establish the historical presence of an Arab prophet who went by the name of Muhammad, according to scholars.
  • Consider the fact that certain non-Islamic sources portray Muhammad as still living during the time of Arabian conquest ofPalestine (634) and 640, in contrast to Islamic tradition which holds that the Prophet had already died away at this time.
  • The nature of our sources, on the other hand, does not provide us reason to believe that we have historically definite knowledge about the Prophet’s life that is as extensive as many prior academics had assumed.
  • As a result, assertions such as “Meccan armies invaded theoasis of Medina on March 21, 625” are intrinsically suspect in their accuracy.
  • The purpose of this digest is not to distinguish between historical fact and subsequent fiction.

So, unlike many prior Western versions, there will be no effort to eliminate supernatural components from the narrative in order to make it into a story that seems reasonable by current historiographical criteria, as was done in the past.

Islam

In terms of biographical information about the Islamic Prophet, the Qur’an provides little: it speaks of an individual “messenger of God,” whom a number of verses address as Muhammad (e.g., 3:144), and it speaks of a pilgrimage sanctuary associated with the “valley of Mecca” and theKabah (e.g., 2:124–129, 5:97, 48:24–25). A number of scriptures imply that Muhammad and his followers had relocated to a community known as al-madnah (“the town”) or Yathrib (for example, 33:13 and 60), after having been expelled by their disbelieving adversaries, most likely from the Meccan sanctuary (e.g., 2:191).

  1. Occasionally, they are associated with geographical locations, as in the fleeting mention of a triumph at a location known as Badrat 3:123.
  2. As a result, even if one considers that the Qur’an is a reliable source of knowledge about Muhammad’s preaching, the corpus as a whole simply does not include enough information to create even a brief biographical portrait of Muhammad.
  3. Musa ibn Isa’s (d.
  4. Only abridged versions of this book survive, the best known of which being Abd al-Malik ibn Hishm’s (died 833–834)Srat Muammad rasl Allah(“Life of Muhammad, the Messenger of God”), which translates as “The Life of Muhammad, the Messenger of God” in English.
  5. Typically, each such report is preceded by a list of names that trace the story’s origins back via several intermediaries to its original source, which is often an eyewitness, such as the Prophet’s wife Ishah.
  6. As a result of the fact that such biographical anecdotes about Muhammad are only found in writings dating from the 8th and 9th centuries or even later, it is inevitable that the question of how confidence one can be in thesrahliterature’s claim to communicate true historical facts will arise.
  7. In any case, it would be completely reasonable to expect some accumulation of popular mythology around a figure such as Muhammad.

Furthermore, several of the accounts in question are obvious modifications of biblical tropes intended to portray Muhammad as equal to or superior to prior prophetic figures like as Moses and Jesus, among others.

Finally, it is very plausible that certain accounts of events in Muhammad’s life were derived not from historical memory, but rather from exegetical interpretation about the historical context of specific passages of the Qur’an, rather than from historical memory itself.

Urwah ibn al-Zubayr, a relative of ishah who was most likely born around 643–644 and who is widely believed to have had direct knowledge of past companions of the Prophet, was a significant collector of such early tales.

For example, a Syriac chronicle from about 640 AD recalls a fight between the Romans and “the Arabs of Muhammad,” while an Armenian history from around 660 AD presents Muhammad as a merchant who preached to the Arabs and therefore launched the Islamic conquests in the Middle East.

Some differences between the Islamic narrative of the Prophet’s life and the historical record of the Prophet’s life exist, though.

After everything is said and done, there is no compelling evidence to indicate that the fundamental framework of the traditional Islamic narrative of Muhammad’s life is untrue.

Even the traditional chronological framework for Muhammad’s life appears to have been developed by later transmitters and collectors, such as Ibn Isq, rather than being traceable back to the very first stratum of Islamic traditions concerning Muhammad.

In spite of this, the next part will serve as a brief synopsis, focusing mostly on Ibn Isaq’s account of the Prophet’s life.

To provide an example, in contrast to many earlier Western accounts, no attempt will be made to eliminate supernatural components from the tale in order to change it into an account that seems reasonable according to current historiographic criteria.

Islam Facts

  • The term “Islam” literally translates as “submission to God’s will.”
  • Muslims are those who adhere to Islam
  • Muslims are monotheistic and worship a single, all-knowing God, known in Arabic as Allah
  • Muslims are those who adhere to other religions. Islamic adherents strive to live lives of total surrender to Allah and His will. Despite their belief that nothing can happen without Allah’s approval, they acknowledge that humans possess free choice. Islamic teachings hold that Allah’s word was given to the prophet Muhammad by the angel Gabriel, and Muslims believe that other prophets were sent to teach Allah’s law throughout history. They hold several of the same prophets in high regard as Jews and Christians, including Abraham, Moses, Noah, and Jesus, among others. According to Muslims, Muhammad was the final prophet. Moschees are sites of religious prayer for Muslims. In addition to the Kaaba shrine in Mecca and the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem, some notable Islamic holy sites are the Prophet Muhammad’s mosque in Medina and the Kaaba in Mecca. The Quran (also known as the Koran) is the most important religious document in Islam. Another significant literature is the Hadith (also known as the Sunnah). Muslims also hold some passages from the Judeo-Christian Bible in high regard
  • Followers of Islam worship Allah via prayer and recitation of the Quran. It is their belief that there will be a day of judgment and that there is life after death. “Jihad,” which literally translates as “battle,” is a major concept in Islam. Despite the fact that the phrase has been used negatively in popular society, Muslims feel it refers to internal and outward attempts to protect their religious beliefs. Although uncommon, military jihad may be used in the event of a “just war” being declared.

Muhammad

Muhammad, also known as Mohammed or Mohammad, was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, around 570 A.D., and is considered to be the founder of Islam. According to Muslims, he was the final prophet sent by God to proclaim their beliefs to the rest of the world. Islam’s sacred writings and traditions claim that an angel called Gabriel came to visit Muhammad during his meditation session in a cave in the year 610 AAD. Muhammad was instructed by the angel to repeat the words of Allah. Muslims believe that Muhammad continued to receive revelations from Allah for the rest of his life, despite his physical limitations.

He preached that there was only one God, Allah, and that Muslims should devote their lives to worshipping this one and only God.

Hijra

Muhammad and his supporters embarked on a journey from Mecca to Medina in 622. The Hijra (sometimes written Hegira or Hijrah) is a voyage that marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar and is commemorated on the Islamic calendar. A little more than seven years later, Muhammad and his throngs of followers returned to Mecca and completely subjugated the surrounding area. He preached until his death in 632, at the age of 84.

Abu Bakr

Following Muhammad’s death, Islam began to spread at an alarming rate. Following Muhammad’s death, a succession of leaders known as caliphs ascended to the throne. A caliphate was a system of leadership in which a Muslim monarch was in charge and was administered by a Muslim king. The first caliph was Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law and close friend, who reigned as the Prophet Muhammad’s successor. Caliph Umar, another father-in-law of Muhammad, ascended to the throne in 634 when Abu Bakr died around two years after he was chosen.

Caliphate System

The job of caliph was taken up by Uthman, Muhammad’s son-in-law, when Umar was slain six years after being proclaimed caliph. Uthman was assassinated as well, and Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, was chosen to be the caliph in his place. During the tenure of the first four caliphs, Arab Muslims conquered vast swaths of the Middle East, including Syria, Palestine, Iran, and Iraq, among other places. Islam also expanded throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia, as well as throughout the Middle East.

Sunnis and Shiites

When Muhammad died, there was a heated controversy over who should take over as leader of the Muslim community. Due to this division among the Islamic community, two major sects emerged: the Sunnis and the Shiites. Sunnis constitute roughly 90 percent of all Muslims in the globe. They acknowledge that Muhammad’s first four caliphs were the legitimate successors to him. Muslims who follow the Shiite school of thought believe that only the caliph Ali and his descendants are legitimate heirs to Muhammad.

They assert that the legitimacy of the first three caliphs was questioned. Shiite Muslims now have a significant presence in Iran, Iraq, and Syria, among other places.

Other Types of Islam

Other, minor Muslim denominations exist within the Sunni and Shiite communities, in addition to the larger ones. Some of these are as follows:

  • Wahhabi: This Sunni sect, which was created in Saudi Arabia in the 18th century by members of the Tameem clan, is a branch of Islam. Followers adhere to Muhammad ibn Abd al-exceedingly Wahhab’s stringent interpretation of Islam, which he taught them. Alawite: This Shiite branch of Islam is widely practiced in Syria. Followers of the caliph Ali retain similar views about him, but they also mark various Christian and Zoroastrian feasts, as well. Nation of Islam (also known as the Muslim Brotherhood): This Sunni sect with a majority of African-American members was created in Detroit, Michigan, in the 1930s. A disagreement over the method of selecting a new leader caused this group to split from the Shiites. They are well-known for their hardline fundamentalism, and they are now referred to as Ibadis.
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Quran

The Holy Quran. Nazaruddin Abdul Hamed/EyeEm/Getty Images Nazaruddin Abdul Hamed For Muslims, the Quran (also known as the Koran or the Qur’an) is regarded to be the most significant sacred book in existence. In addition to certain essential material that can be found in the Hebrew Bible, it also contains revelations that were delivered to Muhammad. The text is regarded to be God’s sacred word, and it supersedes all prior works in this regard. The majority of Muslims believe that Muhammad’s scribes recorded his utterances, which were later compiled into the Quran.

It is divided into 114 chapters, which are referred to as surahs.

Why the Quran Was a Bestseller Among Christians in Eighteenth Century America.

Islamic Calendar

The Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijra calendar, is a lunar calendar used in Islamic religious devotion that is based on the lunar month of Ramadan. The calendar began in the year 622 A.D., commemorating Muhammad’s trip from Mecca to Medina, and has been in use ever since. According to the Islamic calendar, religious festivals and festivities are held on the appropriate days, including the month-long period of fasting and prayer known as Ramadan, which takes place during the ninth month of the calendar.

Islam Symbols

Just as there is no internationally acceptable image or symbol of Islam, there is no single image or symbol of Islam that is universally approved by all Muslims worldwide. Despite the fact that the crescent moon and star picture is considered to have predated Islam and was first used as a sign of the Ottoman Empire, the crescent moon and star image has been embraced as a symbol of Islam in several mostly Muslim nations. In various other contexts, like as the International Red Cross and Red Crescenthumanitarian help movement, a red crescent signifies that Muslims are accepted and treated as such by their fellow citizens.

Five Pillars of Islam

Muslims adhere to five fundamental pillars that are fundamental to their faith. These are some examples:

  • Declaring one’s trust in God and confidence in Muhammad is known as a Shahada. Salat: a five-times-a-day prayer (at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening) that includes the following: Zakat is a religious obligation to contribute to people in need. Sawm: to refrain from eating or drinking during Ramadan
  • It is obligatory for all Muslims to do the Hajj at least once throughout their lifetime (if they are physically able to do so).

Sharia Law

The legal system of Islam is referred to as Sharia Law. This faith-based code of behavior advises Muslims on how they should live their lives in practically every aspect of their lives, including marriage and family life. Men and women are required to dress modestly under Sharia law. It also includes recommendations for Muslim marriages as well as other moral concepts for Muslims. Those who break the rule are subjected to draconian penalties under Sharia law, which is well-known.

In certain countries, for example, the punishment for stealing is amputating the offender’s hand. Adultery is punishable by death by stoning in several jurisdictions. Many Muslims, on the other hand, are opposed to such harsh measures.

Muslim Prayer

Building the first mosque in Medina is attributed to the prophet Muhammad, who did it in the courtyard of his residence in Medina. Some of the precepts he established in 622 A.D. continue to be followed by mosques today. A mosque’s big open area or outdoor courtyard is frequently used for Muslim prayer. When praying in a mosque, a mihrab is a decorative feature or niche that symbolizes the direction to Mecca and, consequently, the direction to face when praying. Separate prayers are offered for men and women, and Muslims are permitted to attend a mosque five times a day for each of the five prayer periods.

Muslim Holidays

The two most important Muslim festivals are as follows: The festival of Eid al-Adha commemorates the Prophet Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son in the service of Allah. Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting, comes to a conclusion on Eid al-Fitr, the feast of the harvest. Muslims also observe other religious festivals, such as the Islamic New Year and the birth of Muhammad, among others.

Islam Today

Islam celebrates two important festivals: the Eid al-Adha and the Eid al-Fitr holidays. Eid al-Adha is a Muslim holiday that commemorates the Prophet Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son in the name of Islam. Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting, comes to a close on Eid al-Fitr. There are additional festivals observed by Muslims, such as the Islamic New Year and Muhammad’s birth.

Sources

Islam,BBC. Islam is the second most popular religion in the world. Religious Tolerance is increasing in number. Islam in a Nutshell, CNN. The Fundamentals of Islam, and PBS. What is Sharia Law, and how does it work in practice? BBC. ISIS is reviled in countries with large Muslim populations, and this is especially true in Europe. Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan research organization. The Religion Library’s Islam Rituals and Worship: Symbolism section has further information. The Islamic Calendar is available at TimeandDate.com.

Muhammad and the Faith of Islam [ushistory.org]

University of Southern California’s Muslim Students Association provided the image. In this passage from the Qur’an, which was originally written in Arabic, “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” is translated. According to the Qur’an (48:29), A religious vision was revealed to a guy who was meditating alone in a cave near Mecca. This vision set the groundwork for the establishment of a new religion. Muhammad was born in the year 610, and he was a man of many names. Islamic thought evolved from Muhammad’s thoughts, and the belief system that resulted from these concepts is now the foundation for Islam, which is one of the most commonly practiced religions in the world.

  • Both of Muhammad’s parents died when he was six years old, and he was raised by his grandpa and uncle after that.
  • A Bedouin family welcomed him into their home throughout his boyhood, as per the customs of rich families.
  • Muhammad’s encounters with these persons are highly likely to have had a significant impact on the formation of Islamic thought.
  • Over the following 20 years, he rose from obscurity to become a wealthy and well-respected trader who traveled across the Arab world.

All he and his wife had six children, two boys (both of whom died before reaching maturity) and four daughters. By the time he was 40 years old, he began receiving religious visions that would forever alter the course of his life. The Prophet Muhammad’s Mosque in Medina is depicted here.

A Revelation of Faith

Muhammad received a revelation while meditating in a cave on the mountain of Hira. Eventually, Muhammad came to think that he had been chosen by God to serve as a prophet and teacher of a new religion, Islam, which literally translates as “submission.” The elements of Judaism and Christianity were merged into this new religion. Religions’ sacred texts, as well as their famous prophets and leaders – Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others — were held in high regard. Muhammad addressed Abraham as “Khalil,” which means “God’s companion,” and designated him as the ancient patriarch of Islam.

Muhammad thought that he was God’s ultimate prophet and that he himself was the final prophet.

  • There is just one worldwide God, and his name is Allah. Muslims are obliged to pray five times a day with their backs to Mecca, according to Islamic tradition. All Muslims are required to pay an annual tax, which is mostly used to assist the poor and needy. Muslims are prohibited from eating, smoking, drinking, or engaging in sexual intercourse from sunrise to sunset during the whole month of Ramadan. All capable Muslims are required to do the Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) at least once in their lives.

The Kaaba

The Kaaba, Islam’s holiest location, is located in Mecca and is believed to have been erected by Abraham and his son Ishmael for the worship of Yahweh. Islam grew at a breakneck pace, engulfing most of what was formerly the ancient Near East, North Africa, and Spain, and eventually enveloping the whole world. The impoverished and slaves, in particular, responded favorably to Muhammad’s message. However, his message was met with strong opposition from many quarters. As a result of the pushback, he appeared to become even more determined.

From Mecca to Medina and Back

Muhammad escaped to the town of Medina in 622 because he was afraid for his life. The Hegira, which is Arabic for “flight,” was the name given to this voyage from Mecca to Medina. This year marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. When Muhammad and his entourage arrived in Medina, the locals greeted them warmly. Muhammad established the first mosque, also known as the Islamic temple, at Mecca and began the process of separating Islam from the religions of Judaism and Christianity, which had first inspired him.

Allah’s revelations to Muhammad lasted throughout his life.

During his time in Mecca, Muhammad was involved in a number of fights with the locals.

Before his death two years later, he had forced the conversion of the majority of the Arabian Peninsula to his new faith and established a tiny kingdom on the peninsula’s southern tip.

Jihad

Many Islamic sects have a belief in jihad, which is a common thread running through them. Despite the fact that the actual meaning of the Arabic word is difficult to convey in English, the word jihad is most appropriately translated as “fight.” For the vast majority of Muslims, jihad is a personal battle against evil. The sacred wars of this spiritual conflict are fought within the minds and hearts of Muslims. Sometimes the fight takes the shape of a physical battle against those who do not believe in God.

  • A small but vocal minority of Muslims, on the other hand, places a high value on holy war jihads.
  • It is this idea of jihad that serves as an inspiration for Islamic extremist terrorist activity.
  • It should be emphasized that mainstream Islam is a peaceful religion that opposes the concept of unjustified violence.
  • The unfortunate thing is that Muhammad had not named a successor.

Despite these difficulties, a huge Islamic empire was established over the course of the following 12 centuries, resulting in a worshiper base that was unsurpassed by any other religion.

PBS – Islam: Empire of Faith – Profiles

Muhammad, theprophet of Islam, was born in Mecca around the year 570. Orphaned beforehe had reached the age of six, he was raised under the protection of hisuncle Abu Talib. Muhammad began working as a merchant and became knownfor his trustworthiness.When he was abouttwenty-five, he married Khadija, a wealthy widow whose status elevatedMuhammad’s position in Meccan society. Muhammad and Khadija had four daughtersand two sons, both of whom died in infancy. About fifteen or twenty yearsafter his marriage, he began to have visions and hear mysterious voices.He sought solitude in a cave on Mount Hira on the outskirts of Mecca.One night duringRamadan, the traditional month of spiritual retreat,when Muhammad was about forty years old, an angel appeared to him in theform of a man and ordered him to;
  • Remember that your lord, who created man out of nothing, says: “I made him out of nothing.” Remember in the name of thy lord, who taught via the pen, and taught man things he did not know
Muhammad, fearingthat he was being attacked by an evil spirit, fled down the mountain interror. The voice called after him, “O Muhammad, you are the messengerof God, and I am the angel Gabriel.” This revelation was soon followedby others about the one true God. Eventually, the angel told Muhammadto begin proclaiming God’s message. Muhammad slowlybegan to attract some followers, most of them young and of modest socialstanding, including his cousin Ali, the son of his uncle and protectorAbu Talib. When Muhammad began to impugn the traditional polytheism ofhis native town, the rich and powerful merchants of Mecca realized thatthe religious revolution taking place under their noses might be disastrousfor business, which was protected by the Meccan pantheon of gods and goddesses.The ruling elite ganged up against Muhammad and his followers, and beganto persecute them. A few Meccans began to accept Muhammad’s message, whileother members of his clan came to support their kinsman out of familyloyalty, even if they did not yet believe in his cause. Muhammad’s positionin Mecca became hopeless when his wife Khadija and uncle Abu Talib diedin quick succession. In 622 the local rulers of Mecca forced Muhammadand his small band of followers to leave the city. Muhammad accepted aninvitation to settle in the oasis of Yathrib, located some eleven days(280 miles) north by camel, for the oasis had been nearly torn apart bywars between the clans, of which many were Jewish. Muhammad’shegira from Mecca marks the beginning of a new polity. For the first time inArabia members of a community were bound together not by the traditionalties of clan and tribe but by their shared belief in the one true God.Later believers, looking back on this event, recognized its seminal importanceby designating it as the first year of their new era. In further recognitionof this great event, the oasis of Yathrib came to be called Medina, “thecity.” Muhammad, surroundedby his followers, lived in Medina for ten years, slowly winning over converts.Muhammad made repeated attempts to attract the Jews to his cause, forexample, he directed that believers worship like the Jews in the directionof Jerusalem. Ultimately these attempts failed, and henceforth Muslimsprayed in the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca. Muhammad’s native town,which had long been a center of paganism, thereby became the center ofthe true religion, the focal point of the believers’ daily prayer, andeventually the object of their annual pilgrimage. Raiding and warfarewere the primary economic activities of the new community in Medina, andthe rich caravans organized by the Quraysh of Mecca were particularlyattractive targets. In 628, Muhammad finally negotiated a truce with theMeccans and in the following year returned as a pilgrim to the city’sholy sites. The murder of one of his followers provoked him to attackthe city, which soon surrendered. Muhammad acted generously to the Meccans,demanding only that the pagan idols around the Kaaba be destroyed. Muhammad’sprestige grew after the surrender of the Meccans. Embassies from all overArabia came to Medina to submit to him. Muhammad’s extraordinary lifeand career were cut short by his sudden death on June 8, 632, aged aboutsixty, less than a decade since he had set off from Mecca with his smallband of followers. Muslims to thisday revere Muhammad as the embodiment of the perfect believer and takehis actions and sayings as a model of ideal conduct. Unlike Jesus, whoChristians believe was God’s son, Muhammad was a mortal, albeit with extraordinaryqualities. Today many Muslims believe that it is wrong to represent Muhammad,but this was not always the case. At various times and places pious Muslimsrepresented Muhammad although they never worshipped these images.

Islam Fast Facts

(CNN) Take a look at Islam for a moment. Islam is translated as “submission” or “surrender” in several languages. Surrender to Allah’s will – Allah is the Arabic word meaning God.

Beliefs/Practices

Islam is influenced by the Judeo-Christian religions to some extent. Although it preaches a monotheistic message (belief that there is only one God), it adheres to many of the same ideas as Christianity and Judaism. Followers of Islam, known as Muslims, believe in a single God named Allah and acknowledge Muhammad as his prophet. They also think that Adam, from the Old Testament of the Bible, was the first prophet. Muslims, the adherents of Islam, believe in a single God, Allah, and that Muhammad was his prophet.

Muslim Denominations

Sunni Islam is the biggest branch of Islam and is also the most populous. They acknowledge that Muhammad’s first four caliphs (leaders) are the genuine heirs to Muhammad’s position. Sheikh Mohamed bin Abdulawahab founded the Wahabi sect in Saudi Arabia, which is made of members of the Tameem tribe who adhere to the stringent orthodox teachings of Sheikh Mohamed bin Abdulawahab. The Shiite (or Shia) sect of Islam, the second-largest branch of Islam, believes that only the caliph Ali and his descendants are the genuine heirs to Muhammad, and rejects the first three caliphs as unfit for office.

  • Furthermore, they observe a number of Christian and Zoroastrian holidays in addition to Islamic holidays.
  • They were well-known for their uncompromising opinions on the Quran’s adherence as well as for their extremist fundamentalist views.
  • The Nation of Islam is a predominantly African-American religious organization that was formed in Detroit, Michigan, in the 1930s.
  • Other Sunni and Shiite sects exist in African and Arab countries, as well as in other parts of the world.

Sharia Law

In its original meaning, Sharia is an Arabic term that translates as “the route leading to the fountain of water.” The Quran and the life of the Prophet Muhammad and his companions serve as sources for this work. Religious belief, religious observance, ethics, and politics are all part of a larger system of morality that encompasses both religious and non-religious parts of life. Many Muslim countries base their laws on Sharia law, which is a kind of Islamic law. Differences between Islamic law and Western legal systems include that the scope of Sharia law is far greater and that the Islamic notion of law is derived from the expression of divine will.

Other Facts

In its original meaning, Sharia is an Arabic term that means “the route that leads to the source of water.” Is taken from the Quran as well as the lives of the Prophet Muhammad and his companions Religious belief, religious observance, ethics, and politics are all incorporated into a system of morality that encompasses both religious and non-religious parts of life.

In many Muslim nations, Sharia law serves as the foundation for their legal systems and institutions. When compared to Western legal systems, Sharia law is far more expansive, and the Islamic notion of law is derived from the manifestation of divine will.

Timeline

Muhammad is born in Mecca, Arabia, in the year 570 AD (now Saudi Arabia). 610 AD – Muhammad has a visit from the Angel Gabriel, who informs him that “you are the messenger of God.” A 22-year period culminates in Muhammad’s death in Mecca and Medina, after which he distributes the lessons given to him throughout the world. Muhammad passes away in 632 AD. Muslims are separated into two factions, the Shiite and the Sunni, in 645 AD, due to a disagreement about the future leadership of the religion.

657 AD – The Shiite Muslims are further divided as a part of its adherents secede and form a third faction known as the Kharijites.

BBC – Religions – Islam: Prophet Muhammad (570-632)

Muhammad is considered the ultimate and full revelation of Islam to humanity, which occurred in the 7th century CE through the Prophet Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam has always been and that it was gradually revealed to humanity through a number of prophets. Muhammad was born in the Saudi Arabian city of Mecca. © Muhammad was born in the Saudi Arabian city of Mecca in the year 570. He was a very spiritual guy who spent a lot of time in meditation on Mount Hira, where he lived. One night in 610, while meditating in a cave on Mount Arafat, the Qur’an was visited by the angel Jibreel, who instructed him to recite the Qur’an.

As soon as Jibreel spoke Allah’s name, Muhammad began reciting phrases that he eventually came to believe were the words of God himself.

The Qur’an

Muhammad continued to receive similar revelations throughout the rest of his life. This collection of words was recalled and written down, and it is this collection of words that is the Holy Qu’ran, the Muslim scripture.

Preaching

Muhammad began preaching what God had revealed to him once he came to believe that God had selected him to be his messenger. Many people were drawn to Islam by its straightforward and unambiguous teaching, which said that there is only one God, Allah, and that life should be lived in perfect devotion to Allah’s will. As a result, large crowds gathered to hear it.

The Hijrah

Muhammad’s popularity was viewed as a danger by the people in power in Mecca, and in 622, Muhammad led his followers on a journey from Mecca to Medina to demonstrate his authority. This voyage is referred to as the Hijrah (migration), and the event was deemed so significant for Islam that the year 622 is designated as the beginning of the Islamic calendar.

The return to Mecca

Within ten years, Muhammad had amassed a large enough following that he was able to return to Mecca and capture the holy city. From that point forward, he was universally recognized as the real and last Prophet of God by the believers. Muhammad remained the spiritual and worldly leader of his society until his death in 632, when he passed away.

Audio journey

The panorama of the desert.

Author Edward Stourton recounts the origins of Islam, the biography of Muhammad, and the influence this mystic and warrior has had on contemporary world politics in his book In the Footsteps of Muhammad.

Mecca

Landscaping in the desert Author Edward Stourton recounts the origins of Islam, the biography of Muhammad, and the influence this mystic and warrior has had on international events today in his book In the Footsteps of Muhammad.

Jerusalem

Jerusalem is the third holiest location in Islam, after Mecca and Mecca alone. The early Muslims, however, did not worship towards Mecca, but rather towards Jerusalem. This episode investigates the possibility that Islam arose as a result of a cult of Jewish belief. Also covered is the definition of jihad, as well as how the life of the prophet Muhammad and the fights against the pagan Meccans have been invoked to justify suicide bombings in the past. In order to see this content, you must have Javascript enabled as well as Flash installed on your computer.

The Alhambra Palace is a palace in Granada, Spain.

Granada

In many ways, the Alhambra Palace is the finest surviving Muslim palace in the world, and it represents an era in European history that many Muslims believe has been all but erased from history books by European Christians: the flowering of Islamic culture, philosophy, and science, which meant that once upon a time, the intellectual heart of Europe did not beat in Paris, Rome, or Athens, but in the great Muslim cities of Granada and Cordoba.

The music used in this episode is by a group known as Joglaresa.

For complete instructions, go to BBC Webwise.

Indonesia

Indonesia is the world’s biggest Muslim nation, and it has been plagued by religiously motivated violence since it declared its independence from the United Kingdom in 1945. Islamic reformers in the nation, on the other hand, are arguing for a radical reinterpretation of Muhammad’s life as a means of guiding the country toward democratic rule. Is this the beginning of an Islamic renaissance that will pave the way for the rest of the Muslim world to follow? In order to see this content, you must have Javascript enabled as well as Flash installed on your computer.

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